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研究生:曾雅蘭
研究生(外文):Ya-Lan Tseng
論文名稱:價值網與動態競爭: 電腦晶片組廠商之競合研究
論文名稱(外文):Value Net and Competitive Dynamics: A study on Co-opetition of PC Chipset companies
指導教授:陳忠仁陳忠仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Jen Chen
口試委員:黃崇興陳鴻基
口試日期:2013-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:商學組
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:電腦核心邏輯晶片組價值網競合PARTS平臺領導動態競爭
外文關鍵詞:PC Core Logic ChipsetValue NetCo-opetitionPARTSPlatform LeadershipCompetitive Dynamics
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此論文的前提是研究電腦核心邏輯晶片組之產業競合,此論文旨在以更有結構性和系統化的方法來分析研究電腦晶片組行業的競爭格局和競爭的動態,因而以價值網和競爭動態為主要研究架構。論文主要使用價值網分析四個階段的電腦晶片組產業的主要演變。基於巨觀的觀點,我們的目標是要瞭解競爭格局、供應商、互補者、客戶和競爭對手,這些公司如何建立彼此任何競合的關係,每個參與者如何透過改變參與者、 增加價值、規則、戰術與範圍的一種或多種要素部分而改變賽局之間的相互作用以建立其競爭優勢。我們也嘗試解釋這些企業如何在其相關價值網中,可能開展的競爭或合作之關係。
我們也利用動態競爭架構”察覺-動機-能力(AMC)"來理解電腦核心邏輯晶片組產業參與者在兩個最重要的策略轉折點期間,如何在市場中進行的攻擊和回應競爭對手,並且比較分析這兩個不同的時期競爭爭鬥之後所產生極端不同結果的原因。我們的動態競爭分析集中兩個主要的競爭者威盛(VIA )和英特爾( Intel) ,時間分別為1999年-2000 年,2001年-2003 年的兩個期間。AMC 架構可以微觀觀點來預測競爭對手,這可進一步深化我們對競爭策略與競合之分析。我們亦採用競爭分析(市場共同性 /資源相似性) 來解釋威盛如何經由其高調合併和收購而改變了英特爾對威盛的競爭者定位。尤其當任何公司未來正在塑造其行業地位時這可能引用作為任何策略地圖的參考。我們還進一步探討了威盛的競爭類型和英特爾相予比較,給小公司與大公司競爭之間很好的參考性。
基於價值網和動態競爭分析,我們瞭解產業技術進步和互補者進入後電腦核心邏輯晶片組產業如何重新改變。事實上,互補者進入晶片組市場對整體電腦核心邏輯晶片組公司產生不利的影響。英特爾作為平臺的領導者--特別是"主導者",控制主導了個人電腦平臺創新 ;雖然電腦晶片組公司 –傳統上扮演"順應者"角色,卻未能從英特爾的策略觀點乃在意圖在實現提升電腦系統的整體性能上于以配合英特爾。威盛除了攻擊英特爾記憶體標準的爭議,它也轉變自身從順應者角色變成主導者, 但威盛雖以主導者角色但無法在中央處理器( CPU) 平臺與英特爾競爭,英特爾已在其平臺優勢上建立了網絡效應。此外由內而外來分析威盛的資源,威盛儘管試圖加強資源如收購 Cyrix,IDT 和 S3 graphics。但以資源基礎比較後,還是遠遠落後英特爾 。
從價值網的分析,它清楚地說明晶片組公司如何與客戶、 供應商、 和互補者共同創造價值,但也被迫與客戶 (比如主機板業務)、 供應商 (IP 授權者-英特爾) 和 互補者 (圖形晶片供應商和處理器供應商) 彼此進入競爭的模式。公司應嘗試更改賽局以有利於各自的優勢發揮。
從 AMC 的角度,威盛的高姿態攻擊引發英特爾的嚴重回應,威盛的競爭優勢不能維持很長的時間。此外威盛也未能建立"回應障礙"或防止英特爾的進一步行動。


The premise of this thesis is to study co-opetition of PC core logic chipset industry, we aim to analyze PC chipset industry competition landscape and competitive dynamics in more structural and systematic approach; we thus incorporate both Value Net framework and Competitive Dynamics framework.
We mainly use Value Net to analyze the four periods of main evolution of PC chipset industry. On the basis of macro view, we aim to understand competition landscape, interaction between suppliers, complementors, customers and competitors, how these companies established any co-opetiton relationship and how each players established their competitive advantages by changing the games via PARTS( player, added value, rule, tactic, scope). We also try to explain how these firms in Value Net, possibly developed competition-cooperation relationship.
We aim to leverage off “competitive dynamics framework-the Awareness -Motivation- Capability ” for understanding how core logic chipset industry players interacted in their attacks and reactions in the marketplace during the two most important strategic inflection points, and compared why these two different period battles generated substantial different outcomes. Our competitive dynamics analysis concentrates on two major battles between VIA and Intel in 1999-2000, 2001-2003, respectively. While AMC framework can predict competitors’’ move on micro view, this could further deepen our analysis on competitive strategy and co-opetition. We also apply competitive analysis (market commonality /Resource similarity) to explain how VIA’s high-profile merge and acquisition changed Intel’s view on its competitors mapping, this could be a reference of future usage for any strategic mapping when the company is shaping its industry position. We also further explore VIA’s competition types versus Intel, to give good reference for a smaller firm versus a bigger firm competition.
Based on Value Net and Competitive Dynamic analysis, we understand how core logic chipset industry was reshaping in light of technology advancement and complementors’ entry. In fact, complementors’ entry into chipset market had adverse impact on core logic chipset companies. In particular, Intel- as a platform leader- is “ Architect”, who controls PC platform innovation; while PC chipset companies –typical role played as “ Adaptor” , failed to complement what Intel aimed to achieve for PC overall system performance from Intel’s strategic point of view. VIA, in addition to attack Intel in memory standard dispute, it also transformed itself from adaptor to architect but was unable to compete against Intel in CPU platform as Intel has network effects in its platform dominance. Moreover, from inside-out analysis on VIA’s resource, VIA was far behind of Intel in resource base comparison despite VIA tried to enhance its resource via the acquisition of Cyrix, IDT, and S3 Graphics.
From Value Net analysis, it clearly illustrates that there are ways for chipset companies to work with customers, suppliers, and complementor to create value, but have forced to compete with customers( eg motherboard business), suppliers( IP licensor- Intel), and complementor( graphic chip vendors, and MPU vendors). Companies shall try to change the games favoring their advantages.
From AMC perspective, VIA’s high profile attacks brought Intel’s severe reaction, in return, VIA competitive advantages can’t sustain for long period of time. In addition, VIA also failed to establish” response barriers” or prevent Intel’s further actions.


目錄
口試委員會審定書……………………………………………………… ii
誌謝………………………………………………………………………. iii
中文摘要……………………………………………………….………… iv
英文摘要……………………………………………………….…….…… vi
目錄……………………………………….……………………...………… viii
圖目錄…………………………………….……………………...………… x
表目錄…………………………………….……………………...………… xii
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1-1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1-2 Research Objectives 4
1-3 Method & Framework 5
Chapter 2: Literature Review 7
2-1 Porter Five-Force Model 7
2-2 Value Net & Co-opetition 10
2-3 Platform leadership 13
2-4 Competitive Dynamics- AMC Framework 17
Chapter 3: PC Core logic Chipset Industry 22
3-1 Core logic Chipset Function in the PC System 22
3-2 Mega Industry Technology Trend 28
3-3 Core Logic Chipset Industry: Value Net 35
Chapter 4 :Value Net: Evolution of PC Chipset Industry 43
4-1 PC Early Growth Era (1990-1995) 45
4-2 Intel’s Dominance but Tumbled in 1999(1996-2000) 51
4-3 Intel Regained Control, Graphic Complementors’ Entry, 2001-2005 60
4-4: VIA, SiS, and ALI Exited Chipset Market: 2006-2010 68
Chapter 5: Competitive Dynamics Analysis 74
5-1 The First PC-133 Battle: Pentium 3 Transition 75
5-2 The second DDR Battle, Pentium 4 Transition 79
5-3 Comparison of two Platform Battles 86
5-4 A Framework of Competitive Analysis ( MC/RS) 89
5-5 Competition Types Analysis 101
Chapter 6: Conclusion & Suggestion 104
6-1 Conclusion 104
6-2 Suggestion 108
Reference 111


English:
Brandenburger, Adam M& Barry J.Nalebuff(1997), Co-opetition, Doubleday press
Chen, Ming-Jer, Competitive dynamics: Competition as action response
Chen, Ming-Jer, Competing for advantage from industry analysis to competitive action
Chen, Ming-Jer, (1996) Competitor Analysis and Interfirm Rivalry: Toward a Theoretical Interaction, Academy of Management Review
Chen, Ming-Jer, Donald, C. Hambrick, (1994) Speed, Stealth, and selective attack: How small firms differ from large firms in competitive behavior, Academy of management journal
Chen, Ming Jer, (2008) Reconceptualizing the competition cooperation relationship- A transparadox perspective” , Journal of management inquiry
Cusumana, Michael(2010), Technology Strategy and Management: The Evolution of Platform Thinking, Communication of the AGM
Gawer, Annabelle, and Michael A. Cusumana(2002), Platform Leadership-How Intel, Microsoft, and Cisco Drive Industry Innovation, Cambridge, MA, Harvard Business Review
Gawer, Annabelle, and Michael A. Cusumana(2002), The Elements of Platform Leadership, MIT Slogan Management Review
Gawer, Annabelle(2000), The Organization of Platform Leadership: An Empirical Investigation of Intel Management Process Aimed at Fostering Complementary Innovation by Third Parties, MIT
Gawer, Annabelle and Rebecca Hendeson(2007), Platform Owner Entry and Innovation in Complementary market, Evidence from Intel,, Journal of Economics and Management Strategy
Grant, Robert M,(2010) Contemporary Strategy Analysis, Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Porter, M. E,(1985), Competitive advantages: Creating and Sustaining Superior performance, New Yoirk, The Free Press
Yik, R.K(1984), Case Study Research: Design and Method, 2nd edition, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publication

Chinese & Others :
李佩璇: 動態競爭策略與競合行為之研究: 以晶片組產業為例 台大國際所碩士論文, 2004
黃世澤: 系統晶片組產業之演進與分析, 台大資管所碩士論文, 2008
Ellen Tseng, VIA technologies- Re-diving the pie, July 2001, Morgan Stanley Research
Ellen Tseng, VIA technologies- A different ballgame, August 2003, Morgan Stanley Research
IDC research: International Data Corporation (IDC) is the premier global provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets. IDC is a subsidiary of IDG, the world''s leading technology media, research, and events company. Learn more about IDC by visiting www.idc.com.
Dataquest: Dataquest research is professional research service that Garner inc. offer for in-depth market forecast and share data together with analysis of trends, competitors and customer requirements in 37 key technology markets across software, hardware, IT services, communications, semiconductors, and business and industry strategies. Gartner, Inc. is the world''s leading information technology research and advisory company. About Garner visiting www.gartner.com/technology/home.jsp
DRAM Exchange: DRAM exchange includes current business environment, real-time spot trading prices, market trends, capital spending and wafer capacity trends, the impact of DRAM/flash memory products on the market, and other relevant PC industry information. About DRAM exchange visiting www.dramexchange.com
MIC:產業情報研究所(Market Intelligence & Consulting Institute, MIC) 於1987年成立,長期致力於台灣ICT產業發展的調查研究。20餘年來正值台灣ICT產業邁向高度成長期,MIC多年來詳實調查紀錄台灣ICT產業成長軌跡,不但為國家產業政策發展提供許多前瞻視野與建言,也透過產業情報資料庫及客製化的顧問專案服務,協助國內企業經由MIC觀點,瞭解全球ICT產業及標竿國際企業發展動向與市場機會。http://mic.iii.org.tw/aisp/default.asp
電子時報(ON-LINE NEWS Library); www.digitimes.com
威盛公司年報; www.via.com.tw
矽統公司年報; www.sis.com.tw
揚智公司年報; www.ali.com.tw
INTEL annual report; www.intel.com
AMD annual report; www.amd.com
Nvidia annual report; www.nvidia.com


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