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研究生:趙景宏
研究生(外文):Ching-Hung Chao
論文名稱:高齡人力運用-非營利團體之人力吸納與交換建制
論文名稱(外文):On the Utilization of Senior Human Resource by NPOs-Manpower Absorption and Exchange Machinism
指導教授:盧信昌盧信昌引用關係
口試委員:陳文華蔡明宏陳雅美
口試日期:2013-07-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:國際企業學研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:42
中文關鍵詞:高齡人力非營利團體人力吸納時間交換
外文關鍵詞:Senior human resourceNon-profit organizationManpower absorptionTime exchange mechanism
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人口老化是重要的世界趨勢。因應人口的高齡化,如何進一步規劃出能減緩高齡者身心退化的方法,以及如何來增進高齡者在日常生活中的經濟支持,都是當前文明社會發展的重要課題。面對日益嚴峻的社會老齡化問題,如果再得不到有效的解決方法,則不僅消費需求面的動能會萎縮,整體的經濟生產力也將會下降。長期而言,這對一個國家的整體競爭力自是有負面影響的。反之,若能尋出方式來運用高齡者之人力資源,對高齡者本身與其身處之社會環境均有其正向之裨益。
不可否認的是,普世觀點還是認定為高齡者在市場上屬於「弱勢者」,現有的一些政策主張也是將高齡勞動力視同為是身障與殘疾人力。本研究則是希望探討從現在,乃至於在可預見的未來裡,如何藉由建構非金錢性報酬的交易與生產評價體制,能讓高齡者以較低的社會成本,來擴大經濟循環流的界定範圍;同時也成功地接軌融入到常態的消費與生產體制當中。
首先,本研究蒐集與高齡人力資源、非營利團體相關之文獻進行探討,以建立高齡人力運用之架構。之後,再對次級統計資料作解讀與延伸,並邀請幾位台北市的里長參與座談,以取得其行政經驗上的回應和具體評價該架構的完整與可行性。本研究的分析結果支持本理論架構,即有了法律政策、非營利團體之人力吸納與時間交換三大面向的支持,將能提供高齡者交換的意願,以及其在社會交流與個人能力的付出和實踐上,更可以增強其行動力,就像一飛沖天的火箭一般。

Population aging is one of the most important trends worldwide. How the society as a whole can respond to population aging, to slow down the degeneration of body and mind and to reinforce elders’ support economically all become urgent issues for further development of civilization. For one thing, as population aging becomes more serious, consumer demand will wither more along with declining economic productivity. In the longer run, it will result in a negative influence on the overall competitiveness of the nation. On the contrary, it will be of great benefit to the aged as well as the social environment they are in if one figures out a better way to utilize human resource of the senior.
Undeniably, the elders belong to the group of “disadvantaged ones” in general. Some even propose to apply the legislation for the disabled to the needs and protection of the aged directly. Under this viewpoint, they further presume that senior human resource should be regarded as the disabled labor. We disagree as it will be very costly to the society and to the employers as such.
Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine necessary features and to setup the theoretic foundation for the system in which the utilization of the aged labor can be enhanced accordingly. The key is to look for ways to integrate the elders into the normal consumption and production system with lower social costs through activities with less emphasis on profit seeking, more on non-monetary reward, using the mechanism of voluntary exchange. The extreme case of bartering may as well be included and built upon close service evaluation among peers. In essence, we have to expand the definition and scope of normal circular flow in the economy to absorb the aged labor and to recognize the elders’ contribution.
Firstly, this study collects documents associated both to the features of senior human resource and the functioning of non-profit organization (NPO). Secondly, this study analyzes a secondary data set and readdresses the focus. We also invite some neighborhood magistrates to participate in an interview as a focus group in the hope of obtaining valuable responses. Then we explore carefully to establish the framework suitable to the utilization of senior human resource, based on the participants’ experience from past administration work and specifically their evaluation regarding the completeness and feasibility of our proposed framework.
The result of this exploratory study seems to support the proposed framework. In other words, with proper guidance of laws and policies, the manpower absorption by NPOs and through the exchange mechanism of their time and specialty, elders’ willingness in exchange activities, social interaction and self-realization could all skyrocket.


口試委員審定書 i
誌謝 ii
中文摘要 iv
英文摘要 v
目錄 vii
圖目錄 ix

第一章 緒論 1
第一節、研究背景與動機 1
第二節、研究目的 4
第三節、研究方法 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節、高齡者的界定與年齡推移 5
第二節、高齡者的身心變化與職場特性 6
第三節、志工的定義 9
第四節、非營利組織的定義 11
第五節、非營利團體的特色 13
第三章 研究理論與架構 17
第一節、高齡者工作能力的分析架構 17
第二節、高齡人力運用的再突破 21
第四章、資料解讀與研析 26
第一節、各主要國家高齡人口政策 26
第二節、次級統計資料解讀 29
第三節、焦點團體座談分析 33
第五章、結論與建議 37

參考文獻 39


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