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研究生:李毓芩
研究生(外文):YU-TSEN LI
論文名稱:森林復育個案研究:鑑定與減緩原生闊葉樹種的建立限制
論文名稱(外文):Restoration of a Plantation Forest to Native Broadleaved Vegetation: Indentifying and Alleviating Establishment Limitations
指導教授:關秉宗
口試委員:林宜靜林世宗
口試日期:2013-06-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:森林環境暨資源學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:森林復育建立限制殼斗科苗木栽植種子直播
外文關鍵詞:forest restorationestablishment limitationFagaceaeseedling plantingdirect seeding
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生態復育之目的乃為加速恢復目標生態系其組成與功能。為達到復育之目標,
進行原生森林植群重建時,首先考慮的問題為組成演替晚期樹種可能面臨的傳播
與建立限制。傳播限制包括缺乏種子供應源或傳播者,傳播途徑受阻等因素。建
立限制為影響種子發芽,及小苗後續存活及生長狀況的因子。本試驗於臺灣大學
實驗林和社營林區25 林班地柳杉人造林進行相關復育試驗,試圖探討欲恢復當地
原生植群時,殼斗科樹種面對之建立限制。試驗地進行不同林地處理,包括疏伐
與未疏伐,地被清除與保留地被,試驗方法為苗木栽植與種子直播,苗木栽植包
括一年生苗木及三個月苗木,種子直播則有新鮮種子及發芽種子。試驗結果顯示
若殼斗科種子能順利傳播至試驗地,則種子被移除乃為主要的建立限制,最終存
活率由高至低依序為一年生苗木、三個月苗木、發芽種子、新鮮種子。
本研究進一步嘗試種子直播是否可為森林復育方法,2009 至2012 年間直播試
驗,不同種類、不同發芽程度種子於不同林地處理樣區中均迅速被移除,僅2010
年青剛櫟及三斗石櫟發芽種子於疏伐樣區中保留地被穿越線上有成苗,成苗率分
別為1.8 與2.3%。架設圍網進行野外發芽試驗,瞭解種子未被移除,則能順利在
野外發芽成苗。本研究也針對主要取食者-囓齒目動物,嘗試減少種子被移除的
物理及化學方法,物理方法包括埋土及覆蓋凋落物僅能延遲種子被移除,未能促
使種子順利成苗,化學方法為噴灑肉桂酰胺及桂皮醛忌避劑則未看出效果。試驗
結果顯示欲減緩建立限制,栽植一年生苗木為最有效方法。

Ecological restoration is an intentional activity to accelerate the recovery of health,
integrity, and sustainability of a deteriorated ecosystem. When restoring native forest
vegetation, we usually face two limitations, namely, dispersal and establishment
limitations. The former would occur when the dispersal path is blocked(e.g., lack of
seed sources or dispersal agents). Establishment limitations refer to the factors that
hinder the germination of the dispersed seeds, as well as the survival and growth of
seedlings.
Based on direct seeding and seedlings planting experiments, the objectives of this
study are to identify and alleviate the likely factors affecting the establishments of
native Fagaceae species during the restoration of a Japanese cedar plantation to native
forest vegetation in a site located at the Heshe District of NTU Experimental Forest.
After four years of direct seeding and seedling planting, this study found that, if seeds
are able to disperse into the study site, acorn predation is the most important
establishment limitation for the target Fagaceae species. Different site preparation
methods, such as thinning and vegetation removing, have no significant effects in
reducing acorn predation rate. Plating one-year-seedlings has the highest success rate,
followed by planting three-month-seedlings and direct seeding of germinating acorns,
whereas direct seeding of fresh acorns has the lowest success rate. Plastic nets can
iv
effectively deter acorn predators and enhance acorn germination and seedling survival
rates. The physical and chemical methods that the study experimented to prevent seed
predation are not effective. The results of this study suggest that planting one-year-old
seedlings will be the best way to alleviate the establishment limitations when restoring
the Japanese cedar stands to native forest vegetation in the study area.

謝辭............................................................................................................................................i
中文摘要 ...................................................................................................................................ii
Abstract .....................................................................................................................................iii
目錄 ...........................................................................................................................................v
圖目錄 .....................................................................................................................................vii
表目錄 ....................................................................................................................................viii
第一章 緒論 ..............................................................................................................................1
第二章 文獻回顧 ......................................................................................................................6
2.1 生態系復育......................................................................................................................6
2.2 傳播限制..........................................................................................................................7
2.3 建立限制..........................................................................................................................9
2.3.1 建立限制-環境因子................................................................................................10
2.3.2 建立限制-生物因子................................................................................................ 11
2.4 減緩種子被移除............................................................................................................14
2.4.1 物理方法.................................................................................................................14
2.4.2 化學方法.................................................................................................................16
2.4.3 林地處理.................................................................................................................17
2.4.4 播種時間.................................................................................................................18
第三章 材料與方法 ................................................................................................................19
3.1 試驗地概述....................................................................................................................20
3.2 樣區設置........................................................................................................................20
3.3 試驗樹種........................................................................................................................23
3.4 鑑定建立限制................................................................................................................24
3.4.1 苗木栽植.................................................................................................................24
3.4.1.1 一年生苗木......................................................................................................25
3.4.1.2 三個月苗木......................................................................................................25
3.4.2 種子直播.................................................................................................................25
3.4.2.1 新鮮種子直播..................................................................................................26
3.4.2.2 發芽種子直播..................................................................................................26
3.4.2.3 新鮮種子與發芽種子同時直播......................................................................27
vi
3.4.2.4 野外發芽試驗..................................................................................................28
3.4.3 減緩種子被移除.....................................................................................................28
3.4.3.1 埋土..................................................................................................................29
3.4.3.2 覆蓋凋落物......................................................................................................29
3.4.3.3 噴灑忌避劑......................................................................................................29
3.5 資料分析........................................................................................................................31
第四章 結果 ............................................................................................................................32
4.1 鑑定建立限制................................................................................................................32
4.1.1 苗木栽植.................................................................................................................32
4.1.1.1 一年生苗..........................................................................................................32
4.1.1.2 三個月苗..........................................................................................................33
4.2.1 種子直播.................................................................................................................34
4.2.1.1 新鮮種子直播..................................................................................................35
4.2.1.2 發芽種子直播..................................................................................................39
4.2.1.3 新鮮種子與發芽種子同時直播......................................................................43
4.2.1.4 野外發芽試驗..................................................................................................51
4.2.2 減緩種子被移除.....................................................................................................53
4.2.2.1 埋土..................................................................................................................54
4.2.2.2 覆蓋凋落物......................................................................................................54
4.2.2.3 噴灑忌避劑......................................................................................................54
第五章 討論 ............................................................................................................................56
5.1 鑑定建立限制................................................................................................................56
5.2 野外發芽試驗................................................................................................................62
5.3 減緩建立限制................................................................................................................64
第六章 結論 ............................................................................................................................68
參考文獻 .................................................................................................................................69

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