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研究生:陳柏君
研究生(外文):Bohr-jiun Chen
論文名稱:利用核磁共振影像評估巨峰葡萄催芽後之芽體水分變化
論文名稱(外文):Assessing water status of ‘Kyoho’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis labruscana Bailey) buds after chemical budforcing with magnetic resonance images
指導教授:李國譚
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Tan Li
口試委員:李金龍張致盛
口試委員(外文):Ching-Lung LeeChih-Sheng Chang
口試日期:2012-07-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝暨景觀學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:葡萄一年二收核磁共振儀催芽劑相對性休眠內生性休眠T2值自由水含量
外文關鍵詞:chemical forcingbud dormancyMRIfree water status
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臺灣地處於熱帶和亞熱帶地區,夏季進入秋季日長變化不明顯且溫度較暖,加上巨峰葡萄花芽在5月底皆已分化完成,可利用修剪、除葉和催芽劑使芽體重新萌發,進行一年二收的產期調節。而冬季低溫需求不足造成內生休眠無法順利打破為一大困擾,利用修剪配合催芽劑使用,可使萌芽整齊且生長勢一致。本試驗欲了解於夏季與冬季進行修剪頂芽(對照組)與修剪頂芽加二氯乙醇催芽劑(處理組),對’巨峰’(Vitis vinifera L.× Vitis labrusca Baily ‘Kyoho’)葡萄芽體打破休眠之影響。利用核磁共振儀(magnetic resonance imaging, MRI )將活體盆植五年生的巨峰葡萄樹放入機器,進行芽體T2值與自由水含量的偵測,配合芽體外觀的變化。並調查萌芽率與萌芽後葡萄之生長勢。
試驗結果顯示,夏季芽體為相對性休眠的時候,催芽組並不會加速芽體T2值與自由水含量的上升,與對照組無顯著性差異。皆在處理5天後芽體T2值與自由水含量上升,核磁共振影像芽體分生組織分化形成節間與葉原體,打破相對性休眠(paradormancy),且於處理8天後萌芽。然而,對照組萌芽率66%比修剪加催芽組100%低,且夏梢生長勢較差。冬季芽體為內生性休眠的時候,催芽組芽體T2值與自由水含量上升顯著高於對照組,配合MRI影像芽體分生組織之分化,判斷催芽11天後打破休眠,比對照組提早一星期打破內生休眠,此時外表芽體的狀態為Modified E-L系統階段2,芽體開裂且膨大。二氯乙醇催芽劑也可顯著增加韌皮部之T2值。因為提早打破內生休眠的緣故,使巨峰葡萄樹體提早萌芽且生長,春梢長度與葉面積皆顯著高於修剪處理組。
根據本實驗結果,催芽組於夏季可以使萌芽整齊一致,夏梢生長勢較佳,但是無法提早打破相對性休眠。處理催芽劑於冬季內生休眠的葡萄芽體,T2值與自由水含量比對照組提早一星期上升,提早打破內生休眠,且可增加韌皮部組織的T2值,使巨峰葡萄樹體提早萌芽且生長。

Taiwan is located in tropical and subtropical region with a relatively long growing season. Using pruning and budforcing agent budbreak of a grapevine can be successfully induced in summer and thus a grapevine being harvested twice a year. The relation between water status and budbreak from normal dormancy season has been established. However, the relation between chemical forcing and water status in grapevine was not clearly documented. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate the change of water status in the compound bud of ‘Kyoho’ grapvines after chemical forcing in summer and in winter. Potted, 5-year-old, self rooted ‘Kyoho’ grapevines were pruned and then forced with 2-chloro-ethanol either in summer or in winter. Free water content of the compound bud and adjacent cane tissue after forcing was non-invasively evaluated with a MRI system equipped with a 120-mm gradient insert and configured to 70-mm RF volume coil. Bud developing stages after forcing were visually recorded and shoot growth was measured. Chemical forcing after summer pruning improved uniformity of budbreak and shoot growth but had little effect on free water status in the bud and adjacent cane tissue. Free water content in buds with or without forcing all increased five days after treatments. On the other hand, chemical forcing after dormant pruning quickly increased free water content in the bud and the adjacent phloem tissue, and advanced budbreak as well as young shoot growth. It appears that free water status is a good index for dormancy release in grapevines but is insufficient to explain the mechanism of chemical forcing.

誌謝 .................................................................................................................................. i
摘要 ................................................................................................................................. ii
Abstract ............................................................................................................................ iii
目錄 Table of Contents ................................................................................................... iv
圖目錄 List of Figure ..................................................................................................... vi
第一章 總論-前人研究與試驗假說 ............................................................................... 1
1.1. 前言 .................................................................................................................. 1
1.2. 落葉果樹芽體的休眠生理 .............................................................................. 2
1.2.1. 芽體休眠的現象與定義 ....................................................................... 2
1.2.2. 芽體休眠的誘導 ................................................................................... 2
1.2.3. 芽體休眠的打破 ................................................................................... 3
1.3. 休眠打破不完全所造成的問題 ...................................................................... 4
1.4. 催芽劑對落葉果樹芽體休眠的打破 .............................................................. 5
1.4.1. 催芽劑的種類與效果 ........................................................................... 5
1.4.2. 處理催芽劑的時機 ............................................................................... 6
1.5. 催芽劑幫助打破部分休眠之生理機制 .......................................................... 6
1.6. 葡萄萌芽與催芽生理變化 .............................................................................. 7
1.7. 葡萄一年二收之生長勢比較 .......................................................................... 8
1.8. 核磁共振影像 .................................................................................................. 9
1.8.1. 核磁共振影像之原理與園藝上之應用 ............................................... 9
1.8.2. 核磁共振影像於木質部水分分佈之研究 .......................................... 11
1.8.3. 核磁共振影像於落葉果樹芽體休眠之研究 ..................................... 12
1.8.3.1. 核磁共振影像於落葉果樹夏季芽體解除與誘導休眠之研究 ................................................................................................................ 12
1.8.3.2. 核磁共振影像於落葉果樹冬季芽體內生和外生性休眠打破之研究 .................................................................................................... 13
1.8.4. 影像分析量化之方法 ......................................................................... 13
1.8.5. 影像成像參數 ..................................................................................... 14
1.9. 試驗假說 ........................................................................................................ 15
第二章 利用核磁共振影像評估巨峰葡萄催芽後之芽體水分狀態 .......................... 19
2.1摘要 .................................................................................................................. 19
2.2前言 .................................................................................................................. 20
2.3材料及方法 ...................................................................................................... 22
2.4 結果 ................................................................................................................. 26
v
2.5 討論 ................................................................................................................. 29
2.6 結論 ................................................................................................................. 32
2.7參考文獻 .......................................................................................................... 61
2.8 Abstract ............................................................................................................. 64
第三章 結論及未來研究方向 ...................................................................................... 66
參考文獻 ................................................................................................................ 67
附錄 ........................................................................................................................ 69

第一章
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16
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17
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第二章
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62
Fennell, A. and M.J. Line. 2001. Identifying differential tissue response in grape (Vitis riparia) during induction of endodormancy using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 126:681-688.
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第三章
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