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研究生:阮彥程
研究生(外文):Yen-Cheng Juan
論文名稱:探索使用者瀏覽行為於不當內容過濾
論文名稱(外文):Exploring User Browsing Behaviors for Objectionable Content Filtering
指導教授:陳信希陳信希引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsin-Hsi Chen
口試委員:鄭卜仁郭俊桔蔡銘峰
口試委員(外文):Pu-Jen ChengJune-Jei KuoMing-Feng Tsai
口試日期:2013-07-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:使用者意圖瀏覽行為資訊檢索網頁分類網頁點擊資料
外文關鍵詞:Objectionable Content FilteringInternet CensorshipUser Browsing LogUser Click Behavior
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此篇論文研究探討網際網路使用者在瀏覽網頁時的行為及意圖,並用於預測使用者下一個瀏覽網頁所屬的類別,再將預測的結果應用於不當內容網頁過濾,例如:色情、賭博等。
使用者在一段時間內瀏覽的每個網頁都屬於一個類別,而這一連串的瀏覽行為可以表示成一個類別序列,用來預測使用者接下來瀏覽網頁的類別。除了類別序列的資訊外,為了能夠在第一時間判斷網頁的類別,本研究嘗試從網址中擷取更多可用的特徵來提高判斷的準確率。本研究使用的方法不需要讀取網址的網頁內容或任何原始碼中的資訊,如此才能在使用者點擊網頁的時候即時的判斷網頁的類別,並決定是否應該讓使用者瀏覽該網頁。
本研究首先針對過去研究所採用的類別預測模型,分析這些模型在分類上的限制以及可能遭遇到的問題,提出改善的方法以增加分類的準確率。在相同資料集下,本研究提出的改善方法可以達到約20%的準確率提升。
在本研究使用的序列模型,利用使用者的點擊類別序列以及多種網址相關的特徵,在TMUFE使用的78個類別多分類的判斷,可達到74.60%的分類準確率。而在不當內容過濾則可以達到93.97%的準確率、92.65%的阻擋率、以及將誤判率控制在5.71%。
此外,本篇論文也提出如何利用分類模型的結果來建立一個不當內容網頁的動態黑名單,此黑名單可以在不增加誤判率(4.94%)的情形下增加召回率(95.81%)。此動態黑名單可以達到和傳統黑名單相當的召回率,同時可以避免使用傳統黑名單時誤判率會大幅上升的問題。
最後,本論文針對研究中達到最好準確率的模型做多面向的錯誤分析,以了解造成分類錯誤的原因。同時,以一連串實驗來探討不同實驗設計是否能夠增加模型效能,並分析各種方法的優劣。


This research explores users’ browsing intents to predict the category of a user’s next access during web surfing, and applies the results to objectionable content filtering. A user’s access trail represented as a sequence of URLs reveals the contextual information of web browsing behaviors. We extract behavioral features of each clicked URL, i.e., hostname, gTLD, IP, port, and bag-of-words, to develop a linear chain CRF model for context-aware category prediction.
Large-scale experiments show that our method achieves high accuracy 74.60% for multiclass classification on a dataset with 78 different categories and promising accuracy 93.97% for objectionable access identification without requesting their corresponding page content. Our proposed model accomplishes blocking rate 92.65%, while maintaining a favorably low over-blocking rate 5.71% for collaboratively filtering objectionable content on the dynamic web.
Furthermore, this research proposes a method to generate a dynamic blacklist. It can achieve high blocking rate(95.81%) like traditional blacklists, but without their over-blocking problem(4.94%). In practices, it is complementary to intelligent content analysis for keeping up with rapidly changing variability of objectionable content from users’ behavioral perspectives.


口試委員會審定書 #
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景………………….. 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 1
1.2.1 使用者瀏覽行為 2
1.2.2 阻擋不當內容網頁問題 3
1.3 論文架構 4
第二章 相關研究 5
2.1 不當內容過濾相關研究 5
2.2 混合模型 7
2.2.1 混合模型架構 7
2.2.2 混合模型限制與問題 9
第三章 網頁類別預測與過濾 10
3.1 協同式混合模型 10
3.2 條件隨機域模型 12
3.2.1 條件隨機域模型介紹與公式推導 12
3.2.2 條件隨機域模型應用於「未知」類別網址預測 15
3.2.3 擷取網址特徵 16
3.3 動態黑名單 18
第四章 資料集、工具、評估準則 21
4.1 使用者點擊資料 21
4.1.1 資料集中的類別 22
4.1.2 訓練資料集及測試資料集 22
4.2 實驗使用的工具 25
4.3 實驗數據的評估準則 26
4.3.1 多分類評估方式 26
4.3.2 二元分類評估方式 26
第五章 實驗結果與過濾模擬 28
5.1 協同式混合模型的改善 28
5.2 不同特徵組合對條件隨機域的實驗結果 29
5.2.1 不同特徵組合對條件隨機域的效能影響 29
5.2.2 條件隨機域和支持向量機在相同特徵下的效能差別 31
5.3 不同情境長度對條件隨機域效能影響 31
5.4 不同模型的實驗結果比較 33
5.5 動態黑名單用於過濾模擬 35
第六章 延伸討論 37
6.1 相同域名網址的類別集中情形 37
6.2 不同通用頂級域類型的效能比較 38
6.3 不當內容各類表現 39
6.4 使用者個人以及使用者分群模型 40
6.4.1 個人模型 40
6.4.2 分群模型 44
第七章 結論及未來研究方向 46
7.1 結論 46
7.2 未來研究方向 47
參考文獻 48
附錄A 通用頂級域列表 54
附錄B 訓練資料集類別數量 56
附錄C 測試資料集類別數量 59
附錄D 測試用例類別數量 62
附錄E 各模型的二元分類結果 65
附錄F 域名策略動態黑名單每天二分法效能 66
附錄G CRF模型使用的資料集格式 67
附錄H CRF模型使用的模板文件 68


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