(3.236.222.124) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/13 01:17
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:施冠宇
研究生(外文):Kuan-Yu Shih
論文名稱:應用於醫用超音波影像前端發射電路之研製
論文名稱(外文):Development of CMOS Transmitter Front-ends for Ultrasound Imaging Applications
指導教授:呂良鴻
指導教授(外文):Liang-Hung Lu
口試委員:闕河鳴魏駿愷
口試日期:2013-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電子工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:超音波脈衝發射器切換開關數位類比轉換器高速高電壓
外文關鍵詞:UltrasoundPulserSwitchDigital-to-analog ConverterHigh SpeedHigh Voltage
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:194
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
由於安全性及低成本的考量,超音波影像一直是醫師在臨床診斷中的一大利器。近年來隨著高速電路的技術愈趨成熟,高頻超音波的系統也漸漸的被實作出來。為了提高系統整合度、降低成本及減少寄生效應,必須發展CMOS超音波前端發射電路。在此論文中,使用了0.25-μm高電壓互補式金氧半導體製程實現兩個超音波前端發射電路。第一章對超音波成像系統進行基本的介紹,第二章則對超音波前端發射電路的設計流程及背景知識進行說明。
第三章提出了一個以0.25-μm高電壓互補式金氧半導體製程實現超音波前端發射電路,包含了脈衝發射器和發/收切換開關。為了達到高速的需求,脈衝發射器直接從電源供應器對探頭進行充放電以產生高頻超音波,發/收切換開關則使用以電晶體為主的開關並針對高線性度及低功耗進行設計。
第四章實作了一個高速高電壓數位類比轉換器可提供任意波型激發探頭,架構上使用了電流模式的數位類比轉換器以達到高速的需求,並使用單位元切換方式及共質心對稱式佈局降低靜態與切換的誤差。最後,在第五章會進行本論文的總結。


In diagnostic medicine, ultrasound imaging is one of the most widely used diagnostic tools due to its safety and relatively low cost. Recently, as the progress of high-speed electronic circuits, high frequency ultrasound imaging has become realizable. To facilitate system-on-chip implementation to minimize the cost and the parasitic effects, the development of CMOS ultrasound transmitter front-end is essential. By using 0.25-μm high-voltage CMOS process, two circuits are implemented in this thesis. The first chapter introduces the fundamentals of an ultrasound imaging system, including a brief introduction to the whole system and the architecture of the transmitter/receiver. Chapter 2 illustrates the basics and challenges in ultrasound transmitter design and the link budget calculation is demonstrated for system optimization.
In Chapter 3, an interface circuit, including a high-speed pulser and a highly linear low-power T/R switch, is implemented by using a 0.25-μm high-voltage CMOS process. With the direct-drive technique, the transducer can be charged/discharged fast to produce high frequency acoustic wave. In order to improve the linearity, a bootstrapped, MOS-based switch is proposed, which consumes only dynamic power.
In Chapter 4, a 6-bit, 150 MS/s high-voltage digital-to-analog converter with an output swing of 31.5 VPP is implemented in 0.25-μm high-voltage CMOS technology. For high-speed operation and area reduction, a current-steering DAC is proposed by using only one high-voltage device per unit cell. Unary switching scheme and common centroid layout are utilized to minimize the static and switching errors. Finally, a conclusion of this thesis is made in Chapter 5.


口試委員會審定書 III
誌謝 V
摘要 VII
Abstract IX
Table of Contents XI
List of Figures XIV
List of Tables XVIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL ULTRASOUND IMAGING 1
1.1.1 Application Types of Sonography 1
1.1.2 Pulse Compression 3
1.1.3 Imaging Quality of B-mode 4
1.1.4 Introduction to Ultrasound Imaging System 7
1.2 ARCHITECTURES OF THE ULTRASOUND TRANSMITTER 8
Chapter 2 Background 10
2.1 MASON MODEL FOR TRANSDUCER 10
2.2 PULSED EXCITATION 13
2.3 ARBITRARY WAVEFORM EXCITATION 15
2.4 FUNDAMENTALS OF CURRENT-STEERING DAC 16
2.4.1 Finite Output Resistance 16
2.4.4 Decoder Feed-through 19
2.4.5 Switch Driver Mismatch 20
2.5 EFFICIENCY 20
2.5.1 Pulser 20
2.5.2 Class-A and Class-B Amplifier 22
2.6 BUFFER 23
2.7 DYNAMIC RANGE 24
2.8 LINK BUDGET 25
Chapter 3 A High-voltage Interface Circuit for Ultrasonic Imaging Applications 28
3.1 INTRODUCTION 28
3.2 PROPOSED ARCHITECTURE 30
3.3 CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPOSED INTERFACE CIRCUITS 31
3.3.1 Pulser 31
3.3.2 T/R Switch 35
3.3.3 Controller 39
3.4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 39
3.5 CONCLUSION 45
Chapter 4 A High-speed Driver for Ultrasonic Imaging Applications 47
4.1 INTRODUCTION 48
4.2 PROPOSED ARCHITECTURE 49
4.3 CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPOSED INTERFACE CIRCUITS 52
4.3.1 High-voltage DAC 52
4.3.2 Latches and Buffers 61
4.3.3 Level Shifter 62
4.3.4 Digital Controller 63
4.4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 66
4.5 CONCLUSION 68
Chapter 5 Conclusion 70
Bibliography 72


[1]Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Updated 1 July 2013, 09:14 UTC. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attenuation. Internet. Retrieved 10 July 2012

[2]E. Brunner, Ultrasound system consideration and their impact on front-end components, Norwood, MA: Analog Devices, Inc., 2002 [Online]. Available: http://www.analog.com/library/analogdialogue/archives/36-03/ultrasound/ultrasoundfrontend.pdf

[3]LM96550 Ultrasound Transmit Pulser, Texus Instrument, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm96550.pdf

[4]LM96570 Ultrasound Configurable Transmit Beamformer, Texus Instrument, Inc., [Online]. Available:http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm96570.pdf

[5]K. K. Shung, Diagnostic Ultrasound: Imaging and Blood Flow Measurements. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2006.


[6]High Speed Ultrasound Beamforming Source Driver, Supertex, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.supertex.com/pdf/datasheets/MD2130.pdf
[7]C. H. Lin and K. Bult, “A 10-b 500-MSample/s CMOS DAC in 0.6-mm2,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1948–1958, Dec. 1998.

[8]D. A. Mercer, “Low-power approaches to high-speed current-steering digital-to-analog converters in 0.18- m CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 42, pp. 1688–1698, Aug. 2007.

[9]K. Bult and C. H. Lin, “Digital to analog converter with reduced ringing,” U.S. 6,191,719, Feb. 20, 2001.

[10]A. S. Sedra, and K. C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

[11]R. C. Jaeger, “Comments on ‘An optimized output stage for MOS integrated circuits,”’ IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 10, pp. 185-1 86, June 1975.

[12]B. Herman and G. Harris, Models and regulatory considerations for the transient temperature rise during diagnostic ultrasound pulses. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 28(9):1217-1224, 2002.

[13]Four-Channel, High Speed, ±65V 750mA Ultrasound Pulser, Supertex, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.supertex.com/pdf/datasheets/HV738.pdf

[14]8-Channel, Programmable T/R Switch for Ultrasound, Texus Instrument, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/tx810.pdf
[15]Fully Integrated, 8-Channel Ultrasound Analog Front End with Passive CW Mixer, 1.05 nV/rtHz, 12-Bit, 80 MSPS, 117 mW/CH, Texus Instrument, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/afe5807.pdf

[16]J. Y. Park, C. H. Hu, X. Li, Q. F. Zhou, and K. K. Shung, “Wideband linear power amplifier for high-frequency ultrasonic coded excitation imaging,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency control, vol. 59, pp. 825-832, Apr. 2012.

[17]D. Bianchi, F. Quaglia, A. Mazzanti, F. Svelto, “A 90VPP 720MHz GBW Linear Power Amplifier for Ultrasound Imaging Transmitters in BCD6-SOI,” in IEEE International Solid-State Conference Digest of Technical Papers, Feb. 2012, pp. 370-371.

[18]J. Borg, and J. Johansson, “An Ultrasonic Transducer Interface IC With Integrated Push-Pull 40 Vpp, 400 mA Current Output, 8-bit DAC and Integrated HV Multiplexer,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 46, pp. 475-484, Feb. 2011.

[19]C. H. Lin, F. M. L. van der Goes, J. R. Westra, J. Mulder, Y. Lin, E. Arslan, E. Ayranci, X. D. Liu, and K. Bult, “A 12 bit 2.9 GS/s DAC With IM3 −60 dBc Beyond 1 GHz in 65 nm CMOS,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 44, pp. 3285-3293, Dec. 2009.

[20]B. Razavi, Principles of Data Conversion System Design, New York: IEEE, Inc., 1995.

[21]K. Hara, J. Sakano, M. Mori, S. Tamano, R. Sinomura, and K. Yamazaki, ”A New 80V 32x32ch Low Loss Multiplexer LSI for a 3D Ultrasound Imaging System,” Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices & IC’s, May 23-26, 2005 Santa Barbara, CA.

[22]M. O’Donnell, “Coded excitation system for improving the penetration of real-time phased-array imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Contr., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 341–351, 1992.

[23]T. X. Misaridis and J. A. Jensen, “An effective coded excitation scheme based on a Tukey-windowed FM signal and an optimized digital filter,” in Proc. IEEE Ultrason. Symp., pp. 1589–1593, 1999.

[24]A. V. Bosch, M. A. F. Borremans, M. S. J. Steyaert, and W. Sansen, “A 10-bit 1-GSample/s Nyquist Current-Steering CMOS D/A Converter,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 36, pp. 315-324, Mar. 2001.

[25]N. H. E. Weste and D. Harris, CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuits and Systems Perspective, 3rd ed., Boston, MA, Pearson Education, Inc., 2005.


[26]Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Updated 1 July 2013, 09:14 UTC. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-width_modulation. Internet. Retrieved 10 July 2012


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔