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研究生:李冠樺
研究生(外文):Kwan-Hua Lee
論文名稱:廠內自動搬運車之標記定向系統
論文名稱(外文):Fiducial Mark-Based Orientation System for AGV in Factory Environment
指導教授:林巍聳
口試委員:張志永鍾鴻源蔡超人
口試日期:2013-07-01
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電機工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:自動搬運車基準標記系統QR碼加速強健特徵遮蔽免疫電子地圖路徑追隨
外文關鍵詞:Automated guided vehiclefiducial systemsQR codespeed up robust featureocclussion resilienceelectric mappath tracking
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
工廠的廠房、電力設備和鐵製器材會擾亂全球衛星定位信號、無線電信號和磁場,本論文提出標記定向導航系統使自動搬運車可以在充斥干擾信號的廠內環境工作,標記定向導航系統採用機器視覺讀取平面二維條碼標記物,取得位置和方向的校正數據,自動搬運車便可以用沿途校正的輪軸慣性導航系統達成準確的導航。標記物佈置在工廠的地面上,作為電子地圖和實地的校準點,因此,自動搬運車的路線規劃和多量車的調度都可以在主控電腦進行。平面二維條碼標記物是針對廠內應用環境的新穎設計,本設計不採用人工特徵識別,而是用採用自然特徵演算法達成快速的辨識標記和精準的估計三維姿態,同時保證良好的背景分割效果,以及對遮蔽和光源變化的忍受度。此標記定向導航系統安裝在一台實驗用的自動搬運車上,從各種測試路線和不同環境條件下所得到的實驗數據,顯示連續行進情況下的定位和定向準確度都可以符合實際的工廠應用需求,也可以在主控電腦上規劃或變更行進路線。

The roof, power facilities, and iron equipments of the indoor factory will block and interfere the GPS, radio signal, and magnetic field. This thesis proposes a fiducial mark-based positioning and guidance system that can navigate AGV around the factory under high environmental disturbances. Planar 2D bar-code markers provide ground truth information. With the aid of bar-code markers, the navigation system can combine odometer as one of a part to achieve precise navigation. Bar-code markers are set on the floor to be the calibration points of factory and e-map, so the user can do path planning and multi-AGV monitoring by only using monitoring computer. The proposed bar-code marker is a novel design, especially suits for factory-like environment. The pattern and the detection algorithm of bar-code markers were introduced natural features (SURF), which promise good background segmentation, light immunity, occlusion immunity, and precise pose estimation. The fiducial mark-based positioning and guidance system were installed on an experimental AGV for actual testing. The result under different course and testing environment shows that our system’s real time positioning and orienting accuracy can fulfill actual factory implementation requirement, in addition. The course can be set or changed under monitoring computer.

口試委員會審定書 i
誌謝 iii
中文摘要 v
ABSTRACT vii
目錄 ix
圖目錄 xii
表目錄 xvii
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景和動機 1
1.2 研究目標和貢獻 3
1.3 論文架構 5
第2章 自動搬運車導引技術簡介 6
2.1 自動搬運車的導引方法 6
2.1.1 有線導引技術 7
2.1.2 無線導引技術 9
2.1.3 慣性導引與里程計技術 14
2.1.4 導引技術總結 16
2.2 基於特徵系統定位 16
2.2.1 定位流程 16
2.2.2 自然與人工特徵比較 19
2.2.3 基準標記系統 20
2.2.4 基準標記系統總結 31
第3章 機器視覺校正模組 36
3.1 準標記設計 37
3.1.1 尺度不變特徵轉換和加速強健特徵 37
3.1.2 加速強健特徵偵測子最佳響應圖 43
3.1.3 QR碼 51
3.1.4 廠內標記圖形 56
3.2 攝影機校正 57
3.3 影像前處理 65
3.4 標記偵測流程 71
第4章 智慧型定位導引系統之實作 78
4.1 系統架構 78
4.1.1 軟體流程 79
4.1.2 校正程序 81
4.2 試驗機規格 82
4.2.1 自動搬運車 82
4.2.2 Basic Stamp 2微控制器 83
4.2.3 位移控制器模組 84
4.3 電子地圖之人機介面 86
4.4 自動搬運車的即時定位與校準 88
4.4.1 差速輪型自走車運動學 88
4.4.2 廠內標記定位校正 91
4.4.3 標記羅盤化 93
4.4.4 廠內標記定位之實驗結果 94
4.5 駕駛系統 96
4.5.1 模糊運動控制 99
4.5.2 駕駛系統測試結果 102
4.6 實地實驗結果 104
第5章 結論與未來展望 110
參考文獻 113


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