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研究生:林玥彤
研究生(外文):Yueh-Tung Lin
論文名稱:中文近義詞「之前/以前」及「之後/以後」之時間距離差異研究
論文名稱(外文):Temporal Distance Distinction in Two Pairs of Mandarin Chinese Near-Synonyms Zhiqian/Yiqian and Zhihou/Yihou
指導教授:呂佳蓉呂佳蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiarung Lu
口試委員:賴惠玲黃惠如
口試委員(外文):Huei-ling LaiHuei-ju Huang
口試日期:2013-07-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:206
中文關鍵詞:時間詞近義詞時間距離差異之前以前之後以後
外文關鍵詞:temporal termsnear-synonymstemporal distance distinctionzhiqianyiqianzhihouyihou
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本篇論文以口語語料庫為本,探討兩組中文時間近義詞「之前」、「以前」以及「之後」與「以後」的時間距離差異,並以認知語法為描述的理論框架。
兩組時間詞皆有「後附」及「單用」的使用形式,如以下例句所示。

(1)後附
a.[他打電話來 RP]之前/以前[我在睡覺 TG]。
b.[他打電話來 RP]之後/以後[我就睡不著了 TG]。
(2)單用
a.他之前/以前[來過 TG]。
b.他之後/以後[會來TG]。

後附使用中,這些時間詞附著於某一前置成分之後,該前置成分通常表達某一可作為「參照點」(reference point,RP)的事件。參照點用以標示與「目標事件」或「目標物」(target,TG)之間在時間上的相對順序,屬「相對時間參照」。單用時,在小句的層次上時間詞並未附著於任何參照點之後,然而有時上文會提及參照點,有時則無,前者亦為「相對時間參照」,後者則以「說話當下」(speech time)為參照時間(reference time),將目標事件定位於過去或未來,屬「絕對時間參照」。

後附使用中,近義詞之間意義大抵相同,可互換使用,然而單用的「絕對時間參照」用法中,卻有「時間距離」遠近的差異:「之前」指的是離說話當下不久前的過去,「以前」指的是較為遙遠的過去,「之後」標示較近的未來,「以後」則標示較遠的未來。先行研究多半著重這些時間詞「後附」使用時共同的功能,雖有零星研究和辭典指出每組近義詞之間搭配詞的差異,但皆未觸及時間距離的議題。

本研究認為,後附使用時,兩組近義詞內的兩個詞所搭配的目標事件類型並無明顯差異。參照點與目標事件之間的距離由參照點本身的時間位置及目標事件本身的時間位置所決定,不論使用哪一個時間詞來排序這兩個事件,都不影響兩者之間的時間距離。而兩事件之間的時間距離又通常是短的,從客觀的概念內容(conceptual content)來看,相關的事件往往在時間上也是接近的,從主觀的識解(construal)來看,由於以這四個詞排序兩事件時並未側重(profile)其他介於中間的事件,使得兩事件彷彿是接連發生的,因而具有將參照點和目標事件拉近的功能。因此後附使用時,不論是用「之」或是「以」帶出的時間詞描述兩者的順序,兩事件的時間距離都是近的,近義詞間可互換不造成影響。

另一方面,「之」本身有代詞及領屬標記的功能,「之前」和「之後」單用時絕大部分都回指到前文提及的參照點。在領屬標記「之」所標示的所有關係中,所有者和所有物往往在空間距離上接近,在時間範疇中亦然。在絕對時間參照的用法中,雖然不再有以語言呈現的參照點,但依附於從屬關係的近距性(proximity)依然保留,因此「之前」指離說話當下較近的過去,「之後」則指離說話當下較近的未來。

「以」則標示由某一起點開始往某一方向不斷「延伸」後所包含的所有範圍,終點並未說出但往往可推測而得,如「濁水溪以南」指的是以濁水溪為起點,往南的方向不斷延伸後所涵蓋的範圍,終點未說出,但可推知最遠為臺灣的最南端。後附使用中,參照事件和目標事件距離相近,因此目標事件的發生即為「以前」和「以後」的「延伸」義在範圍較短時就劃下終點。單用中以說話當下為參照時間時,「以」的「延伸」義可浮現,使「以前」和「以後」分別由說話當下往「過去」和「未來」兩個方向不斷延伸。搭配上可持續或重複發生的目標事件時,「以後」意義近於「從此以後」,「以前」則義近「一直以來」。「以前」和「以後」的延伸雖以說話當下為起點出發,但延伸的同時卻也遠離了起點,「延伸」義導致「遠離」義,而「遠離」義又導出「遠距」義,搭配點狀事件或一次性事件時,「以前」和「以後」分別指離說話當下較遠的過去和較遠的未來。

由於距離為相對的概念,同樣的時間長度在不同類型的事件中或不同的說話者心中往往有不同的長短或遠近意義,再加上這些時間詞並不像某些在動詞時態上標記時間距離的語言有較為規範性的限制,因此本文所提的「遠」和「近」指的是一種相對的、原型的(prototype)解讀,所牽涉到的除了相對較為客觀的「概念內容」之外,也包含主觀的「識解」。

This thesis a corpus-based study on the temporal distance distinction in two pairs of Mandarin Chinese near-synonymous temporal terms zhiqian/yiqian ''before'' and zhihou/yihou ''after'', with Cognitive Grammar as the descriptive framework.

Both pairs are found to occur in the attached form and in the bare form, as shown in the following examples.

(1) Attached form
a. [ta dadianhua-lai RP]zhiqian/yiqian [wo zai shuijiao TG]
''I was sleeping before he called.''
b. [ta dadianhua-lai RP]zhihou/yihou[wo jiu shui-bu-zhao-le TG]
''I couldn''t fall asleep after he called.''
(2) Bare form
a. ta zhiqian/yiqian [lai-guo TG]
''He came here earlier/ He once came here.''
b. ta zhihou/yihou [hui lai TG]
''He will come later/ He will come in the future.''

In the attached form use, the four temporal terms are attached to a preceding element, which usually expresses a situation. This situation serves as a reference point (RP) with respect to which another situation, called target (TG), is sequenced in time (relative time reference). In the bare form use, there may or may not be an antecedent RP the previous context. Without an antecedent RP, the TG is located in the past or in the future with respect to the speech time (absolute time reference).

The two near-synonyms within each pair are basically equivalent and interchangeable in the attached form use. In the bare form use with the speech time as the reference time, however, two near-synonyms display the distinction of temporal distance: zhiqian and yiqian respectively locate a TG in the recent past and the distant past, whereas zhihou and yihou respectively do so in the near future and the far future.

Based on the corpus data, we argue that in the attached form use the temporal distance between the RP and the TG is determined by the temporal location of the RP and the temporal location of the TG, no matter which near-synonym is used to sequence the two situations. Meanwhile, the temporal distance between the two situations is often short. At the level of objective conceptual content, it is a usual concomitant that relevant situations tend to be temporally close. At the level of subjective construal, the RP and TG are the only two situations profiled within the onstage region (i.e., within a conceptualizer’s focal attention); with no intervening situations being profiled, the RP and the TG seem to happen in uninterrupted succession and are thus close to each other. These features account for the absence of temporal distance distinction in the attached form use.

The temporal distance distinction in the bare form use is attributed to the respective functions of zhi and yi. In a possessive relation profiled by the possessive marker zhi, the possessor and the possessed item tend to be close, especially for inalienable possession such as relational spatial concepts. Spatial proximity is inherited as temporal proximity between the RP and qian ''front'' and hou ''back''. In the bare form use with the speech time as the reference time, temporal proximity associated with the possessive construction is still inherited despite the lack of a linguistically realized RP. As such, zhiqian locates a TG in the recent past and zhihou does so in the near future, both close to the speech time.

The function of yi is to mark an extension. It profiles the region covered starting form a certain starting point (i.e., a boundary) and extending towards a certain direction. The endpoint is usually not specified but can be inferred. The extension sense is surprised in the attached form by the short temporal distance between the RP and the TG. In the bare form use where the context does not suggest any RP, the extension sense of yi is freed. Yiqian and yihou respectively profile a temporal region extending from the speech time towards the direction of past and future. With a durative or repetitive TG, yiqian has the sense ''for a long time'' whereas yihou means ''from now on''. On the other hand, as the extension proceeds it also departs from the speech time. The departure sense provides the basis for the remoteness sense. Thus, with a punctual or one-time TG, yiqian locates this TG in the distant past, whereas yihou locates it in the far future.

The concept of distance is a relative one. The same temporal distance may be conceptualized as short or long in different types of situation for different speakers, reflected in the choice of temporal term. A temporal term profiles a short distance and another profiles a long one in a relative, prototype sense, a combination of objective conceptual content and subjective construal.

Acknowledgement i
Chinese Abstract ii
English Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Abbreviations x
Transcription Conventions xi
Diagramming Conventions xiii
List of Tables xiv
List of Figures xv

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Research Questions 2
1.3 Data Collection 6
1.4 Organization of the Thesis 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review 8
2.1 Functional Studies 8
2.1.1 Y. Wang (2006) 8
2.1.2 Yeh (2000) 9
2.2 Dictionaries and Thesauruses 12
2.2.1 Components 12
2.2.1.1 Qian 12
2.2.1.2 Hou 13
2.2.1.3 Zhi 14
2.2.1.4 Yi 17
2.2.2 Composite Expressions 21
2.2.2.1 The Before-Pair 22
2.2.2.2 The After-Pair 25
2.3 Lexical Studies 29
2.3.1 Gu (2010) and C. Liu (2007) 29
2.3.2 Zhao and Li (2009) and Yang (2009) 32
2.4 Chapter Summary 37
Chapter 3 Terminology and Framework 38
3.1 Describing the Four Temporal Terms 38
3.1.1 Lexical and Syntactic Compounds 38
3.1.2 Postpositions and Conjunctions 39
3.2 Describing Temporal Location 40
3.2.1 Positional Temporal Adverbials 41
3.2.2 Speech Time, Event time, and Reference Time 42
3.2.3 Absolute vs. Relative Time Reference 44
3.2.4 Degree of Remoteness 46
3.2.5 Diagraming Situations 48
3.3 Cognitive Grammar 50
3.3.1 Specificity 50
3.3.2 Focusing: Onstage Region 51
3.3.3 Prominence: Profiling 52
3.3.4 Perspective: Mental Scanning 56
3.4 Integration 58
3.4.1 Reference Time, Reference Point, and Target 58
3.4.2 The Four Temporal Terms and the Two Time References 59
Chapter 4 Attached Form 61
4.1 Overview 61
4.2 Preceding Element: Reference Point and Others 62
4.2.1 Verbal/Clausal 63
4.2.1.1 General Description 63
4.2.1.2 Punctual-Durative Distinction 64
4.2.2 Nominal 73
4.2.2.1 General Description 73
4.2.2.2 Punctual-Durative Distinction 75
4.2.3 Set Expressions 78
4.3 Modified Material: Target 80
4.3.1 Nominal 81
4.3.2 Verbal/Clausal 83
4.3.2.1 Beyond Clausal Level 83
4.3.3 Punctual-Durative Distinction 85
4.3.3.1 Durative TGs and the Extension Sense 85
4.3.3.2 RP and TG Coincide 88
4.3.3.3 TG’s Location Uncertain 95
4.4 Putting Together 97
4.4.1 The Temporal Adverbial Expression 97
4.4.1.1 Grammatical Category 97
4.4.1.2 Syntactic Position 98
4.4.2 Relative Time Reference: With Verbal/Clausal RP 100
4.4.2.1 Simple Combination 101
4.4.2.2 Complex Combination 103
4.4.2.3 Summary 104
4.5 Temporal Distance 105
4.5.1 Sequence and Distance 105
4.5.1.1 Between Two Situations 106
4.5.1.2 Nominal Preceding Element 108
4.5.2 Temporal Proximity 110
4.6 Chapter Summary 116
Chapter 5 Bare Form 119
5.1 Before-Pair 120
5.1.1 Zhiqian 120
5.1.1.1 With an Antecedent RP 120
5.1.1.2 Without an Antecedent RP 128
5.1.2 Yiqian 134
5.1.2.1 With an Antecedent RP 135
5.1.2.2 Without an Antecedent RP 141
5.1.2.3 Implications 149
5.2 After-Pair 151
5.2.1 Zihou 152
5.2.1.1 With an Antecedent RP 152
5.2.1.2 Without an Antecedent RP 157
5.2.2 Yihou 160
5.2.2.1 With an Antecedent RP 160
5.2.2.2 Without an Antecedent RP 167
5.3 Chapter Summary 176
Chapter 6 Discussion 180
6.1 Zhiqian and Zhihou 180
6.1.1 Genitive/Possessive Marker and the Attached Form 181
6.1.2 Pronominal and the Bare Form 184
6.1.2.1 Relative Time Reference 184
6.1.2.2 Absolute Time Reference 184
6.2 Yiqian and Yihou 186
6.2.1 Extension Sense and the Attached Form 186
6.2.2 Extension Sense and the Bare Form 189
6.2.2.1 Relative Time Reference 189
6.2.2.2 Absolute Time Reference 190
6.2.3 From an Instrumental Marker to the Extension Sense 192
6.3 Chapter Summary 195
Chapter 7 Conclusion 196
7.1 Recapitulation 196
7.1.1 Short Temporal Distance in the Attached Form 196
7.1.2 Temporal Distance Distinction in the Bare Form 197
7.1.3 Conclusion 199
7.2 Suggestions for Future Studies 199
References 203


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中央研究院語言學研究所(Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica)(2005)。中文詞彙網路(Chinese WordNet)。Retrieved on January 9, 2012 from http://cwn.ling.sinica.edu.tw/
中央研究院語言學研究所(Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica)現代漢語平衡語料庫(Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Chinese)。Retrieved on January 9, 2012 from http://db1x.sinica.edu.tw/cgi-bin/kiwi/mkiwi/kiwi.sh
中國社會科學院語言研究所詞典編輯室(2005)。現代漢語辭典(Contemporary Chinese Dictionary)。北京市:商務印書館。

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