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研究生:王駿杰
研究生(外文):Chun-Chieh Wang
論文名稱:漢語「結果」的言談語用功能
論文名稱(外文):Discourse-Pragmatic Functions of Jieguo in Mandarin Chinese
指導教授:呂佳蓉呂佳蓉引用關係
口試委員:曹逢甫張妙霞
口試日期:2013-06-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:言談語用功能「結果」「反預期」標記互動功能會話結構組織功能預期故事情節結尾標誌故事情節結尾轉換會話主題動態語法
外文關鍵詞:discourse-pragmatic functionsjieguocounter-expectation markerinteractional functionsconversation-structuring functionsepisode ending anticipationepisode ending markingdiscourse topic transitionEmergent Grammar
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本研究以認知、功能及言談取向分析「結果」一詞在漢語口語的言談語用功能。「結果」在現代漢語具多義性。作為動詞,意思是「結成果實」;作為名詞,表「結局;結論」;作為連詞,主要連接兩個分句,標示之間的邏輯性關係。連詞性用法是本文關注的重點。過去少數研究連詞性「結果」的文獻其語料來源主要為書面語,或僅著重部分單一面向的功能,因此「結果」在口語言談的作用至今仍未有整合性的分析。有鑑於此,本研究試圖全面性地探究「結果」在口語互動言談中的言談語用功能。

以十小時左右的台灣漢語自然會話語料為分析基礎,本研究有兩個主要發現。首先,呼應先前的研究,本研究發現「結果」在現代漢語口語主要作為「反預期」的標記。本研究進一步發現,當此「反預期」的功能延伸至會話結構的全面層次運作時,「結果」標誌故事情節的轉折與鋪陳高潮。其次,本研究發現「結果」亦具有互動及組織會話結構的功能,呈現說故事的事件中說者和聽者的互動性。互動功能方面,「結果」主要用來標誌對故事情節的預測或期待。聽者藉由「結果」表達對於敘述中的故事之結局或高潮處有興趣或有所預測,並藉以確認自身在說故事過程中的參與者角色。會話結構方面,「結果」由說故事者用來標記長篇故事的結尾或表示會話主題的轉換。這些功能顯示說話者對於會話及故事結構在後設文本層次(metatextual)的立場,也反應說者和聽者意識到雙方皆為說故事事件中的參與者。

本研究在以下三方面有所貢獻。首先,「結果」的「反預期」功能增加我們對漢語「反預期」標記的認識。其次,本研究肯定自然互動口語語料在現代語言學研究的重要角色。藉由觀察會話語境的細微語言線索和參與者間的縝密互動,我們得以注意到並探索書面語中無法顯現的功能。最後,也是最重要的,「結果」在漢語口語的言談語用功能凸顯了語法的動態本質,即語言結構及語意是透過言談互動及聽者和說者不斷協調的過程中浮現出來的。


This study incorporates a cognitive, functional, and discourse approach to explore the discourse-pragmatic functions of jieguo in spoken Mandarin Chinese. In contemporary Mandarin Chinese, jieguo is a polysemy layering with verbal (‘to fruit’), nominal (‘conclusion; ending’), and connective uses, an indicator of the residue of grammaticalization. Of particular interest to this study is the connective jieguo, whose extended functions in spoken discourse still lack an integrated account in spite of a few research efforts that either based their analyses on written data or restricted their focus to one single dimension of functions. It is thus the aim of this study to comprehensively investigate the functioning of jieguo in talk-in-interaction.

Based on over 10 hours of naturally-occurring conversations of Mandarin Chinese spoken in Taiwan, this study yields two major findings. First, in line with previous studies, our study suggests that jieguo in contemporary Mandarin Chinese predominantly functions as a counter-expectation marker. Going one step further, it is found that when the counter-expectation function extends to operate at a more global level of conversations, it serves to mark the turning point and projects the climax of an episode. Second, in addition to the counter-expectation function, jieguo is also found to perform both interactional and conversation-structuring functions that reveal the dynamic interaction between the speaker and addressee in a story telling event. Interactionally, jieguo is used to signal the anticipation of an episode ending. The addressee uses jieguo to confirm his role as a participant in a story telling process by expressing his anticipation of the outcome or climax of the episode being narrated. Conversational structure wise, jieguo is used by a story-teller to mark the ending of an extended episode or indicate the transition of discourse topics. These functions serve to encode the speaker’s metatextual attitude on the hierarchical structuring of conversations and narratives, and reveal the speaker and addressee’s awareness of each other as a participant in a story telling event.

The findings of this study contribute to at least three aspects. First, the counter-expectation function of jieguo complements our understanding of the class of counter-expectation markers in Mandarin Chinese. Second, our analysis acknowledges the important role of spontaneous interactional linguistic data, especially conversations in contemporary linguistic study. By analyzing the sophisticated linguistic cues available in the context of conversations and the intricate interaction between interlocutors, we are able to notice and further explore functions that are hardly attested in written data. Last but most importantly, the dynamic discourse-pragmatic functions of jieguo thus lend supportive evidence to the emergent view of grammar, in which linguistic structures/meanings are seen as adaptive, ever-evolving, and constantly being negotiated in discourse practice.


Acknowledgements i
English Abstract iii
Chinese Abstract v
Table of Contents vii
Transcription Conventions ix
List of Abbreviations xi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and aims 1
1.2 Data collection 15
1.3 Method and analytical framework 16
1.4 Organization of the thesis 16

Chapter 2 Literature Review 17
2.1 Discourse markers 17
2.2.1 Features 18
2.2.2 Meanings 22
2.2.3 Subclassification 23
2.2.4 Interim summary 26
2.2 The grammaticalization of jieguo 27

Chapter 3 Discourse-Pragmatic Functions of Jieguo 34
3.1 Counter-expectation 34
3.2 Episode turning point marking and climax projection 52
3.3 Episode ending anticipation 62
3.4 Episode ending marking 69
3.5 Discourse topic transition 80
3.6 Chapter summary 90

Chapter 4 Conclusion 92
4.1 Recapitulation 92
4.2 Implications 93
4.3 Directions for future research 93

References 95


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