( 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/19 07:08
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  


研究生(外文):Chun-Chieh Wang
論文名稱(外文):Discourse-Pragmatic Functions of Jieguo in Mandarin Chinese
外文關鍵詞:discourse-pragmatic functionsjieguocounter-expectation markerinteractional functionsconversation-structuring functionsepisode ending anticipationepisode ending markingdiscourse topic transitionEmergent Grammar
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:258
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0



This study incorporates a cognitive, functional, and discourse approach to explore the discourse-pragmatic functions of jieguo in spoken Mandarin Chinese. In contemporary Mandarin Chinese, jieguo is a polysemy layering with verbal (‘to fruit’), nominal (‘conclusion; ending’), and connective uses, an indicator of the residue of grammaticalization. Of particular interest to this study is the connective jieguo, whose extended functions in spoken discourse still lack an integrated account in spite of a few research efforts that either based their analyses on written data or restricted their focus to one single dimension of functions. It is thus the aim of this study to comprehensively investigate the functioning of jieguo in talk-in-interaction.

Based on over 10 hours of naturally-occurring conversations of Mandarin Chinese spoken in Taiwan, this study yields two major findings. First, in line with previous studies, our study suggests that jieguo in contemporary Mandarin Chinese predominantly functions as a counter-expectation marker. Going one step further, it is found that when the counter-expectation function extends to operate at a more global level of conversations, it serves to mark the turning point and projects the climax of an episode. Second, in addition to the counter-expectation function, jieguo is also found to perform both interactional and conversation-structuring functions that reveal the dynamic interaction between the speaker and addressee in a story telling event. Interactionally, jieguo is used to signal the anticipation of an episode ending. The addressee uses jieguo to confirm his role as a participant in a story telling process by expressing his anticipation of the outcome or climax of the episode being narrated. Conversational structure wise, jieguo is used by a story-teller to mark the ending of an extended episode or indicate the transition of discourse topics. These functions serve to encode the speaker’s metatextual attitude on the hierarchical structuring of conversations and narratives, and reveal the speaker and addressee’s awareness of each other as a participant in a story telling event.

The findings of this study contribute to at least three aspects. First, the counter-expectation function of jieguo complements our understanding of the class of counter-expectation markers in Mandarin Chinese. Second, our analysis acknowledges the important role of spontaneous interactional linguistic data, especially conversations in contemporary linguistic study. By analyzing the sophisticated linguistic cues available in the context of conversations and the intricate interaction between interlocutors, we are able to notice and further explore functions that are hardly attested in written data. Last but most importantly, the dynamic discourse-pragmatic functions of jieguo thus lend supportive evidence to the emergent view of grammar, in which linguistic structures/meanings are seen as adaptive, ever-evolving, and constantly being negotiated in discourse practice.

Acknowledgements i
English Abstract iii
Chinese Abstract v
Table of Contents vii
Transcription Conventions ix
List of Abbreviations xi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and aims 1
1.2 Data collection 15
1.3 Method and analytical framework 16
1.4 Organization of the thesis 16

Chapter 2 Literature Review 17
2.1 Discourse markers 17
2.2.1 Features 18
2.2.2 Meanings 22
2.2.3 Subclassification 23
2.2.4 Interim summary 26
2.2 The grammaticalization of jieguo 27

Chapter 3 Discourse-Pragmatic Functions of Jieguo 34
3.1 Counter-expectation 34
3.2 Episode turning point marking and climax projection 52
3.3 Episode ending anticipation 62
3.4 Episode ending marking 69
3.5 Discourse topic transition 80
3.6 Chapter summary 90

Chapter 4 Conclusion 92
4.1 Recapitulation 92
4.2 Implications 93
4.3 Directions for future research 93

References 95

Austin, John L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad, & Edward Finegan. 1999. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman.
Brinton, Laurel J. 1996. Pragmatic Markers in English: Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Blakemore, Diane. 1992. Understanding Utterances. Oxford: Blackwell.
Chang, Miao-Hsia & Shin-yi Lin. 2009. Response tokens in MSN conversations. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics, 35(1), 111-139.
Chang, Miao-Hsia. To appear. Two counter-expectation markers in Chinese. In Javier E. Díaz Vera (Ed.), Metaphor and Metonymy through Time and Cultures. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Chui, Kawai. 2002a. Ritualization in evolving pragmatic functions: A case study of DUI. Language and Linguisitcs, 3(4), 644-663.
Chui, Kawai. 2002b. Discontinuity of conversational topics.Concentric: Studies in English Literature and Linguisitcs, 28(2), 149-174.
Du Bois, John W., Stephan Schuetze-Coburn, Danae Paolino, & Susanna Cumming. 1993. Outline of discourse transcription. In Jane A. Edwards & Martin D. Lampert (Eds.), Talking Data: Transcription and Coding Methods for Language Research (pp.45-89). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Fraser, Bruce. 1990. An approach to discourse markers. Journal of Pragmatics 14: 383-395.
Fraser, Bruce. 1996. Pragmatic markers. Pragmatics, 6(2), 167-190.
Fraser, Bruce. 1999. What are discourse markers? Journal of Pragmatics, 31, 931-952.
Grice, Paul. 1975. Logic and conversation. In Peter Cole & Jerry L. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and Semantics, Volume 3: Speech Acts (pp.41-58). New York: Academic Press.
Halliday, M.A.K., & Ruqaiya Hasan. 1976. Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
Hopper, Paul J. 1991. On some principles of grammaticalization. In Elizabeth Closs Traugott and Bernd Heine (Eds.), Approaches to Grammaticalization (pp. 17-35). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hopper, Paul J. 1998. Emergent Grammar. In Michael Tomasello (Ed.), The New Psychology of Language: Cognitive and Functional Approaches to Language Structure (pp.155-175). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Huang, Shuanfan. 1998. Emergent lexical semantics. In Shuanfan Huang (Ed.), Selected Papers from the SecondInternational Symposium on Languages in Taiwan (pp.129-150).
Jiang, Lansheng [江藍生], & Cao Guangshun [曹廣順]. 1997. A dictionary of words and expressions of the Tang dynasty and Five Dynasties period [唐五代語言詞典]. Shanghai: Shanghai Education Press [上海:上海教育出版社].
Levinson, Stephen C. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press.
Levinson, Stephen C. 1995. Three levels of meanings. In Frank Robert Palmer (Ed.), Grammar and Meaning: Essays in honor of Sir John Lyons (pp. 90-115). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Li, Charles N. & Sandra A. Thompson. 1981. Mandarin Chinese: A Reference Grammar. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Liu, Yue-hua et al. [劉月華(等)]. 2001. A Practical Modern Mandarin Grammar[實用現代漢語語法]. Beijing: Shangwu [北京:商務].
Lu, Shu-Xiang [呂淑湘]. 1982. On “Jieguo” [釋“結果”]. Zhongguo Yuwen [中國語文] 1982.6.
Ono, Tsuyoshi & Sandra A. Thompson. 1995. What can conversation tell us about syntax? In Philip W. Davis (Ed.), Descriptive and Theoretical Modes in the Alternative Linguistics (pp. 213-271). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, & Jan Svartvik. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
Sacks, Harvey, Emanuel A.Schegloff, & Gail Jefferson. 1974. A simplest systematics for the organization of turn taking for conversation. Language, 50(4), 696-735.
Schegloff, Emanuel A. 2007. Sequence Organization in Interaction: A Primer in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schiffrin, Deborah. 1987. Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schourup, Lawrence. 1999. Discourse markers. Lingua, 107, 227-265.
Searle, John R. 1969. Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Selting, Margret, & Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen (Eds.). 2001. Studies in Interactional Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Su, L. I-wen. 2002. A cognitive exploration of Chinese connectives. In Lily I-wen Su, Chinfa Lien and Kawai Chui (Eds.), Form and Function: Linguistic Studies in Honor of Shuanfan Huang. Taipei: Crane Publishing.
Sun, You-xia [孫悠夏]. 2012. A synchronic approach to the function and grammaticalization of “Jieguo” [“結果”的功能及其語法化的共時探討]. Journal of Changchun University [長春大學學報] 22.5: 564-566。
Tao, Hongyin. 2003. Toward an emergent view of lexical semantics. Language and Linguistics, 4(4), 837-856.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Richard B. Dasher. 2002. Regularity in Semantic Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Wang, Chueh-chen & Lillian M. Huang. 2006. Grammaticalization of connectives in Mandarin Chinese: A corpus-based study. Language and Linguistics, 7(4), 991-1016.
Wang, Jia-yi [王佳毅]. 2005. The Study of Complex Sentences Connected by “jieguo”[由“結果”連接的復句研究]. Master Thesis: Hunan Normal University [湖南師範大學碩士學位論文].
Yao, Shuang-yun [姚雙云]. 2008. Fuju Guanxi Biaoji de Dapei Yanjiu [複句關係標記的搭配研究]. Wuhan: Huazhong University Press [武漢:華中師範大學出版社].
Yao, Shuang-yun [姚雙云]. 2010. On the grammaticalization and syntactic types of the conjunction Jieguo [連詞“結果”的語法化及其語義類型]. Research in Ancient Chinese Language [古漢語研究] 2010.2: 61-66.
Zhou, Bi-ji [周畢吉]. 2008. On the grammaticalization of “Jieguo” and its pragmatic characteristics [“結果”的語法化歷程及語用特點]. Chinese Language Learning [漢語學習] 2008.6: 64-72.

第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top