(44.192.66.171) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/18 00:28
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:羅皓瑜
研究生(外文):Hao-Yu Lo
論文名稱:管制藥品對河川底泥微生物功能性基因表現之影響
論文名稱(外文):Disturbance of Microbial Functional Gene Expression by Controlled Substances in River Sediment
指導教授:童心欣
口試委員:陳俊堯廖秀娟
口試日期:2013-06-14
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:環境工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:管制藥品底泥定量反轉錄聚合酶鏈鎖反應生物地質化學循環功能性基因
外文關鍵詞:Controlled substanceSedimentReal-time PCRBiogeochemical cyclesFunctional gene
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:370
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
近年來,人類污染物排放至河川水體而導致對生態環境的影響已經越來越受 到矚目。目前一般的污水處理程序對這些污染物質的移除能力有限, 已有研究 證實,處理過後的放流水以及放流水所流經的河川水體中可以偵測到一些管制藥 品的存在。近年來已有不少研究分別探討各種新興污染物對於土壤及底泥中的微 生物族群所造成的影響,然而這些研究大多偏重於對整體環境微生物群集多樣性 或單一微生物族群的變化,較少研究探討污染物對這些微生物所造成的代謝功能 之影響。因此本篇實驗目地為藉由生態模擬培養槽實驗來探討所選定的四種管制 藥品是否會改變微生物本身的生理反應變化,尤其針對與元素循環相關的代謝基 因為觀察目標。本篇研究中所選用的代謝基因為微生物體中參與氮循環之固氮作 用及脫硝作用、硫循環之硫酸鹽還原作用、磷酸根傳輸作用、甲烷循環之生成及 氧化作用的功能性基因。實驗中架設六組生態模擬培養槽實驗進行六個月的連續 流實驗,包含一組控制組及五組加入不同管制藥品的實驗組。本實驗選擇可用來 代表即時性表現的 mRNA 當作觀察對象,進行定量反轉錄聚合酶鏈鎖反應 (qRT-PCR),觀察所選定之特定功能性基因在實驗組與控制組實驗之間的差異。 根據實驗組培養槽的結果顯示,藉由 16S rRNA 表現量增加表示微生物族群受到 藥物影響下有增長的趨勢,管制藥物可增加微生物對硫酸鹽的還原反應、對於氮 循環之固氮作用及脫硝作用皆有先刺激而後抑制的現象發生,此外,可待因及愷 它命兩種藥物皆有促進底泥微生物進行甲烷氧化及降低甲烷合成的表現。綜合本 實驗結果,底泥微生物族群參與所選定之特定功能性基因的表現會受到管制藥品 的影響,且對於各種不同功能性基因的影響程度會因為四種不同管制藥品而有所 差異。因此,排放至河川水體中的管制藥品可能會對河川底泥中微生物的代謝基 因造成影響。

In recent years, discharge of anthropogenic substances into waters has been drawing a lot of attention from the general public. Since conventional wastewater treatment processes could only remove these pollutants partially, many studies reported detection of several controlled substances in wastewater effluent and nearby water bodies. There are many studies exploring the impacts of emerging contaminants to soil and sediment microorganisms. However, these studies mostly emphasize on individual species or on phylogenetic diversity of the total bacteria community, whereas the changes in microbial metabolic activities are rarely mentioned. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the physical response of microorganism in river sediments from four different controlled substances, with special focus on changes of specific functional gene related to biogeochemical cycles. Representative biogeochemical functional genes (sulfate reduction, ammonia oxidation, nitrogen fixation, denitrification, phosphate uptake regulator, methanogenesis and methanotrophy) were selected for quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) tests to monitor the changes in the experimental microcosms. Six different microcosms with different controlled substance spiked in the influent were prepared to observe the biogeochemical gene expression changes over a six-month period. The results showed that by comparing the control and target microcosms, the increase in 16S rRNA indicates microbial groups that are responsive to controlled substances incubation. For instance, functional genes responsible for sulfate reduction was amplified under the influence of controlled substances, nitrogen fixation and denitrification gene expressions were first stimulated but slowed down after the initial acceleration. In addition, codeine and ketamine were observed to stimulate methane oxidation and reduce methane generation in the sediment microorganism. In conclusion, specific microbial functional groups in the sediment are susceptible to the presence of controlled substances, and the level of impact for each functional gene expression also varied from different controlled substances.

致謝 i
ABSTRACT ii
摘要 iv
TABLE OF FIGUTABLE vii
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Aims of the study 3
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1 Occurrence of PPCPs in environment 4
2.1.1 Occurrence of PPCPs in aquatic environment 4
2.1.2 Potential effects to aquatic ecosystem 5
2.1.3 Illicit drugs as emerging contaminants 7
2.1.4 Target compounds 10
2.2 Biogeochemical cycle 13
2.3 Applications of molecular biology technique in the environment: 14
2.3.1 RNA as the target molecule 15
2.3.2 Quantifying gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR 16
Chapter 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 18
3.1 Research framework 18
3.2 Sampling and experimental apparatuses setup 20
3.2.1 Sampling 20
3.2.2 Sediment microcosm setup 20
3.3 RNA sample 21
3.3.1 RNA extraction 21
3.3.2 DNase treatment 23
3.3.3 cDNA synthesis 24
3.4 Q-PCR 25
3.4.1 Standard curves for cDNA quantitation 25
3.4.2 SYBR Green quantitative assay 26
3.4.3 Quantification of target genes 27
3.5 Water sample analysis 29
3.5.1 TOC analysis 29
3.5.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass 29
3.6 Data analysis 30
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 32
4.1 Control experiments for substrate concentration 32
4.1.1 Total organic carbon (TOC) 32
4.1.2 Target compounds (COD, MOR, KET and METH) 33
4.2 Microcosms sediment RNA extraction 35
4.3 Standard curve and detection limit for real time PCR 35
4.4 Significance of controlled substances to microbial functional group structure 40
4.4.1 Statistical analysis results 40
4.4.2 Sediment 16S rRNA gene expression 45
4.4.3 Sediment biogeochemical functional gene expression 49
4.5 Significance of controlled substances to microbial biogeochemical functional genes performance 58
4.5.1 Statistical analysis results 58
4.5.2 Response of sulfur-cycle functional gene to controlled substances 64
4.5.3 Response of nitrogen-cycle functional genes to controlled substances 67
4.5.4 Response of methane-cycle functional genes to controlled substances 75
4.5.5 Response of phosphate transporter gene to controlled substances 85
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 88
REFERENCE 90
APPENDIX 98


Baek JH, Kang YJ & Lee SY (2007) Transcript and protein level analyses of the interactions among PhoB, PhoR, PhoU and CreC in response to phosphate starvation in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiology Letters 277: 254-259.
Bannert A, Kleineidam K, Wissing L, et al. (2011) Changes in diversity and functional gene abundances of microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification in a tidal wetland versus paddy soils cultivated for different time periods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 6109-6116.
Barnes RSK & Mann KH (1991) Fundamentals of aquatic ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Boston.
Bartelt-Hunt SL, Snow DD, Damon T, Shockley J & Hoagland K (2010) The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska. Environmental Pollution 158: 2790-2791.
Bata I, Kerenyl M & Falvi J (2001) Bacterial growth in ketamine. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 18: 100.
Becker S, Boger P, Oehlmann R & Ernst A (2000) PCR bias in ecological analysis: A case study for quantitative Taq nuclease assays in analyses of microbial communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 4945-4953.
Biderre-Petit C, Jezequel D, Dugat-Bony E, et al. (2011) Identification of microbial communities involved in the methane cycle of a freshwater meromictic lake. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 77: 533-545.
Bodelier PLE & Laanbroek HJ (2004) Nitrogen as a regulatory factor of methane oxidation in soils and sediments. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 47: 265-277.
Bodelier PLE, Roslev P, Henckel T & Frenzel P (2000) Stimulation by ammonium-based fertilizers of methane oxidation in soil around rice roots. Nature 403: 421-424.
Boonstra B, Rathbone DA & Bruce NC (2001) Engineering novel biocatalytic routes for production of semisynthetic opiate drugs. Biomolecular Engineering 18: 41-47.
Bradley PM, Barber LB, Kolpin DW, McMahon PB & Chapelle FH (2007) Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26: 1116-1121.
Bressan M, Mougel C, Dequiedt S, Maron PA, Lemanceau P & Ranjard L (2008) Response of soil bacterial community structure to successive perturbations of different types and intensities. Environmental Microbiology 10: 2184-2187.
Bruce NC, Wilmot CJ, Jordan KN, Trebilcock AE, Stephens LDG & Lowe CR (1990) Microbial degradation of the morphine alkaloids: identification of morphine as an intermediate in the metabolism of morphine by Pseudomonas putida M10. Archives of Microbiology 154: 465-470.
Bunch AR & Bernot MJ (2011) Distribution of nonprescription pharmaceuticals in central Indiana streams and effects on sediment microbial activity. Ecotoxicology 20: 97-109.
Castiglioni S & Zuccato E (2010) Illicit drugs as emerging contaminants. Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Environment: Ecological and Human Health Considerations, Vol. 1048 (Halden RU), p.119-136.
Cecinato A, Balducci C & Nervegna G (2009) Occurrence of cocaine in the air of the World''s cities An emerging problem? A new tool to investigate the social incidence of drugs? Science of the Total Environment 407: 1683-1690.
Chemistry RSo (2013) Royal Society of Chemistry database http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/CurrentAwareness/.
Chin KJ & Conrad R (1995) Intermediary Metabolism in methanogenic paddy soil and the influence of temperature. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 18: 85-102.
Chistoserdova L, Vorholt JA & Lidstrom ME (2005) A genomic view of methane oxidation by aerobic bacteria and anaerobic archaea. Genome Biology 6.
Cordova-Kreylos AL & Scow KM (2007) Effects of ciprofloxacin on salt marsh sediment microbial communities. ISME Journal 1: 585-595.
Costanzo SD, Murby J & Bates J (2005) Ecosystem response to antibiotics entering the aquatic environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51: 218-223.
Daughton CG (2011) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: scientific and regulatory issues. http://www.epa.gov/esd/bios/daughton/book-summary.htm.
DeBruyn JM, Chewning CS & Sayler GS (2007) Comparative quantitative prevalence of Mycobacteria and functionally abundant nidA, nahAc, and nagAc dioxygenase genes in coal tar contaminated sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 41: 5426-5432.
Dedysh SN, Khmelenina VN, Suzina NE, Trotsenko YA, Semrau JD, Liesack W & Tiedje JM (2002) Methylocapsa acidiphila gen. nov., sp nov., a novel methane-oxidizing and dinitrogen-fixing acidophilic bacterium from Sphagnum bog. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 251-261.
Deng HA, Guo GX & Zhu YG (2011) Pyrene effects on methanotroph community and methane oxidation rate, tested by dose-response experiment and resistance and resilience experiment. Journal of Soils and Sediments 11: 312-321.
Drewes JE, Heberer T & Reddersen K (2002) Fate of pharmaceuticals during indirect potable reuse. Water Science and Technology 46: 73-80.
Drillia P, Stamatelatou K & Lyberatos G (2005) Fate and mobility of pharmaceuticals in solid matrices. Chemosphere 60: 1034-1044.
Gejlsbierg B, Klinge C, Samsoe-Petersen L & Madsen T (2001) Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and nonylphenol in sludge-amended soil. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 2709-2716.
Gomes RL, Deacon HE, Lai KM, Birkett JW, Scrimshaw MD & Lester JN (2004) An assessment of the bioaccumulation of estrone in Daphnia magna. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23: 105-108.
Grunberg-Manago M (1999) Messenger RNA stability and its role in control of gene expression in bacteria and phages. Annual Review of Genetics 33: 193-227.
Hedgespeth ML, Sapozhnikova Y, Pennington P, Clum A, Fairey A & Wirth E (2012) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in treated wastewater discharges into Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. Science of the Total Environment 437: 1-9.
Heitkamp MA & Cerniglia CE (1988) Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons by a bacterium isolated from sediment below an oil-field. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 54: 1612-1614.
Heitkamp MA, Freeman JP, Miller DW & Cerniglia CE (1988) Pyrene degradation by a mycobacterium sp.: identification of ring oxidation and ring fission-products. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 54: 2556-2565.
Henry S, Bru D, Stres B, Hallet S & Philippot L (2006) Quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, and comparison of the abundances of 16S rRNA, narG, nirK, and nosZ genes in soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 5181-5189.
Hilpert R, Winter J, Hammes W & Kandler O (1981) The sensitivity of archaebacteria to antibiotics. Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie Und Hygiene I Abteilung Originale C-Allgemeine Angewandte Und Okologische Mikrobiologie 2: 11-20.
Holt LM, Laursen AE, McCarthy LH, Bostan IV & Spongberg AL (2010) Effects of land application of municipal biosolids on nitrogen-fixing bacteria in agricultural soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 46: 407-413.
Huerta-Fontela M, Galceran MT & Ventura F (2010) Illicit drugs in the urban water cycle.
Hummel D, Loeffler D, Fink G & Ternes TA (2006) Simultaneous determination of psychoactive drugs and their metabolites in aqueous matrices by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Environmental Science & Technology 40: 7321-7328.
Hutsch BW (1998) Methane oxidation in arable soil as inhibited by ammonium, nitrite, and organic manure with respect to soil pH. Biology and Fertility of Soils 28: 27-35.
Inagaki F, Tsunogai U, Suzuki M, et al. (2004) Characterization of C-1-metabolizing prokaryotic communities in methane seep habitats at the Kuroshima Knoll, southern Ryukyu arc, by analyzing pmoA, mmoX, mxaF, mcrA, and 16S rRNA genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 7445-7455.
Jjemba PK (2008) Pharma-ecology : the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment. Wiley, Hoboken, N.J.
Joss A, Zabczynski S, Gobel A, et al. (2006) Biological degradation of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater treatment: Proposing a classification scheme. Water Research 40: 1686-1696.
Kenneth L. Denman GB, Amnat Chidthaisong, Philippe Ciais, Peter M. Cox, Robert E. Dickinson, Didier Hauglustaine, Christoph Heinze (2007) Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry. Cambridge University Press.
Kiene RP (1991) Production and consumption of methane in aquatic systems.
Kim BH & Gadd GM (2008) Bacterial physiology and metabolism. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Kolb S, Knief C, Stubner S & Conrad R (2003) Quantitative detection of methanotrophs in soil by novel pmoA-targeted real-time PCR assays. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 2423-2429.
Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB & Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in US streams, 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance. Environmental Science & Technology 36: 1202-1211.
Kondo R, Shigematsu K & Butani J (2008) Rapid enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria from aquatic environments using real-time PCR. Plankton & Benthos Research 3: 180-183.
Laanbroek HJ (2010) Methane emission from natural wetlands: interplay between emergent macrophytes and soil microbial processes. A mini-review. Annals of Botany 105: 141-153.
Lawrence JR, Swerhone GDW, Wassenaar LI & Neu TR (2005) Effects of selected pharmaceuticals on riverine biofilm communities. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 51: 655-669.
Lee MHP, Caffrey SM, Voordouw JK & Voordouw G (2010) Effects of biocides on gene expression in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 87: 1109-1118.
Lin AYC, Wang XH & Lin CF (2010) Impact of wastewaters and hospital effluents on the occurrence of controlled substances in surface waters. Chemosphere 81: 562-570.
Liras P, Kasparian SS & Umbreit WW (1975) Enzymatic transformation of morphine by hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas testosteroni. Applied Microbiology 30: 650-656.
Liu DY, Ding WX, Jia ZJ & Cai ZC (2011) Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China. Biogeosciences 8: 329-338.
Loftin KA, Henny C, Adams CD, Surampali R & Mormile MR (2005) Inhibition of microbial metabolism in anaerobic lagoons by selected sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycin, and tylosin tartrate. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24: 782-788.
Luesken FA, Zhu BL, van Alen TA, et al. (2011) pmoA Primers for Detection of Anaerobic Methanotrophs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 3877-3880.
Luton PE, Wayne JM, Sharp RJ & Riley PW (2002) The mcrA gene as an alternative to 16S rRNA in the phylogenetic analysis of methanogen populations in landfill. Microbiology-Sgm 148: 3521-3530.
Ma W, Farrell R & Siciliano S (2011) Nitrous oxide emissions from ephemeral wetland soils are correlated with microbial community composition. Frontiers in Microbiology 2.
Neilan BA, Jacobs D, DelDot T, Blackall LL, Hawkins PR, Cox PT & Goodman AE (1997) rRNA sequences and evolutionary relationships among toxic and nontoxic cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 47: 693-697.
Okeniyi SGaSO (2012) Antimicrobial activities of total alkaloids extracted from some Nigerian medicinal plants. Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials 4: 60-63.
Rabus R, Hansen TA & Widdel F (2006) Dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Ramamoorthy S, Piotrowski JS, Langner HW, Holben WE, Morra MJ & Rosenzweig RF (2009) Ecology of sulfate-reducing bacteria in an iron-dominated, mining-impacted freshwater sediment. Journal of Environmental Quality 38: 675-684.
Reddy KR & DeLaune RD (2008) Biogeochemistry of wetlands : science and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Roesch C, Mergel A & Bothe H (2002) Biodiversity of denitrifying and dinitrogen-fixing bacteria in an acid forest soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68: 3818-3829.
Rotthauwe JH, Witzel KP & Liesack W (1997) The ammonia monooxygenase structural gene amoA as a functional marker: Molecular fine-scale analysis of natural ammonia-oxidizing populations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 4704-4712.
Schmidtova J & Baldwin SA (2011) Correlation of bacterial communities supported by different organic materials with sulfate reduction in metal-rich landfill leachate. Water Research 45: 1115-1128.
Seghers D, Siciliano SD, Top EM & Verstraete W (2005) Combined effect of fertilizer and herbicide applications on the abundance, community structure and performance of the soil methanotrophic community. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37: 187-193.
Seghers D, Verthe K, Reheul D, Bulcke R, Siciliano SD, Verstraete W & Top EM (2003) Effect of long-term herbicide applications on the bacterial community structure and function in an agricultural soil. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 46: 139-146.
Sen K & Ashbolt NJ (2011) Environmental microbiology : current technology and water applications. Caister Academic, Wymondham.
Sigee DC (2005) Freshwater microbiology : biodiversity and dynamic interactions of microorganisms in the aquatic environment. J. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Smith CJ & Osborn AM (2009) Advantages and limitations of quantitative PCR (Q-PCR)-based approaches in microbial ecology. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 67: 6-20.
Smith VH (2003) Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems - A global problem. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 10: 126-139.
Steinberg LM & Regan JM (2008) Phylogenetic comparison of the methanogenic communities from an acidic, oligotrophic fen and an anaerobic digester treating municipal wastewater sludge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74: 6663-6671.
Suzuki MT, Taylor LT & DeLong EF (2000) Quantitative analysis of small-subunit rRNA genes in mixed microbial populations via 5 ''-nuclease assays. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 4605-4614.
Takai K & Horikoshi K (2000) Rapid detection and quantification of members of the archaeal community by quantitative PCR using fluorogenic probes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 5066-+.
Thauer RK & Shima S (2006) Biogeochemistry - methane and microbes. Nature 440: 878-879.
Thompson JE & Davidow LW (2004) A practical guide to contemporary pharmacy practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
U.S.EPA (2010) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). http://www.epa.gov/ppcp/.
US.EPA (2012) Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI)™ for MicrosoftR Windows, v 4.11. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.
Van der Zaan B, Smidt H, de Vos WM, Rijnaarts H & Gerritse J (2010) Stability of the total and functional microbial communities in river sediment mesocosms exposed to anthropogenic disturbances. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 74: 72-82.
Villanueva L, Haveman SA, Summers ZM & Lovley DR (2008) Quantification of Desulfovibrio vulgaris dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene expression during electron donor- and electron acceptor-limited growth. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74: 5850-5853.
Wakelin SA, Colloff MJ, Harvey PR, Marschner P, Gregg AL & Rogers SL (2007) The effects of stubble retention and nitrogen application on soil microbial community structure and functional gene abundance under irrigated maize. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 59: 661-670.
Wang C, Zhu G, Wang Y, Wang S & Yin C (2013) Nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ) and N2O reduction along the littoral gradient of a eutrophic freshwater lake. Journal of Environmental Sciences-China 25: 44-52.
Wang SY, Phillippy AM, Deng KP, Rui XQ, Li ZX, Tortorello ML & Zhang W (2010) Transcriptomic responses of salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis and typhimurium to chlorine-based oxidative stress. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 5013-5024.
White D (2007) The physiology and biochemistry of prokaryotes. Oxford University Press, New York.
Williams M, Ong PL, Williams DB & Kookana RS (2009) Estimating the sorption of pharmaceuticals based on their pharmacological distribution. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28: 2572-2579.
Wittebolle L, Marzorati M, Clement L, et al. (2009) Initial community evenness favours functionality under selective stress. Nature 458: 623-626.
Yalkowsky SHaD, R.M. (1992) AQUASOL Database of aqueous solubility, 5th ed. University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy, Tucson, AZ.
Yergeau E, Lawrence JR, Waiser MJ, Korber DR & Greer CW (2010) Metatranscriptomic Analysis of the Response of River Biofilms to Pharmaceutical Products, Using Anonymous DNA Microarrays. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 5432-5439.
Zehr JP, Jenkins BD, Short SM & Steward GF (2003) Nitrogenase gene diversity and microbial community structure: a cross-system comparison. Environmental Microbiology 5: 539-554.
Zuccato E & Castiglioni S (2009) Illicit drugs in the environment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society a-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 367: 3965-3978.
Zuccato E, Castiglioni S, Bagnati R, Chiabrando C, Grassi P & Fanelli R (2008) Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants. Water Research 42: 961-968.


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top