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研究生:吳柔安
研究生(外文):Rou-An Wu
論文名稱:冷凍食品購買行為及使用態度之研究-以南台科技大學國際學生及本國學生為例
論文名稱(外文):An Investigation on the Usage Attitudes and Behaviour of Ready Meals-A case Study in Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology
指導教授:梁文科梁文科引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Ke, Liang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:國際企業系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:161
中文關鍵詞:即食食品微波食品
外文關鍵詞:Ready MealsEBM modelsCustomer decision mapA-C-V theoryMeans-End Chain
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在現今忙碌的生活步調上,冷凍食品之使用需求不斷的在成長當中。本研專注於研究國際學生及本國台灣學生對於冷凍食品的使用行為,其中包含了探索學生族群對冷凍食品之使用動機、涉入程度、態度,需求程度。此外,本研究亦調查學生對於冷凍食品所具備的知識,及該知識如何影響其對冷凍食品之購買行為。本研究採取質性研究方法,並面談了20名南台科技大學的本地學生及22名在南台科技大學就讀之國際學生。
本研究整理出42名受訪者對於冷凍食品之產品知識,其中包含了:冷凍食品之價格、促銷、購買地點、品牌、購物環境、微波爐使用情形、使用時間、容量、味覺、廣告。這10類產品知識將被分成三大類:(1)價格知識、(2) 購買知識、(3)使用知識。根據以上所述之知識,本研究發現,南台科技大學之國際學生及本地學生對於使用冷凍食品有負面之態度。然而在學生之生活型態未有重大改變下,其在未來對微波食品之消費行為則不會改變。
本研究察覺學生在自行烹煮食物上有相當的困難度,如:時間、設備不足之等等因素。然而便利商店所提供微波爐之服務,則可滿足學生們對於食物即時性之需求。以上兩大因素為南台科技大學國際學生及本國學生之使用冷凍食品最主要之兩大動機。同時本研究發現其購物環境及食物本身之特殊調味亦可增加學生們對於冷凍食品之使用動機。本研究亦發現相較於產品涉入程度及自我涉入程度,國際學生及本國學生對於廣告涉入程度相對較低。此外學生對冷凍食品的涉入程度會隨著其本身從同儕、家人之間所提供之資訊而提高其涉入程度。
Around the world, the ready meal market is growing. This research focuses on the buying behaviour of both international students and local Taiwanese students as regards ready meals. It investigates the usage pattern of ready meals; how product knowledge affects consumers' buying decisions, and the motivation, involvement, attitude and level of need of using the ready meals. This research adopted a qualitative approach, interviewing 22 international students and 20 Taiwanese students at the Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology.
This research discovered that all of the students questioned prefer to use the ready meals as a snack or for breakfast. It was further found that chilled ready meals are adopted more than other types of ready meals, and that 80% of students use ready meals at least once a week. Furthermore, international students were found to have higher usage than Taiwanese students.
This research analyzed the product's knowledge of the respondents, as revealed from the 42 interviews. This knowledge was analyzed in terms of 11 attributes, including price, promotions, location, brand, atmosphere of the store where the meal was purchased, whether or not the product was microwavable, how long the meal could be preserved, quantity, taste and advertisement. These attributes were then divided into three categories as follows: (1) Price Knowledge (2) Purchase Knowledge (3) Usage Knowledge. In terms of knowledge of using the ready meals, this research discovered that students tend to have a negative attitude towards ready meals. However, they are still willing to use them in the future, assuming they do not undergo a change in lifestyle.
The most common motivations for using the ready meals are student’s limited food preparation time and the fact that convenience stores provide usage of microwaves. Besides these two factors, weather conditions, the atmosphere within the stores and the taste of the food also increase student's motivation to use the ready meals.
A common factor between both international and Taiwanese students is their low advertisement involvement. However, their message involvement does increase when they receive information about ready meals from their peers. Many students are concerned about health issues and view themselves as health eaters. Therefore, using the ready meals would decrease their ego involvement.
Contents
Abstract i
Acknowledgement ii
Contents iii
Figure of Contents viii
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1. General Background Information 1
1.2. Research Motivations 3
1.3. Objectives and Scope 4
1.4. Research Overview 5
2.0. Literature Review 7
2.1. Definition of the Ready Meals 7
2.2. The Ready Meal Trend 11
2.3. Usage Pattern of the Ready Meals 13
2.4. Target Audiences 14
2.4.1. Age 15
2.4.2. Gender 15
2.4.3. Income 15
2.5. Target Audience of the Ready Meals in Taiwan 16
2.6. Influential Factors of Buying Behaviour 16
2.7. EBM Model 17
2.7.1. Culture 20
2.7.2 Social Class 20
2.7.3. Personal Influence 21
2.7.4. Family 21
2.7.5. Situation 22
2.7.6. Consumer Resources 24
2.7.7. Knowledge 24
2.7.7.1. Product Knowledge 25
2.7.8. Motivation 26
2.7.8.1. Motivation Segments 27
2.7.8.2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need. 28
2.7.8.3. Self-concept 30
2.7.9. Involvement 31
2.7.9.1. Type of Involvement 31
2.7.9.2. Influential Factors of Involvement 32
2.7.10. Attitude 34
2.7.10.1. Three Components of Attitude 34
2.7.10.2. Functions of Attitude 35
2.7.11. Personality, Values and Lifestyle 36
Chapter 3 Methodology 38
3.1. Research Design 39
Figure 3.1: Research Process 39
Source: Analysis conducted in the course of this research. 39
3.2. Objectives 40
3.3. Qualitative Research 41
3.4. Type of Interview 42
3.5. The Justification Approach Semi-Structure Interview 44
3.6. Characteristics of Respondents 45
3.7. Non-probability Sampling 46
3.7.1. Snowball Sampling and Convenience Sampling 47
3.8. Approach to Respondents 48
3.9. The Process of Designing the Questionnaire 49
3.9.1. First Draft of the Questionnaire 49
3.9.2. The Structure of the Formal Questionnaire 50
3.10. Attributes-Consequence-Value Laddering, Means and End Chains and Customer Decision Map 53
3.10.1. Means-End Chain 54
3.11. Validity and Reliability 58
3.11.1. Validity 58
3.11.2. Reliability 59
3.11.3. Triangulation 61
Chapter 4 Question Design and Data Analysis 63
4.1. Interview Approach 64
4.2. Descriptive Statistics Analysis of the Sampling 64
4.2.1. Respondents' Information Analysis 65
4.2.2.2. Frequency of Using the Ready Meals 69
4.2.2.3. The Occasion of Using Ready Meals 71
4.2.2.4. Eating Patterns 72
4.2.2.5. The Preference of the Food 74
4.3. How Product Knowledge Affects Buying Behaviour of the Ready Meals 75
4.3.1. The Features of the Ready Meals 76
4.3.2. Price Knowledge 76
4.3.2.1. How Price Knowledge Affects the Consumption of Ready Meals 79
4.3.3. Purchase Knowledge 80
4.3.3.1. Place 80
4.3.3.3. Brand Knowledge 84
4.3.3.4. Source of Knowledge 85
4.3.4. Usage Knowledge 93
4.3.4.1. Using the Ready Meals' Knowledge 93
4.3.4.2. Quality of Ready Meals 95
4.3.4.3. Quantity of Ready Meals 96
4.3.4.4. Freshness and Flavour of Ready Meals 97
4.3.4.5. Health Issues of Ready Meals 98
4.3.5. Bad Experiences of Using the Ready Meals 99
4.3.5.1. Benefits of Using the Ready Meals 100
4.3.5.2. Risks of Using Ready Meals 101
4.3.5.3. Attitude toward Using Ready Meals 102
4.3.5.4. Expectations of Ready Meals 103
4.4. Motivation, Level of need and Involvement of Buying Ready Meals 104
4.4.1. Motivation to Use Ready Meals 105
4.4.1.1. Positive Motivation to Use Ready Meals 105
4.4.2. Level of Need of Ready Meals 110
4.4.2.1. Physiological Needs 110
4.4.2.2. Safety Needs 111
4.4.2.3. Social Need 112
4.5. Involvement 113
4.5.1. Product Involvement 114
4.5.2. Message Involvement 115
4.5.3. Ego Involvement 116
Chapter 5 Conclusion 124
5.1. The Usage of Ready Meals 124
5.2. Knowledge of the Ready Meals 125
5.2.1. Price Knowledge of Ready Meals 126
5.2.2. Purchase Knowledge 127
5.2.3. Usage Knowledge 129
5.2.4. Benefits, Risks, Attitude, Expectation and Future Buying Behaviour of the Ready Meals 130
5.3. Motivations for Using Ready Meals 131
5.3.1. Level of Need of Ready Meals 132
5.3.2. Involvement of Ready Meals 133
5.4. Implication of the Findings 134
5.4.1. Quantity and Quality of the Ready Meals 134
5.4.2. Gain Attention from Consumers 134
5.4.3. Provoking the Consumption of Ready Meal 135
5.5. The Limitations of this Research 136
5.6. Advice for Future Researchers 137
6.0. Reference 138
7.0. Appendix 141
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