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研究生:林佳諭
研究生(外文):Chia Yu Lin
論文名稱:環境NGOs/NPOs與企業夥伴關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Partnership between Environmental NGOs/NPOs and Corporations
指導教授:胡憲倫胡憲倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sian-Lun Hu
口試委員:申永順鄒倫黃正忠
口試委員(外文):Yung-Shuen ShenLun ZouZheng-Zhong Huang
口試日期:2013-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:148
中文關鍵詞:夥伴關係非政府組織非營利組織焦點團體訪談
外文關鍵詞:PartnershipNGOsNPOsFocus group interview
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過去十數年來,NGOs/NPOs與企業建立「夥伴關係」以環境、社會問題,為雙邊合作關係之新策略。除了能夠消弭社會上之抗爭以外,更可藉由雙方合作來整合資源、創造商業價值與環境效益、提高環保績效建立聲譽、提供獨立之驗證等;並且以「雙贏」取代「零合競爭」,建立長期之合作關係。

綜觀國內相關學術研究,皆為NGOs/NPOs與企業之夥伴關係,並未深入探討ENGOs/ENPOs(Environmental NGOs/ Environmental NPOs)與企業之夥伴關係。然而,以目前來說,台灣社會上充斥著ENGOs/ENPOs與企業對立以及抗爭之情形。而因為雙方都有共同之目標,若能化敵為友進而結盟,除了可避免繼續浪費雙方寶貴之資源與時間外,更可藉由雙方之資源與專業,來為社會創造更多福祉。
本研究主要目的為瞭解台灣目前NGOs/NPOs與企業之關係、探討影響夥伴關係之成功與障礙之關鍵因子。首先廣泛蒐集國內外相關文獻並擬訂半結構化之訪談問卷,接著透過二次與NGOs/NPOs以及與企業之焦點團體訪談,分析訪談結果、提出應如何化解衝突與對立,改善並建立NGOs/NPOs與企業之夥伴關係之建議。
研究結果顯示,目前台灣NGOs/NPOs與企業之關係,有二種情形並存著:一是具多次合作經驗、一是仍舊處於對立狀態。非製造業與金融業等無明顯環境問題之企業比較會有與NGOs/NPOs合作之經驗、合作方式以及內容亦較為多元化;製造業則與NGOs/NPOs合作經驗較為缺乏,應是NGOs/NPOs對自身形象有所顧慮與堅持、多半傾向避開環境等較為敏感議題之故。然而有組織與企業有著既對立又合作之情形,為一個特殊個案。

訪談中提到有關毒化物釋放清單、揭露供應商等等,為NGOs/NPOs訴求之一部分。此項訴求對於企業來說需要有勇氣去面對與付諸行動;然而實際上企業皆評估過是否要將資訊公開並透明化,但是企業們認為現今台灣環境相對來說,由於大眾對於此類資訊理解程度不一,整體社會環境仍然較為不適合。或許NGOs/NPOs可以試著給與企業多些鼓勵。

本研究透過二階段之焦點訪談會議,發現雖然目前台灣存在著兩者之間許多對立與抗爭之情事,但兩者對於夥伴關係之看法,事實上NGOs/NPOs以及企業雙方皆抱持樂觀其成之態度,甚或已經有許多合作之案例存在著;亦有許多NGOs/NPOs與企業仍抱持觀望態度、毫無夥伴關係經驗之NGOs/NPOs與企業。然而無論夥伴經驗之有無,本研究所得之結果皆可做為未來研究者或其他相關人士對於夥伴關係相關議題之參考。


Over the past decades, NGOs/NPOs and corporations have a “partnership” which can eliminate conflicts between two sides. It can also create business value and environmental benefits, raise the environmental performance, leverage skills and perspectives not available in the organization, build respect and reputation, provide independent validation, and help achieve a win-win situation instead of just a competitive of zero-sum game.

In comparison with studies in Taiwan, most of them just focus on the partnership between NGOs/NPOs and corporations, they are not discussing about partnership between ENGOs/ENPOs (Environmental NGOs/ Environmental NPOs) and corporations. Nevertheless, there are so many conflicts between ENGOs/ENPOs and corporations in Taiwan. In knowing they have common interests and purposes, we can harness the resources and skills from them to create more and more welfare for society if they can have the aim of “joint efforts” instead of conflicting between each other.
This study aims to understand the relationship between environmental NGOs/NPOs and corporations, and analyzes the success factors and barriers. Four steps were followed. First, an extensive literature was conducted whih mainly focuses on partnership patterns, successful fators and barriers. Second, a semi-structure questionnaire was developed. Third, two focus group interviews were conducted with ENGOs/ENPOs and corporations were invited separately. Finally, suggestion about the partnership between NGOs/NPOs and corporations were obtained.

The results indicated that there are two types of partnership relationship between environmental NGOs/NPOs and corporations in Taiwan: having many partnership experiences and remain conflicts between each other. Manufacturing industry may belong to the latter, while other sectors, such as financial and service industry have already had many cooperation experiences with NGOs/NPOs.

Moreover, although there have many conflicts between each other, they still keep positive attitude toward being “Partnership”. Actually, some partneship may have already being progressed now. It is believed that this study should be able to provide some insight for anyone who concerns about the partnership relationship between environmental NGOs/NPOs and corporations.


摘 要……… i
Abstract……… iii
目錄………… vi
表目錄……… ix
圖目錄……… x
第一章 緒論…. 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 6
1.3 研究架構 8
第二章 文獻回顧 9
2.1 企業與NGOs/NPOs現況探討 9
2.1.1 NGOs/NPOs現況說明 9
2.1.2 企業與企業社會責任(CSR)現況介紹 14
2.1.3 企業與NGOs/NPOs之互動 17
2.2 企業與NGOs/NPOs之夥伴關係 23
2.2.1 企業與NGOs/NPOs合作之型態 24
2.2.2 形成夥伴關係之動機 28
2.2.3 夥伴關係成功之因素 28
2.3 國外夥伴關係案例探討 29
2.3.1 世界自然基金會(World Wide Fund for Nature, WWF)與企業之合作 34
2.3.1.1 WWF之夥伴關係 35
2.3.1.2 WWF與可口可樂之合作 40
2.3.2 環境防禦基金會(Environmental Defense Fund, EDF)與企業之合作 43
2.3.2.1 EDF之夥伴關係 44
2.3.2.2 EDF與麥當勞合作 44
2.3.2.3 EDF沃爾瑪合作 46
2.4 小結.. 48
第三章 研究方法 49
3.1 研究流程 49
3.2 研究方法 50
3.2.1 文獻分析法 50
3.2.2 焦點團體訪談法 51
3.2.2.1 焦點團體訪談介紹 51
3.2.2.2 焦點團體訪談法之特質 52
3.2.3 研究介紹 57
3.2.3.1 問卷設計 57
3.2.3.2 受訪者之選擇 57
3.2.3.3 研究限制 57
第四章 結果與討論 59
4.1 NGOs/NPOs與企業夥伴關係之現況 59
4.1.1 目前台灣NGOs/NPOs與企業之關係 59
4.1.2 NGOs/NPOs與企業合作之動機 60
4.1.3 其他 61
4.2 NGOs/NPOs與企業夥伴關係之建立 62
4.2.1 NGOs/NPOs與企業之間的期待 62
4.2.2 夥伴關係成功條件 62
4.2.3 夥伴關係建立過程 63
4.2.4 其他 64
4.3 NGOs/NPOs與企業夥伴關係之障礙 65
4.3.1 資源與權力之不對等 65
4.3.2 NGOs/NPOs與企業本質與結構之差異 66
4.3.3 NGOs/NPOs與企業運作上之不一致 68
4.3.4 其他 69
4.4 台灣NGOs/NPOs與企業互動情形與期許 70
4.5 NGOs/NPOs與企業夥伴關係之研究總結 73
4.5.1 NGOs/NPOs與企業之夥伴關係現況看法彙整 73
4.5.2 NGOs/NPOs與企業夥伴關係模式 75
4.5.3 NGOs/NPOs與企業夥伴關係之成功因素 76
4.5.4 NGOs/NPOs與企業夥伴關係之障礙 77
第五章 結論與建議 82
5.1 結論.. 82
5.2 後續研究建議 85
參考文獻…… 87
附錄一 《NGOs/NPOs夥伴關係之研究》焦點團體訪談會--訪談問題 95
附錄二《NGONPO夥伴關係之研究》焦點團體訪談會--逐字稿 109


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網頁
68.WWF官方網站:http://www.wwf.org/
69.EDF官方網站:http://www.edf.org/
70.全球盟約官方網站:http://www.unglobalcompact.org/
71.美國環保協會介紹:http://baike.baidu.com/view/2342985.htm
72.台灣環境保護聯盟:http://www.tepu.org.tw/?p=702


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