(3.237.20.246) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/17 16:39
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:史芬妮
研究生(外文):Stefanny Ráquel Bustillo
論文名稱:以由下而上的發展方法探討進入洪都拉斯金字塔底層市場之關鍵成功因素
論文名稱(外文):Key Success factors for entering the Base of the pyramid in Honduras using the bottom – up development approach
指導教授:胡憲倫胡憲倫引用關係鄒倫鄒倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsien-Lun Huleont-zou
口試委員:黃正忠申永順
口試委員(外文):Cheng-Chung HuangYung-Shuen Shen
口試日期:2013-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:Base of the pyramidCommunity Driven developmentFringe StakeholdersPoverty AlleviationMultinational Corporations
外文關鍵詞:Base of the pyramidCommunity Driven developmentFringe StakeholdersPoverty AlleviationMultinational Corporations
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:101
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:11
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
Several researchers and business executives believe that western multinationals can create new markets and help eradicate poverty at the same time, once they recognize the poorest of our world, the so-called “base of the pyramid” (BoP) as novel consumers and innovative producers. To be successful in this shared party mission, MNCs are dependent on successful collaboration with local parties in the developing countries specifically referring to Honduras in this research paper. Nevertheless, collaboration with western partners is based on other groups rather than collaboration with local parties, often living in remote communities. The Bottom-up approach development perspective and knitting of trust appear to be two rather new yet popular terms which in conjunction with the BoP literature provides quite some propositions on building the bottom-up approach. One important factor for succeeding in finding new strategies is to develop suitable services, products and business models for the BOP is engaging directly with the poor and thus, choosing a bottom-up approach. The “classic” development literature however, has made this mind‐shift over 20 years ago. Bottom up approaches, which give more power to the poor, are taking advance. This vast know-how however, hasn’t found a systematic consideration in the concept of the BOP yet. This study will take a closer look at bottom up development approaches and argues for the importance of integrating this know how in the BOP debate by highlighting the relation between the concepts. It complements therefore are a missing, but value creation forms a very important piece in the theoretical debate on the Base of the Pyramid. Hence, this study sets out to explore how MNCs build small business with local communities in developing countries. Preceding from present BoP and trust literature this thesis studied a BoP cases in Honduras. The knowledge gained and the questions posed can be subdivided into three categories. Which are drivers, circumstances and success factors. Hence, these three play a vital role in the analysis, indicating that a successful development approach needs the patient knitting of these three in order to develop and grow in a fruitful BoP project. Moreover the results of this thesis show that there is a strong correlation between achieving success in the BoP and the bottom-up approach development approach. Besides, companies need to deal with major challenges, namely resource scarcity or the lack of scaling up logistics. In doing so, they ought to think out of the box and find fundamentally new business models, because the BOP market is different from developed markets and only when finding creative and innovative new ways as well as a natural involvement and understanding of the needs of those at the BoP, a firm will successfully flourish, operate and in the long-run develop confidently in the BOP market.

Several researchers and business executives believe that western multinationals can create new markets and help eradicate poverty at the same time, once they recognize the poorest of our world, the so-called “base of the pyramid” (BoP) as novel consumers and innovative producers. To be successful in this shared party mission, MNCs are dependent on successful collaboration with local parties in the developing countries specifically referring to Honduras in this research paper. Nevertheless, collaboration with western partners is based on other groups rather than collaboration with local parties, often living in remote communities. The Bottom-up approach development perspective and knitting of trust appear to be two rather new yet popular terms which in conjunction with the BoP literature provides quite some propositions on building the bottom-up approach. One important factor for succeeding in finding new strategies is to develop suitable services, products and business models for the BOP is engaging directly with the poor and thus, choosing a bottom-up approach. The “classic” development literature however, has made this mind‐shift over 20 years ago. Bottom up approaches, which give more power to the poor, are taking advance. This vast know-how however, hasn’t found a systematic consideration in the concept of the BOP yet. This study will take a closer look at bottom up development approaches and argues for the importance of integrating this know how in the BOP debate by highlighting the relation between the concepts. It complements therefore are a missing, but value creation forms a very important piece in the theoretical debate on the Base of the Pyramid. Hence, this study sets out to explore how MNCs build small business with local communities in developing countries. Preceding from present BoP and trust literature this thesis studied a BoP cases in Honduras. The knowledge gained and the questions posed can be subdivided into three categories. Which are drivers, circumstances and success factors. Hence, these three play a vital role in the analysis, indicating that a successful development approach needs the patient knitting of these three in order to develop and grow in a fruitful BoP project. Moreover the results of this thesis show that there is a strong correlation between achieving success in the BoP and the bottom-up approach development approach. Besides, companies need to deal with major challenges, namely resource scarcity or the lack of scaling up logistics. In doing so, they ought to think out of the box and find fundamentally new business models, because the BOP market is different from developed markets and only when finding creative and innovative new ways as well as a natural involvement and understanding of the needs of those at the BoP, a firm will successfully flourish, operate and in the long-run develop confidently in the BOP market.

ABSTRACT… i
Acknowledgements iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables… vi
List of Figures. vii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Personal Motivation 1
1.2 Background 3
1.2.1 Meaning of Poverty 7
1.2.2 Location of the poor population 15
1.3 Problem Statement 18
1.4 Objectives 19
1.5 Research Framework 26
Chapter 2 Literature Review 29
2.1 Propositions from BoP literature 29
2.2 Bottom-up development approaches 39
2.3 Six Principles of the BoP Perspective 40
2.3.1 Principle of External Participation 44
2.3.2 The Principal of Co-Creation 46
2.3.3 Principle of Connecting Local with Non-Local 48
2.3.4 Principal of Patient Innovation 49
2.3.5 Principle of Self-Financed Growth 51
2.3.6 Focusing on What Is “Right” at the BoP 53
2.3 Impacts of the BoP Perspective on Poverty Alleviation 54
2.4 Challenges and limits 56
2.5 Innovation at the BoP 57
Chapter 3 Methodology 63
3.1 Case study research 64
3.2 Selection of Case Studies 65
Chapter 4 Results 72
4.1 General Observations 72
4.2 Drivers to apply a bottom-up development perspective in BoP ventures: 73
4.3 Circumstances that help or hinder the application of a bottom-up approach development in BoP projects. 74
4.4 Success factors when choosing a bottom-up development perspective in BoP ventures. 75
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Suggestions 83
5.1 Research Summary 83
5.2 Conclusion 85
5.3 Research Conclusion within the context of the research questions 86
5.4 Suggestions 87
References…… 89
Appendix List of abbreviations 99


1.Ahlstrom, D. (2010) ‘Innovation and Growth: How business contributes to society’/ Academy of management perspectives 24.3: 10:23
2.Anderson, J., and C. Markides (2007) ‘Strategic Innovation at the base of the Pyramid’, MIT Sloan Management Review 49.1: 83-88
3.Ansoff, H.I (1957) ‘Strategies for Diversification’, Harvard Business review 35.5: 113-24
4.Apparundai, A. (2004) ‘ The capacity to Aspire: Culture and the terms of recognition’, in V. Rao and M. Walton (eds.), Culture and Public Action: A Cross-disciplinary Dialogue On Development Studies of Heterogeneity and Participation (Working paper No. 2009-036; Maastricht, Netherlands: United Nations University).
5.Banerjee, A.V., and E. Duflo (2006) The economic lives of the poor (Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology).
6.Banerjee, S.B. (2003) ‘Who Sustain Whose Development? Sustainable Development and the Reinvention of Nature’, Organization Studies 24.1: 143-80
7.Bansal, P. (2002) ‘ The Corporate Challenges of Sustainable development’, Academy of Management Executive 16.2: 122-31

8.Black, N. (2006) Sustainable Global Enterprise: The Shape of a New Capitalism? (Working Paper for the Kevin Roberts Sustainable enterprise Scholarship Report Series; Waikato, New Zealand: University of Waikato).
9.Blowfield, M. (2005) ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: Reinventing the meaning of Development?’, International Affairs 81.3: 515-24
10.Chambers, R. (1983) Rural Development: Putting the last First (Harlow, UK: Logman).
11.(1994) ‘The origins and Practice of Participatory and Rural Appraisal’, World Development 22.7:952-69
12.(1197) Whose reality Counts? Putting the First Last (London: Intermediate Technology Publications).
13.Christensen, C.M (1997) The Innovator Dilemma: When new Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail (Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing).
14.T. Craig and S. Hart (2001) ‘The Great Disruption’. Foreign Affairs 80.2:80:95.
15.Conner, K.R., and C.K. Prahalad (1996) ‘A Resource-Based Theory of the Firm: Knowledge versus Opportunism’, Organization Science 7.5 477-501.
16.De Soto, H. (2000) The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else (New York, Basic Books).
17.DiMaggio , P.J and W.W Powell (1983) ‘ The iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields’, American Sociological Review 48.2: 147-60.
18.Echeverría, R.G (1998) Strategic Elements for the Reduction of Rural Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean (Policy Research Paper; Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.)
19.Eisenhadt, K.M. (1989) ‘ Building Theories from Case Study Research’, Academy of Management Review 14.4:5 32-50)
20.Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), 523-556.
21.Escobar, A. (1995) Encountering Development: The Making and unmaking of the Third World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
22.Friedmann, J. (1992) Empowerment: The Politics of Alternative Development (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers).
23.Gandhi, M.K. (1962) Village Swaraj (Ahmedabad, India: Navjivan Press).
24.Gardhetti, M.A (2009) Textos Sobre La Base De La Piramide): Hacia laCo-creación de Valor y Desarrollo (Buenos Aires, Argentina: IESC)
25.-and G.D’ Andrea (2010) ’Masisa Argentina and the Evolution of its Strategy at the Base of the Pyramid: An Alternative to the BoP Protocol Process?’, Greener Management International 56:25-42)
26.Hammond, A.L., W.J, Kramer, J. Tran and R. Katz (2007) The Next 4 Billion: Market Size and Business Strategy at the Base of the Pyramid (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute and International Finance Corporation; www.wri.org/publication/ the-next-4-billion).
27.Hart, S.L (2005) ‘Innovation, Creative Destruction and Sustainability’, Research Technology Management (September/October 2005): 21-27.
28.C.M Christensen (2002) ‘The Great leap: Driving Innovation From the Base of the Pyramid’, MIT Sloan Management Review 44.1: 51-56.
29.Hart, S. L. and S. Sharma (2004). "Engaging Fringe Stakeholders for Competitive Imagination". Academy of Management Executive 18(1): 7-18.
30.Hart, S. (2007). Capitalism at the Crossroads. Aligning Business, Earth, and Humanity. (2nd Ed.), Upper Saddle River: Wharton School
31.Hart, S.L. & London, T. (2005). Developing native capability: What multinational corporations can learn from the base of the pyramid. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 3(2), 28-33.
-and T. London (2005) ‘Developing Native Capability: What Multinational Corporations Can Learn from the Base of the Pyramid’, Stanford Social Innovation Review (Summer 2005) 28-33)
32.-and M.B. Milstein (2003) ‘Creating Sustainable Value’, Academy of management executive 17.2:56-69
33.-and S. Sharma (2004) ‘Engaging Fringe Stakeholders for Competititve Imagination’, Academy of Management Executive 18.1: 7-18
34.IDB (Inter-American Development Bank) (2006) The Market of the Majority: The BOP Opportunity Map of Latin America and The Caribbean (Development Through Enterprise Project, World Resources Institute; www.iadb.org/news/docs/wri.pdf, accessed 15 September 2010).
35.IFAD (International Fun For Agricultural Development) (2001) Rural Poverty report 2002: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press).
36.Jenkins, B., and E. Ishikawa (2010) Scaling Up Inclusive Business: Advancing the Knowledge and the Action Agenda (Washington, DC: IFC nd the CSR Initiative at the Harvard Kennedy School).
37.Kramer, A., and F-M Belz (2008) ‘Consumer Integration into Innovation Processes: A new approach for creating and Enhancing Innovations for the Base of the pyramid?’, in P. Kandachar and M. Halme (eds.) Sustainability Challenges and Solutions at the Base of the Pyramid: Business, Technology and the Poor (Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing): 214-41.
38.London, T. (2007) A Base-of-the-Pyramid Perspective on Poverty Alleviation (Working paper; Ann Arbor, MI: The William Davidson Institute/ Stephen M. Ross School of Business, University of Michigan).
39.-(2009) ‘Making Better Investments at the Base of the Pyramid’, Harvard Business Review 87.5:106-13.
40.And S.L Hart (2004) ‘Reinventing Strategies for Emerging Markets: Beyond the Transnational Model’ Journal of International Business Studies 35.5.: 350-70.
41.R. Anupindi and S. Sheth (2010) ‘Creating Mutual Value; Lessons Learned from Vantures Servng Base of the Pyramid Producers’, Journal of Business Research 63.6: 582-94.
42.Long, N., and M. Villareal (1994) ‘ The Interweaving of Knowledge and Power in Development Interfaces’, in I. Scoones and J. Thopmson (eds.) Beyond Farmers First: Rural People’s Knowledge, Agricultural Research and Extension in Practice (London: Intermediate Technology Publications): 41-52.
43.Madavo, C. (2000) Community-Driven Development: A vision of Poverty Reduction through Empowerment (Washington, D.C.: World Bank
44.Mansuri, G., and V. Rao (2003) Evaluating community-based and community-driven Development: A Critical Review of Evidence (Washington, DC: Development Research Group, World Bank).
45.Martinussen, J (1997) Society, State and Market: A Guide to Competing Theories of Development (London/ New Jersey: Zed).
46.Mason, J. (1996) Qualitative Researching (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).
47.Matsuyama, K (2002) ‘The Rise of Mass Consumption Societies’, Journal of Political Economy 110.5: 1,035-70.
48.Mendoza, R.U (2008) ‘Why do the poor pay More” Exploring the poverty Penalty Concept’, Journal of International Development, 6 October 2008 (Wiley Interscience online); also in Journal of International Development 23:1:28 (onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1001/jid.1504/abstract?deniedAccessCostumizedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false).
49.-and N. Thelen (2008) ‘Innovations to make the market more inclusive for the Poor’, Development Policy Review 26.4: 427-58.
50.Meyer, K.E. (2004) ‘Perspectives on Multinational Enterprises in Emerging in Emerging Economies’ Journal of International Business Studies 35.4: 259-76.
51.Narayan, D., K. Schafft, A. Rademacher, R. Patel and S. Koch-Schulte (200) Voics od the Poor: Can Anyone hear Us? Washington, DC: World Bank/ Oxford University Press).
52.-(2002) Empowerment and Poverty Reduction: A Sourcebook (Washington, DC: Worl Bank
53.Nelson J. and D. Prescott (2003) Business and the Millenium Development Goals: A Framework for Action (New York: UNDP).
54.Nelson, N., and S. Wright (1995) ‘Participation and Power’, in Nelson and S. Wright (eds) Power and Participatory Development
55.Nelson, N., and S. Wright (1995) ‘Participation and Power’, in N. Nelson and S. Wright (eds.), Power and Participatory Development: Theory and Practice (London: Intermediate Technology Publications): 1-18.
56.Oakley, P., et (1991) ‘Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes’, Academy of Management Review (Geneva: ILO).
57.Oliver, C. (1991) ‘Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes’, Academy of Management Review 16.1: 145-79.
58.-(1997) ‘Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Combining Institutional and Resource-Based Views’, Strategic Management Journal 18.9:697-713
59.Palazzo, G., and A.G Scherer (2008) ‘Corporate Social Responsibility, Democracy, and the Politicization of the Corporation’, Academy of Management Review 33.3: 773-75.
60.Patton, M.Q. (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (Newbury park, CA: Sage).
61.(2002) Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage)
62.Philipp, D., and I. Rayhan (2004) Vulnerability and Poverty: What are the causes and how are they related? (Bonn, Germany: Centre for Development Research)
63.Poole, N.D. (2004) ‘Perennialism and Poverty Reduction’, Development Policy Review 22.1: 49-74
64.Prahalad, C. K. & Hart S.L. (2002). The Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. Strategy + Business, 26, 2-14.
65.Prahalad, C.K. (2004). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. USA: Wharton School Publishing.
66.Prahalad, C.K. (2006) The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating through Poverty through Profits (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing).
-and A.L. Hammond (2002) ‘Serving the World’s Poor, Profitability’, Harvard Business Review 80.9: 48-57.
-and S.L. Hart (2002) ‘The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid’, Strategy & Business 26 (1Q 2002): 1-14
-and V. Ramaswamy (2004) ‘Co-creating Unique Value with Costumers’, Strategy & Leadership 32.3: 4-9.
67. “Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid” by C.K. Prahalad and Stuart L. Hart From the frist quarter 2002 issue of strategy+business magazine, published by Booz & Company. All rights reserved. www.strategy-business.com
68.PRAHALAD, C.K., FORTUNE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PYRAMID, 1st Edition, 2010. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
69.Sharma, S. and S. Hart (2006) ‘Base of the Pyramid: Predicting MNC Entry and Success’, presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13 August, 2006.
70.Simanis, E. (2009) ‘At the Base of the Pyramid’, Wall Street Journal, 26 October 2009;sloanreview. Mit.edu/business-insight/articles/2009/4/5144/at-the-base-of-the-pyramid, accessed 9 November 2009.
-(2010) ‘Needs, Needs, E0verywhere, But Not a BoP Market to Tap’, in T. London and S.L. Hart (eds), Next Generation Business Strategies for the Pyramid (Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson Education): 103-28.
-and S.L. Hart (2006) Expanding Possibilities at the Base of the Pyramid’, Innovations 1.1: 43-51
-and S.L. Hart (2008) The Base of the Pyramid Protocol: Toward Next Generation BoP Strategy (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University)
-and S.L. Hart (2009) ‘Innovation From the Inside Out’ MIT Sloan Management Review 50.4: 77-86.
UNDP United Nations Developmnet Programme (2004) Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor. Comission on the Private Sector and development (New York: UNDP).
-(2008) Creating value for All: Strategies for doing Business with the Poor (New York, UNDP).
71. UN (United Nations) (2010a) The Millenium Development Goals Report 2010 (New York: UN).
72.WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development) (2004) Doing Business with the Poor: A Field Guide (Geneva: WBCSD)
73. WCED (World Comission on Environment and Development) (1987) Our Common Future (Oxford, UK UK: Oxford University Press.
74.Weiser, J. (2007)’ Untapped Strategies for Success in Underserved Markets’, Journal of Business Strategy 28.2: 30-37.
75. World Bank (n.d.) Latin America and the Caribbean (devdata.worldbank.org/gmis/mdg/Latin_America_and_the_Caribbean.htm, accessed27 March 2009).
-(1975) Rural Development Sector Policy Paper (Washington, DC: World Bank).
-(1998) Indigenous Knowledge for Development: A Framework for Action (Washington, DC: World Bank).
76. Yin, R. (1984) Case Sudy Research: Design and Methods (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage).


連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔