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研究生:VuDinhHuan
研究生(外文):VuDinhHuan
論文名稱:GM Two-Mode油電混合動力系統模糊控制策略
論文名稱(外文):Fuzzy Control Strategy for GM Front Wheel Drive Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle
指導教授:陳嘉勳
指導教授(外文):Jia-Shiun Chen
口試委員:藍天雄黃秀英
口試日期:2013-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:車輛工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:Two-mode power-splitintelligent supervisory controlfuzzy logic controlfuel economy
外文關鍵詞:Two-mode power-splitintelligent supervisory controlfuzzy logic controlfuel economy
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Power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) provides two power paths between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through gearing and composing an electrically variable transmision (EVT). EVT allows ICE to opertare independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. If the most ICE operating points produce more energy than the demanded energy by the driver, the extra energy will be stored in ESS and used later. If the most ICE operating points do not meet the demanded energy, the ESS will add more energy to the wheels through electric machines (EMs).
In the second part of this reseach, two-mode power-split General Motors Allison Hybrid System II (GM AHS_II) is constructed. The GM AHS_II powertrain is capable of operating in input-split or compound-split EVT modes as well as four fixed gear configurations. Power-split architecture can advantageously combine traditional series and parallel power paths.
Beside dynamic programming (DP), Stochastic dynamic programming (SPD) optimal solutions, or Heuristic rule-base methods, a simple Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for IC engine and an intelligent supervisory control strategy are suggested, and ICE speed transition limit are also considered in the third part of this research. This study focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in The GM AHS_II powertrain. FLC with optimal thresholds and transitions have been employed to develop this design problem. Using looking forward control algorithms to implement power-split HEV supervisory control strategy can keep ICE operating points in efficient region, and maintain state of charge (SOC) of ESS in optimal range. FLC strategy helps ICE to operate in higher efficiency region 22.7% and to improve fuel economy 27.8% comparing with conventional vehicle.


Power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) provides two power paths between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through gearing and composing an electrically variable transmision (EVT). EVT allows ICE to opertare independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. If the most ICE operating points produce more energy than the demanded energy by the driver, the extra energy will be stored in ESS and used later. If the most ICE operating points do not meet the demanded energy, the ESS will add more energy to the wheels through electric machines (EMs).
In the second part of this reseach, two-mode power-split General Motors Allison Hybrid System II (GM AHS_II) is constructed. The GM AHS_II powertrain is capable of operating in input-split or compound-split EVT modes as well as four fixed gear configurations. Power-split architecture can advantageously combine traditional series and parallel power paths.
Beside dynamic programming (DP), Stochastic dynamic programming (SPD) optimal solutions, or Heuristic rule-base methods, a simple Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for IC engine and an intelligent supervisory control strategy are suggested, and ICE speed transition limit are also considered in the third part of this research. This study focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in The GM AHS_II powertrain. FLC with optimal thresholds and transitions have been employed to develop this design problem. Using looking forward control algorithms to implement power-split HEV supervisory control strategy can keep ICE operating points in efficient region, and maintain state of charge (SOC) of ESS in optimal range. FLC strategy helps ICE to operate in higher efficiency region 22.7% and to improve fuel economy 27.8% comparing with conventional vehicle.


Table of Contents

ABSTRACT i
Acknowledgements iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures vi
List of Tables viii
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Background 3
1.2.1 Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle 4
1.2.2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle 4
1.2.3 Power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle 5
1.2.3.1 Single-mode power-split 5
1.2.3.2 Two-Mode power-split 6
1.2.4 Control Strategy Review 7
1.3 Contribution 8
1.4 Thesis structure 8
Chapter 2 DYNAMIC MODELING OF GM FRONT-WHEEL DRIVE POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLE 9
2.1 Kinematic Study of the GM Front-Wheel Drive Two-Mode Hybrid Transmission 9
2.1.1 Simple planetary gear set power-split device 11
2.1.2 Compound Power-Split HEV 12
2.2 Modes of a GM Front-Wheel Drive Transmission 13
2.2.1 The Mode EVT-1 13
2.2.2 The Mode EVT-2 14
2.2.3 The 1st fixed gear (FG-1) 15
2.2.4 The 2nd fixed gear (FG-2) 16
2.2.5 The 3rd fixed gear (FG-3) 17
2.2.6 The 4th fixed gear (FG-4) 18
2.3 Summary 19
Chapter 3 IMPLEMENTABLE CONTROL DESIGN OF THE GM TWO-MODE POWER SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLE 21
3.1 Diver 22
3.2 The IC engine 22
3.3 Motor / Generator 24
3.4 Energy Storage System 26
3.5 Mechanical Powertrain 27
3.5.1.1 Mode EVT-1 28
3.5.2 Mode EVT-2: 30
3.6 Controller 33
3.6.1 Design ICE controller 33
3.6.1.1 Design IC engine torque and speed 33
3.6.1.2 Shift mode algorithm 38
3.6.1.3 Engine on/off module 38
3.6.2 Design electric machine torques 39
3.6.2.1 Design electric machine torques for mode 1 40
3.6.2.2 Design electric machine torques for mode 2 41
Chapter 4 SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSES 43
4.1 Vehicle performance results: 44
4.2 ICE operation results: 47
4.3 EMs operation results: 53
Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKS 55
5.1 Conclusions 55
5.2 Future works 55
REFERENCES 56
List of Symbols 59


[1]Crude Oil (petroleum), simple average of three spot prices; Dated Brent, West Texas Intermediate, and the Dubai Fateh, US Dollars per Barrel, http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=crude-oil&months=240
[2]The contribution of the transport sector to total emissions of the main air pollutants in 2009 (EEA-32) provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (Environment and Human Settlements Division, UNECE), http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-8/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-9
[3]Mehrdad Ehsani, Yimin Gao and Ali Emadi, Modern Electric Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles Fundamental, Theory, and Design, Second Edition, CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 2010.
[4] Olszewski, M, “Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report FY2006, pg. 1-95, 2006. 76.
[5]Meisel, J., “An analytic foundation for the Toyota Prius THS-II powertrain with a comparison to a strong parallel hybrid-electric powertrain,” SAE paper 2006-01-0666, 2006.
[6] Home, A.G., Schmidt, M. R., (2002), “Hybrid Electric Powertrain Including a Two-Mode Electrically Variable Transmission” U.S patent 6,478,705 B1, issued Nov.12, 2002.
[7] Home, A.G., Klemen, D., Schmidt, M. R., (2003), “Electrically Variable Transmission with Selective Input Split, Compound Split, Neutral and Reverse Modes,” US Patent 6,527,658 B2, issued Mar.4, 2003.
[8] Lin, C., Filipi, Z., Wang, Y., Louca, L., Peng, H., Assanis, D., Stein, J., “Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies,” SAE Paper 2001-01-1334, 2001.
[9] Lin, C., Peng, H., Grizzle, J. W., Liu, J., and Busdiecker, M., “Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck,” SAE Paper 2001-01-3369, 2003. 77.
[10] Lin, C., Peng, H., Grizzle, J. W., Kang, J., “Power Management Strategy for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Truck,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 11, pp. 839-849.
[11] Kim, N., Cha, S., Peng, H., “Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin‟s Minimum Principle,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, August 2010.
[12] Cipollone, R., Sciarretta, A., “Analysis of the Potential Performance of a Combined Hybrid Vehicle with Optimal Supervisory Control,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, pp. 2802-2807, 2006.
[13]Lin, C., Peng, H., Grizzle, J. W., “A Stochastic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles‟,” Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, 2004.
[14] Piccolo, A., Ippolito, L., Galdi, V., Vaccaro, A., “Optimization of Energy Flow Management in Hybrid Electric Vehicles via Genetic Algorithms,” Proceedings of 2001 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Como, Italy, 2001.
[15] Schouten, N., Salman, M., Kheir, N., (2002), “Fuzzy Logic Control for Parallel Hybrid Vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 460-468.
[16] Ahn, K., Cho, S., Cha, S., “Optimal Operation of the Power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 225(5), pp. 789-800, 2008.
[17] Arata J., Leamy M., Meisel, J. Cunefare, K., Taylor, D., “Backward-Looking Simulation of the Toyota Prius and General Motors Two-Mode Power-Split HEV Powertrains,” SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 120, June 2011.
[18]James Hendrickson, Alan Holmes, David Freiman “General Motors Front Wheel Drive Two-Mode Hybrid Transmission” SAE paper 2009-01-0508, 2009.
[19]Meisel, J., “Kinematic study of the GM Front-Wheel drive Two-mode Transmission and the Toyota Hybrid System THS-II Transmission”, SAE paper 2011-01-0876, 2011.
[20] Tan, D., Luo, Y., Liu, Y., “Comparative Analysis of Two Kinds of Series-Parallel Power Hybrid Systems”, J Automotive Safety and Energy, 20011, Vol.2 No.3.
[21] Liu, J., Peng, H., “Modeling and Control of a Power-Split Hybrid Vehicle,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 16, No. 6, November 2008, pp. 1242-1251.
[22]Kevin M.Passino and Stephen Yurkovich, Fuzzy Control, An Imprintof Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.1998.
[23] Meisel, J., “An Analytic Foundation for the Two-Mode Hybrid-Electric Powertrain with a Comparison to the Single-Mode Toyota Prius THS-II Powertrain” SAE paper 2009-01-1321, 2009.


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