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研究生:蔣博全
研究生(外文):Po-Chuan Chiang
論文名稱:無感測器之無刷馬達控制器設計
論文名稱(外文):Design of Sensorless BLDC Motor Controller
指導教授:曾國雄曾國雄引用關係龍仁光龍仁光引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Hsiung TsengJen-Kuang Lung
口試委員:高文秀
口試委員(外文):Wen-Shiow Kao
口試日期:2013-07-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:無刷馬達反電動勢無感測器
外文關鍵詞:Brushless DC MotorBack EMFSensorless
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  馬達技術在工業的競爭中,如何降低成本、減少控制系統研發時間及提高馬達整體使用壽命,是現今技術進步的衡量標準。馬達之速度控制需要測量轉子位置,一般的作法是採用感測器,其結果,將使得系統的成本上升,而應用場合與整體壽命會受限於感測器的影響。
  本論文的目的係提出無感測器方式,設計一無感測器之無刷馬達控制器,以實現馬達之閉迴路控制系統。在實作上,本論文採用量測反電動勢過零點方法,估測轉子實際位置,以取代原本的感測器;並使用微處器內之濾波與比較器,取代傳統的外部電路。經改用上述方式後,完成了變頻器之控制,可降低馬達與周邊電路物理參數對控制的影響,並加快微控制程式之編程,且簡化為電路設計與降低成本的最終目的。由於直流無刷馬達在低速時回授反電動勢訊號非常微弱,而無法估測轉子實際位置,本論文是利用微處理器,模擬虛擬的中性點,而不受馬達的繞組影響,使得反電動勢為正數與更準確的偵測到過零點。本論文實現了DSP 的微控制器,可完成控制上不需馬達相關參數、無感測器之優點,具有速度與閉迴路之控制,並達成更準確換相的無感測之直流無刷馬達系統。


  The use of motor technology is competitive in the industry. How to reduce costs as well as developing time and improve the whole life of motor control system is a measurement standard for technological progress. The speed of motor is controlled by measuring rotor position, so the general practice is to use the sensor. As a result, it will increase the cost of the system. The applications and the whole life of motor will be affected by the sensor.
  The purpose of this thesis is to propose the sensorless approach by designing a controller of brushless DC motor to achieve closed-loop motor control system. In this study, the thesis measures Back EMF zero crossing method, estimates the actual rotor position to replace the original sensor, and uses the microprocessor inside the filter and comparator to replace the traditional external circuit. After implemented the revised approach, the control of the inverter is completed. The results reduce the impact of motor and peripheral circuits on the physical parameters, and it speeds up the control program of micro-programmed, simplifies circuit design and reduces the cost as the ultimate goal. Since the DC brushless motor at low Back EMF signal is weak, and can''t estimate the actual rotor position. This study uses a microprocessor and analog virtual neutral point without the influence of motor windings leading to the EMF positive and more accurate detection of the zero crossing. This study realizes the DSP microcontrollers to be completed without motor control parameters and the advantages of sensors, but with closed-loop speed control to achieve more accurate sensorless commutation of brushless DC motors systems.


目錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌 謝 iv
目 錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.3 研究步驟與方法 4
1.4 論文架構 5
第二章 直流無刷馬達原理與演算 6
2.1 無刷馬達基本原理 6
2.2 永磁馬達相關特性 7
2.2.1 馬達轉子 7
2.2.2 馬達定子 9
2.2.3 定子繞組佈局 10
2.2 直流無刷馬達數學模型 16
2.3 座標轉換 19
2.3.1 靜止座標 20
2.3.2 同步座標 22
第三章 系統規劃與設計 23
3.1 系統架構 23
3.2 直流無刷馬達 24
3.2.1 直流無刷馬達參數 24
3.2.2 直流無刷馬達磁路分析 25
3.3 硬體說明 32
3.3.1 穩壓電路 32
3.3.2 變頻器電路 33
3.3.3 微控制器 34
3.3.4 微控制器佈局 35
3.4 換相方式與原理 39
3.4.1 六部換相法 39
3.4.2 過零點檢測法 41
3.5 軟體規劃 43
第四章 實驗結果與討論 46
4.1 實驗設備 46
4.2 實驗結果與討論 47
4.2.1 馬達功能驗證 47
4.2.2 輸出電流保護 53
4.2.3 空白時間控制 56
4.3 問題分析與討論 58
第五章 結論與未來研究方向 59
5.1 結論 59
5.2 未來研究方向 60
參考文獻 61


參考文獻
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