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研究生:陳怡君
研究生(外文):Yi-Jiun Chen
論文名稱:以自由浮時與完全浮時進行資源平滑之差異性研究
論文名稱(外文):A study on the difference of project resource leveling based on free float and total float of project activities
指導教授:林逾先林逾先引用關係
口試委員:陳明琪蔡榮發
口試日期:2013-06-07
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:經營管理系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:專案管理資源平滑啟發法專案作業浮時
外文關鍵詞:Project ManagementResource LevelingHeuristic MethodFloat time
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專案管理中所考慮的因素為工期、成本、資源等三大方面,而資源的運用對其專案有莫大的影響。1960年代的要徑法與計畫評核術只考慮到「僅含時間的資訊(Time-only Information)」,使得處理實際專案排程問題上之實用性大受限制。由於規劃時之資源需求圖(Resource Requirement Profile) 過大的起伏經常會造成資源調配上的困擾,因此,在專案管理中,資源平滑是重要的研究課題。資源平滑就是在專案總工期確定的條件下,調整各個活動的開始時間,以實現專案總工期範圍內資源需求量能夠均勻的分配。
本研究以資源平滑為目標,運用Burgess的平滑方法為基礎,發展一個以完全浮時 (Total Float) 為平滑準則的啟發式方法資源平滑模式,求得最小之資源平方和,並構築詳細之平滑流程與步驟,更進一步利用範例進行驗證,據此以驗證完全浮時資源平滑之可行性。最後比較分析不同浮時其平滑流程與結果存在差異性之原因,並分析不同專案特性適合何種浮時之資源平滑。


The three major factors in the project management are scheduling, costing and resources. Among them, resource is the most important factor. Critical Path Method and Program Evaluation and Review Technique only consider “Time-only Information”. This causes great limitation in solving the practical project scheduling problems. Because the high degree of resource fluctuation will often cause the difficulty on the resource allocation, resource leveling has become an important topic in the study of project management. Resource leveling is defined as, under the specified project completion time, the approach to reduce the degree of fluctuation in resource profile during project resource scheduling.
The main purpose of this research is to construct a resource leveling model based on total float. In this study, a new heuristic based on Burgess’s method was proposed to tackle resource leveling problems. The goal of this research is to establish detailed procedures and steps leading to the minimum sum of squares for resource usage at each time unit during the project completion time. We have conducted verifications toward the validity of our proposed approaches through illustrations and analysis. Finally, this research compares the difference between using total float time and using free float time in the proposed resource leveling approach and attempts to analyze the characteristics of different projects suitable for either the total float or free float in resource leveling.


摘 要 II
ABSTRACT III
致 謝 IV
目 錄 V
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2研究動機 2
1.3研究目的 3
1.4研究流程 4
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1專案管理相關文獻與理論探討 6
2.1.1專案定義與特性 6
2.1.2專案管理的定義 8
2.1.3專案管理的工具 10
2.2 資源排程 14
2.2.1 資源分配 15
2.2.2 資源平滑 16
2.3 資源平滑相關文獻探討 17
第三章 研究方法 23
3.1 確定性方法與啟發式方法 23
3.2 資源平滑假設與進行程序 25
3.3 浮時與BURGESS資源平滑之概念 27
3.4 完全浮時平滑方法之建構 29
第四章 數值範例 35
4.1 自由浮時與完全浮時資源平滑 35
4.2 先自由後完全浮時與完全浮時資源平滑 46
4.3 結果之比較與分析 53
第五章 結論與建議 57
5.1 結論 57
5.2 建議 58
參考文獻 59


中文部分:
【1】王慶富,專案管理,台北:聯經出版事業公司,民88年。
【2】宋文娟譯,專案管理(原作者:James P. Lewis),台北:滄海書局,民93年。
【3】沈進發,營建管理工程規劃與管制,民86年。
【4】許光華、何文榮,專案管理理論於實務,台北:華泰書局,民87年。
【5】曾貽威,考慮現今流量專案之多重資源最佳化之研究,碩士論文,朝陽科技大學營建工程研究所,民90年
【6】經濟部標準檢驗局,CNS14485 品質管理一專案管理品質指導綱要,台北:經濟部標準檢驗局,民89年。
【7】葛迺駿譯,我懂了專案管理(原作者:James P. Lewis),臺北市:新潮出版,民92年。
【8】鄭文彬、謝秋泉譯,專案管理三部曲:成功專案規劃、排程與控制(原作者:James P. Lewis),台北:麥格羅.希爾國際出版公司,民94年。
【9】戴久永,「換了位子就應該跟著換腦袋」,管理雜誌,329,民90年。
【10】譚啟平(譯),成功的專案管理(原作者:Milton D.Rosenau, Jr),臺北市:徐氏基金會,民76年。


英文部分:
【11】Abbasi, G. Y., & Mukattash, A. M. (2001). Crashing PERT networks using mathematical programming. International Journal of Project Management, 19, 181-188.
【12】Bouleimen, K and Lecocq, H. (2003). A new efficient simulated annealing algorithm for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem and its multiple mode version. European Journal of Operational Research, 149, 268-281.
【13】Bruce, T. B., & James, H. S. (1994). Customer-Driven Project Management, McGraw-Hill Inc.
【14】Burgess, A. R., & Killebrew, J. B. (1962). Variation in activity level on a cyclical arrow diagram. Journal of Industrial Engineering, 13, 76-83.
【15】Burns, S. A., Liu, L., & Feng, C. W. (1996). The LP/IP hybrid method for construction time-cost trade-off analysis. Construction Management and Economics, 14, 265-276.
【16】Cleland, D. I., & King W. R. (1983). Systems analysis and project management. NY: McGraw-Hill.
【17】Easa, S. M. (1989). Resource Leveling In Construction By Optimization. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ACSE, 115(2), 302-316.
【18】Harris, R. B. (1990). Packing Method for Resource Leveling (PACK). Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 116(2), 331-350.
【19】 Harris, R.B. (1978). Precedence and Arrow Networking Techniques for Construction. NY: Wiley
【20】Hegazy, T. (1999). Optimization of Resource Allocation and Leveling Using Genetic Algorithms. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 125(3), 167-175.
【21】Hiyassat, M. A. S. (2000). Modification of Minimun Moment Approach in Resource Leveling. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 126(4), 278-284.
【22】Kelley, J. E. (1961). Critical path planning and scheduling: management basis. Operation Research, 9(3), 296-320.
【23】Kerzner, H. (2006). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling(9th rd), NY: John Wiley and Sons.
【24】Leu, S. S., Yang, C. H., & Huang J. C. (2000). Resource Leveling In Construction by Genetic Algorithm-based Optimization and Its Decision Support System Application. Automation in Construction , 10, 27-41.
【25】Maclachlan, L. (1996). Making project management work for you. London: Library Association. 44.
【26】Malcolm, D. G., Roseboom, C. E., Clark, C. E., & Fazar, W. (1959).Application of a technique for research and development program evaluation. Operations Research, 7, 646-649.
【27】Mattila, K., & Abraham, D. (1998). Resource Leveling of Linear Schedules using Integer Linear Programming. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 232-244.
【28】Meredith, J. R., & Mantel, S. I. (1989). Project management. NY: John Wiley & Sons,Inc..
【29】Neumann, K., & Zimmermann, J.(2000). Procedures for resource leveling and net present value problems in project scheduling with general temporal and resource constraints, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 127, pp. 425-443.
【30】Reeser, C. (1973). Management: Function and mordern concepts. MT: Foresman and Company, Scott.
【31】Son, J. and Mattila, K.G. (2004). Binary Resource Leveling Model: Activity Splitting Allowed, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol130, pp. 887-894.
【32】Son, J., & Skiboniewski, M. J. (1999). Multiheuristic Approach for Resource Leveling Problem in Construction Engineering Hybrid Approach. Journal of Construction Engeering and Management, 125(1), 23-31.
【33】Steven, G. (1989). Integration the Supply Chain. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Material Management, 19(8), 3-8.
【34】Vidal, R. V. V., Werra, D., & Silver, E. (1980). A Tutorial on Heuristic Methods. European Journal of Operational Research, 5, 153-162.
【35】Wiest, J. D. (1963). The scheduling of large project with limited resource, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Carngie Institute of Technology.
【36】Wiest, J. D., & Levy, F. K. (1977). A Management Guide to PERT/CPM, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.
【37】Wiest, J. D., & Levy, F. K. (1997). A management guide to PERT/CPM: with GERT/PDM/DCPM and other networks. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

網路部分:
【38】中華專案管理學會 http://www.npma.org.tw/
【39】國際專案題庫 http://129.187.106.231/psplib/


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