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研究生:吳政男
研究生(外文):Jheng-Nan Wu
論文名稱:地工織布於切向水流作用下之抗沖蝕能力
論文名稱(外文):The Erosion Behavior of Revetments Using Geotextiles under Tangential Flow
指導教授:何嘉浚
口試委員:張達德陳榮河
口試日期:2013-06-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:土木與防災研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:河岸保護切向水流織布土壤沖蝕
外文關鍵詞:Riverbank ProtectionTangential FlowWoven GeotextilesSoil Erosion
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採用地工合成材料保護河岸避免沖蝕的技術已日益普及,地工合成材除了可以阻留護岸土壤,避免遭受地下水流入河川時,所引致之垂直向水流沖蝕外,亦可保護土壤不受平行流向之切向水流的沖蝕,然為徹底瞭解切向水流所引致的護岸土壤沖蝕行為。本試驗採用自行研發之切向水流沖蝕設備進行沖蝕試驗,採用兩款不同開孔徑之地工織布,並配合不同粒徑大小之拋石組合及友蚋溪現地土壤,於不同流速階段進行一系列室內試驗。試驗中同步紀錄濁度及流量之變化情況,並透過觀察試驗槽每個流速階段之變化情況,用以得知每種試驗組合之沖蝕行為。試驗後並收集被沖蝕帶出之土壤,進行粒徑分析試驗,藉以了解土壤沖蝕機制。本試驗納入統計學之盒鬚圖分析法,依盒鬚圖之盒長大小界定不同階段之沖蝕行為,其尚未沖蝕階段之盒長小於0.7NTU;穩定沖蝕階段之盒長介於0.7~1.7 NTU之間;破壞沖蝕階段之盒長大於1.7NTU。
試驗結果顯示:(1) 臨界流速與破壞流速隨著織布開孔徑、拋石孔隙率、拋石粒徑等參數減少而有增加的趨勢; (2)除織布保護土壤流失外,拋石亦會攔阻被水流攜出織布之土壤,進而達到二次保護之功效;(3)被水流帶至下水箱之土壤以小於#200號篩之土壤居多,被拋石攔阻之土壤以#100號篩佔大多數。

The technology that protects riverbanks with geosynthetics has become increasingly common. Geosynthetics can protect soil from the erosion by tangential flows parallel to the flow direction in addition to retaining soil in revetments and preventing the erosion by the resultant perpendicular flows when groundwater flows into rivers. To have a thorough understanding of the soil erosion behavior of tangential flows in revetments, this erosion testing was conducted using tangential flow erosion equipment developed by the author and two types of geotextiles in different apparent opening sizes and included a series of indoor tests in different phases of the velocity of flow in line with the combinations of gravels in different sizes and soil in situ You-Rui Creek. During the testing, changes in turbidity and flow were recorded in a synchronous manner and those in the testing tank in each phase of the velocity of flow were observed to learn the erosion behavior in each test combination. After the testing, soil worn away by the erosion was collected for particle size testing and analysis to understand the mechanisms of soil erosion. This testing also included box and whisker plots in statistics and defined the erosion behaviors in different phases according to box lengths in the plots. The box lengths in different erosion phases were defined as follows: 0.7NTU for non erosion, 0.7~1.7 NTU for steady erosion, and 1.7NTU for failure erosion.
Testing results show that (1) both critical and failure flow velocities tended to increase as parameters such apparent opening size, gravel porosity and size decreased; (2) in addition to soil retention by the woven textiles, the gravels also retained the soil flushed out of the woven textiles by the water flows and acted as the second protection; and (3) the soil carried by the flows into the water tank was mostly in a size of less than 200 mesh while that retained by the gravels was mostly in a size of 100 mesh.

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機與目的 1
1.2研究內容 2
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1地工織物及其應用 6
2.2阻留機制及準則 7
2.3臨界流速參考文獻 8
2.4土壤沖蝕率參考文獻 10
2.5切向水流相關試驗 12
第三章 試驗方法與設備 26
3.1試驗目的與規劃 26
3.2試驗儀器介紹 26
3.3試驗材料與性質 28
3.3.1地工織物性質 28
3.3.2土壤性質 29
3.3.3彈珠性質 30
3.3.4阻留準則分析 30
3.3實驗步驟 30
3.4量測系統 31
第四章 試驗結果與討論 47
4.1土壤沖蝕觀察與分類 47
4.1.1尚未沖蝕 47
4.1.2穩定沖蝕 47
4.1.3破壞沖蝕 47
4.2盒鬚圖之應用 48
4.3切向水流試驗結果 49
4.3.1 S-01試驗結果 49
4.3.2 S-02試驗結果 51
4.3.3 S-03試驗結果 53
4.3.4 S-04試驗結果 55
4.3.5 S-05試驗結果 57
4.3.6 S-06試驗結果 59
4.3.7 S-07試驗結果 60
4.3.8 S-08試驗結果 62
4.3.9 S-09試驗結果 63
4.4試驗結果綜合討論 65
第五章 結論與建議 115
5.1結論 115
5.2建議 116
參考文獻 118
附錄A 各試驗階段流速之土壤沖蝕量 122
符號彙總 132

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