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研究生:劉嘉仁
研究生(外文):Jia-Ren Liu
論文名稱:冷凍真空乾燥之乾燥層與乾燥率分析
論文名稱(外文):An Analysis of the Dry Layer and Drying Rate of Vacuum Freeze-drying
指導教授:鄭鴻斌鄭鴻斌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hung-Pin Cheng
口試委員:黃慶銘柯明村李達生
口試委員(外文):Ching-Ming HuangMing-Cun KeDa-Sheng Lee
口試日期:2013-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:能源與冷凍空調工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:其他工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:凍真空乾燥初級乾燥乾燥層失水比例乾燥率
外文關鍵詞:freeze dryingprimary dryingdry layerwater loss ratiodrying rate
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  冷凍真空乾燥技術廣泛使用於食品、製藥、微奈米材料等,其原理是在真空狀態下,利用低溫低壓使冰昇華之原理,使預先凍結物料中的水分不經過融化而直接以冰昇華為水蒸氣除去,獲得在外觀及品質上皆較優良之乾燥製品。一般在製藥乾燥時常使用凍晶瓶,在過程中會觀察到物料有一冰線隨著製程逐漸下降至物料底部,一般文獻中鮮少對其性質進行研究分析。本論文使用棚板式冷凍真空乾燥設備,針對重量百分濃度20%葡萄糖溶液進行冷凍乾燥製程研究,設定兩種預凍方式,冷凍櫃預凍以及棚板預凍,配合三種棚板溫度-30℃、-20℃和-10℃進行試驗,藉由CCD觀察試驗過程中物料冰線的變化,利用影像等比例放大得到乾燥層高度,並分析各情況下乾燥層高度與製程時間之關係,再測量出各乾燥層高度所對應的失水重量,進而計算出各條件下乾燥層高度與製程時間、失水比例與乾燥率之間關係。從實驗得知使用冷凍櫃預凍方式之失水比例及乾燥率皆較使用棚板預凍方式有效率,但在物料外觀及品質上,使用棚板預凍方式則明顯較為優良。設定棚板溫度愈高乾燥率愈高,但藉由觀察乾燥層高度之失水比例則與理想值距離愈遠;物料外觀上,棚板溫度愈低,物料品質愈穩定。

Vacuum freeze-drying technology is widely used in the production of food, pharmaceuticals, and micro-nano-materials. The principle is that in a vacuum state, due to the ice sublimation caused by low temperature and pressure, the moisture previously froze in the material can be removed in the form of water vapor in sublimation without melting, so that dried products of good appearance and quality can be obtained. Crystal bottle is often used in pharmaceutical freeze-drying. In the process, a line of ice of the material can be observed to gradually decrease to the bottom of the material under processing. Few studies have analyzed the nature of the line of ice. By using the shed plate freeze-drying equipment, this study examined the freeze-drying process of the glucose solution of weight percentage concentration of 20%. In settings of two pre-freezing methods including the pre-freezing by freezer and the pre-freezing by shed plate, and shed plate temperatures at -30℃, -20℃ and -10℃, this experiment used CCD to test and observe the changes in the line of ice of the material during the testing process. By enlargement of scaling of the images, the dry layer heights were obtained, and the relationship between dry layer heights and processing time was analyzed. The water loss weights corresponding to the dray layer heights were measured. The relationship between dry layer height and processing time, as well as the relationship between water loss ratio and drying rate, as calculated. The experimental results indicated that pre-freezing by freezer is more efficient than pre-freezing by shed plate in terms of water loss ratio and drying rate. However, the pre-freezing by shed plate is apparently better in terms of material appearance and quality. When the shed plate temperature and drying rate are greater, the water loss ratio is further away from the ideal values. Regarding material appearance, when the shed plate temperature is lower, the material quality is more stable.

摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
目 錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2文獻回顧 2
1.3研究目的 4
第二章 理論背景 5
2.1乾燥方式 5
2.2真空的定義與分級 8
2.3冷凍乾燥 10
2.4冷凍乾燥裝置的系統及功能 16
2.5冷凍真空乾燥之應用 17
第三章 冷凍真空乾燥系統製程設備 20
3.1冷凍真空乾燥系統設備 20
3.2冷凍系統 22
3.3真空系統 24
3.4量測系統 25
3.5其他 26
第四章 實驗方法與結果討論 28
4.1實驗方法 28
4.2實驗步驟 30
4.3實驗結果與討論 33
4.4綜合分析 58
第五章 結論 66
參考文獻 68

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[5]Wei Y. Kuu, Lisa M. Hardwick, Michael J. Akers, “Correlation of laboratory and production freeze drying cycles”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics302 (1-2) , pp. 56-67, 2005.
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[9]Roberto Pisano, Davide Fissore, Antonello A. Barresi, “Freeze-drying cycle optimization using model predictive control techniques”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 50 (12) , pp. 7363-7379, 2011.
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[11]Wei Chen, Karen L.B. Gast, Sheri Smithey, “The effects of different freeze-drying processes on the moisture content, color, and pfysical strength of roses and carnations”, Scientia Horticulturae 84 (3-4) , pp. 321-332, 2000.
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[13]Katrin Heinzelmann, Knut Franke, “Using freezing and drying techniques of emulsions for the microencapsulation of fish oil to improve qxidation stability”, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces12 (3-6) , pp. 223-229, 1999.
[14]許佳琪,“冷凍真空乾燥系統技術研製”,碩士論文,國立臺北科技大學冷凍空調工程系碩士班,台北,2005。
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[16]李子毅,“微奈米竹碳混合水溶液之冷凍真空乾燥製程研究”,碩士論文,國立臺北科技大學能源與冷凍空調工程系碩士班,台北,2007。
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