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研究生:葛 瑞 格
研究生(外文):Gregory Edward McCann
論文名稱(外文):Animistic Bio-Regionalism in Life and Literature: Putting the “Story” in “Bio”
指導教授:蔡 振 興
指導教授(外文):Robin Chen-Hsing Tsai
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本論文討論「萬物有靈的生命(物)地區主義」(Animistic Bio-Regionalism),意旨地方故事、宇宙論和歷史能帶給地方感一種自我實踐的完整意義。「生命」(bio)指涉「傳記」(biography),而不是傳統意義上的「生物學」(biology)。一般而言,生命(物)地區主義重視生態系統的生物面向,但忽略組成地景的傳記因素——故事、宇宙觀和生物地區的歷史。本論文共分四部份。在導讀中,我介紹傳統生物地區主義的洞見和不見。在第一章中,我援用美國原住民作家霍根(Linda Hogan)所寫的《太陽風暴》(Solar Storms)和賀胥萊(Aldous Huxley)的《島嶼》(Island)作為例子,說明生命(物)地區主義的重要性。在第二章中,我也考查柬埔寨「萬物有靈生物地區主義」的例子及其實踐。對我而言,生命(物)地區主義是「理論」,而萬物有靈論(animism)則是「實踐」。透過兩者的結合,(原住民)故事、宇宙論和歷史就可深植於「居住」(inhabitation)和「再居住」(reinhabitation)的理念之中。在結論中,我特別指出:萬物有靈論可以透過生態旅遊去傳遞這種生命(物)地區主義的精神。

This dissertation introduces a new scholarly term called Animistic Bio-Regionalism, which refers to the idea that local stories, cosmologies and histories can provide one with a fulfilling sense of place. In this sense, the “bio” in my new term refers to “biography” as opposed to “biology” as it does in traditional bioregionalism; hence the need for the hyphen to emphasize this difference. I point out that the almost exclusive scholarly focus on knowing the biological aspects of an ecosystem has come at the expense of exploring the biographical elements of a landscape, namely, the stories, the cosmologies, and the histories of a bio-region. Some of the most fertile grounds for learning about the biographies of place come from Native American writer Linda Hogan in her novel Solar Storms, and also from Aldous Huxley’s Island. The real world, however, also provides us with poignant examples about local stories and worldviews (what bioregionalists might call ‘watershed stories, religions, and histories’) and how they help to foster a true sense of knowing where you are, and for this I draw on four research expeditions to northeast Cambodia where I spent time among the indigenous highlanders and learned about their traditional religion (animism) and spiritual topography and how these things help to establish a rich sense of place. We can say that bio-regionalism is the theory, and animism is the practice, and that key bioregional terms such as “inhabitation” and “reinhabitation” need to be reconsidered in the light of the central role that stories, (indigenous) cosmology, and history need to play when considering what it means to know one’s local bio-region or watershed.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Chapter one
Animistic Bio-Regionalism in Literature: Hogan and Huxley 34

Chapter Two
Animistic Bio-Regionalism in Life: Cambodia 68

Conclusion 139

Works Cited 151

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