(54.236.58.220) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/01 00:31
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:龔鈺棠
研究生(外文):Yu-Tang Gong
論文名稱:台灣婦幼雜誌中嬰幼兒食品與益生菌產品廣告之內容分析
論文名稱(外文):Content analysis of baby food and probiotic advertisements in pregnancy and early parenting magazines in Taiwan
指導教授:陳怡君陳怡君引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Chun Chen
口試委員:林士祥陳富莉
口試委員(外文):Shyh-Hsiang LinFu-Li Chen
口試日期:2013-06-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺北醫學大學
系所名稱:保健營養學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:婦幼雜誌嬰幼兒食品廣告益生菌內容分析
外文關鍵詞:Pregnancy and early parenting magazinesBaby food advertisementsProbioticContent analysis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:28
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
第一部分
本研究之目的為探討台灣婦幼雜誌中嬰幼兒食品廣告之訊息內容。選取2011年4家婦幼雜誌,總共48本,利用內容分析法檢視其中嬰幼兒食品的廣告型態、行銷資訊、廣告代言人及廣告訴求內容。全數共有1194筆的嬰幼兒食品廣告,794筆為嬰幼兒奶粉,400筆為副食品。平均每本雜誌有25則廣告,比國外雜誌所含的嬰幼兒食品廣告多出許多。嬰幼兒食品主要以純廣告、產品介紹專欄、媽媽教室及寶寶徵選活動等多種方式呈現,顯示嬰幼兒食品廣告型態的多樣化。近乎三成的廣告有促銷優惠,4.4%的廣告提及母乳相關訊息。整體而言,相較於副食品的廣告,嬰幼兒奶粉廣告具有較豐富的行銷資訊內容。此外,嬰幼兒食品廣告主要以敘述產品營養特色、改善孩童狀況等理性訴求為導向。另一方面,本研究發現有2筆違反台灣現行規範,173筆與國際嬰兒餵食建議不符的情形,另有9筆廣告疑似違反「醫事人員代言處理原則」。台灣婦幼雜誌中含有大量且型式多元的嬰幼兒食品廣告,此類廣告之高暴露量及廣告中行銷訊息的呈現是否會影響媽媽們哺餵嬰幼兒方式的選擇,將可於未來研究進一步探討。

第二部分
本研究目的為探討台灣婦幼雜誌中益生菌產品廣告健康相關訊息之內容。選取2011年4家婦幼雜誌共48本,利用內容分析法檢視其中益生菌廣告之商品供應類別、目標客群、菌種名稱、建議量說明以及健康功效聲稱內容。全數共有440筆益生菌產品廣告,405筆為一般食品,31筆為健康食品,4筆為藥品。廣告超過九成以嬰幼兒為目標客群,且大多為嬰幼兒食品的供應形式。有超過六成的廣告具健康功效聲稱,當中以腸胃道相關的功效居多,且以特定生理功能之 “維持消化道機能”及“改善體內菌叢生態”聲稱最為常見。另外,本研究也發現有治療腹瀉、腹痛及便秘的醫療聲稱。整體來說,益生菌藥品具有最齊全的廣告資訊,食品類的廣告則缺少足夠的建議量使用及菌株說明。此外,本研究發現一般食品的益生菌廣告功效聲稱有2筆違反食品衛生管理法,且發現一般食品與健康食品有重疊的功效聲稱內容。台灣婦幼雜誌中的益生菌廣告有一般食品、健康食品與藥品等級的不同,且大多數的廣告具有健康功效聲稱。廣告有九成以上以嬰幼兒為目標客群,其中雖然藥品廣告佔少數,但其具備詳細的資訊及療效聲稱,是否合適於一般性婦幼雜誌中行銷,值得進一步探討。未來管理單位須訂定更嚴謹的食品廣告規範及標示詞句之界定內容,以確保消費者可獲得清楚且正確的食品廣告資訊。
Part 1
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine baby food advertisements in pregnancy and early parenting magazines. Methods: We conducted a content analysis to examine baby food advertisements appearing in four different magazines from 2011. Coding categories included ads type, advertising appeals, spokesperson and marketing information. Results: A total of 1194 baby food advertisements were found in 48 individual issues of four different magazines. Infant and toddler formula were found 794 times and complementary food were found 400 times, which means with an average of 25 advertisements per issue. There are 7 different types of baby food advertisements. Over 30% of the advertisements claimed that the products were imported from foreign countries and only 4.4% of the slogans mentioned breastmilk-related messages. Infant and toddler formula contains significantly more marketing information than complementary food ( p < 0.05). Baby food advertisements used generally rational appeals, aiming mostly at describing product nutritional features, improving children’s health conditions. Our study showed that 2 formula advertisements found in magazines were against current regulation, 173 baby food advertisements were against the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk substitutes. Also, there were 9 advertisements might be violating the principles of medical personnel endorsement. Conclusion: Pregnancy and early parenting magazines in year 2011 contains large amount of baby food advertisements. The high exposure of the baby food advertisements and the messages within the advertisements might affect mothers’ feeding choices. Future researches are required to determine how pregnant women and mothers react to the baby food advertisements in the print media and if these advertisements influence infant feeding decisions and maternal behavior.

Part 2
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the messages of probiotic advertisements directed towards parents in pregnancy and early parenting magazines. Methods: We used content analysis to examine the probiotic advertisements appearing in four different magazines from 2011. Coding categories included product type, serving form, probiotic strain, use recommendation and health statements. Results: We identified 440 probiotic advertisements in 48 individual issues of four different magazines and over ninety percent of the probiotic products were for children. Advertisements for regular food (n=405) were the most frequently observed, with the rest being advertisement for healthy foods (n=31) and medical foods (n=4). The commercials containing health statements accounted for over 61.4% of the total. ‘Maintaining digestive system’ and ‘improving body’s gut flora’ were the two statements most frequently mentioned. There were also medical statementss included in the probiotic advertisements. Amongst the three types of probiotic products, medical food had the most complete advertisement information, containing specific strain, use recommendation and medical statements. On the other hands, health statements violating regulation (medical statements) were found in 2 advertisements. Our study also found that regular food and health food advertisements contained similar health statements. Conclusion: Tighter supervisions and stricter regulation of food advertisements are required to make consumer have the correct probiotic advertisements information. Besides, further research should be made to investigate whether medical food advertisements are suitable for marketing in parenting magazines.
致謝....................................................I
表目次..................................................IV
圖目次..................................................V
第一章 文獻回顧...........................................1
第一節 國際母乳代用品銷售守則與餵食建議......................1
第二節 台灣嬰幼兒食品之行銷規範.............................3
第三節 廣告對於母親母乳哺餵的影響...........................5
第四節 益生菌............................................8
第五節 益生菌於兒科之臨床應用..............................13
第六節 台灣食品與藥品廣告管理規範..........................19
第二章 嬰幼兒食品廣告之內容分析..............................23
摘要..................................................24
Abstract.............................................25
第一節 緒言............................................26
第二節 研究方法........................................28
第三節 研究結果........................................32
第四節 討論............................................35
第五節 結論............................................42
第三章 台灣婦幼雜誌中益生菌廣告之健康相關訊息內容分析............52
摘要..................................................53
Abstract..............................................54
第一節 緒言.............................................55
第二節 研究方法.........................................58
第三節 研究結果.........................................62
第四節 討論.............................................65
第五節 結論.............................................71
文獻回顧
Adams, M. R., & Marteau, P. (1995). On the safety of lactic acid bacteria from food. Int J Food Microbiol, 27, 263-264

Allen, S., Okoko, B., Martinez, E., Gregorio, G., & Dans, L. (2003). Probiotics for treating infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 4.

Bu, L. N., Chang, M. H., Ni, Y. H., Chen, H. L., & Cheng, C. C. (2007). Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 in children with chronic constipation. Pediatrics Int, 49, 485-490.

Bekkali, N. L., Bongers, M. E., Van den Berg, M. M., Liem, O., & Benninga, M. A. (2007). The role of a probiotics mixture in the treatment of childhood constipation: a pilot study. Nutrition J, 6, 17.

Bausserman, M., & Michail, S. (2005). The Use of Lactobacillus GG in Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children: A Double-blind Randomized Control Trial. J Pediatr, 147, 197-201.

Biavati, B., Vescovo, M., Torriani, S., & Bottazzi, V. (2000). Bifidobacteria: history, ecology, physiology and applications. Annu Rev Microbiol, 50, 117-132.

Cabana, M. D., Shane, A. L., Chao, C., & Oliva-Hemker, M. (2006). Probiotics in primary care pediatrics. Clin Pediatr, 45, 405-410.

Conway, P. L., Gorbach, S. L., & Goldin, B. R. (1987). Survival of lactic acid bacteria in the human stomach and adhesion to intestinal cells. J Dairy Sci, 70, 1-12.

Correa, N. B., Peret Filho, L. A., Penna, F. J., Lima, F. M. S., & Nicoli, J. R. (2005). A randomized formula controlled trial of Bifidobacterium lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in infants. J Clin Gastroenterol, 39, 385-389.

Day, A. S., Whitten, K. E., & Bohane, T. D. (2004). Use of complementary and alternative medicines by children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease. J Paediatr Child Health, 40(12), 681-684.

Dicks, L. M., Silvester, M., Lawson, P. A., & Collins, M. D. (2000). Lactobacillus fornicalis sp. nov., isolated from the posterior fornix of the human vagina. Int J Syst Evol Micr, 50, 1253-1258.

de Vrese, M., Stegelmann, A., Richter, B., Fenselau, S., Laue, C., & Schrezenmeir, J. (2001). Probiotics—compensation for lactase insufficiency. Am J Clin Nutr, 73, 421-429.

Donnelly, A., Snowden, H., Renfrew, M. J., & Woolridge, M. (2000). Commercial hospital discharge packs for breastfeeding women. The Cochrane Library.

Doron, S. I., Hibberd, P. L., & Gorbach, S. L. (2008). Probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. J Clin Gastroenterol, 42, 58-63.

Foss, K. A., & Southwell, B. G. (2006). Infant feeding and the media: the relationship between Parents'' Magazine content and breastfeeding, 1972–2000. Int Breastf J, 1, 1-9.

Fooks, L. J., & Gibson, G. R. (2002). Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora. Brit J Nutr, 88(1), 39-50

Fuller, R.(1989). Probiotics in man and animals. J Appl Sci, 66, 365-378.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization. (2009) "Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria" Cordoba, Argentina. October, 1-4.

Gill, H. S., & Guarner, F. (2004). Probiotics and human health: a clinical perspective. Postgrad Med J, 80, 516-526.

Greiner, T., & Latham, M. C. (1982). The influence of infant food advertising on infant feeding practices in St. Vincent. Int J Health Serv, 12, 53-75.

Guilkey, D. K., & Stewart, J. F. (1995). Infant feeding patterns and the marketing of infant foods in the Philippines. Econ Dev Cult Change, 43, 369-399.

Hatakka, K., Savilahti, E., Ponka, A., Meurman, J. H., Poussa, T., Nase, L., & Korpela, R. (2001). Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. Brit Med J, 322, 1327.

Heuschkel, R., Afzal, N., Wuerth, A., Zurakowski, D., Leichtner, A., Kemper, K., & Bousvaros, A. (2002). Complementary medicine use in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol, 97, 382-388.

Hojsak, I., Abdović, S., Szajewska, H., Milošević, M., Krznarić, Ž., & Kolaček, S. (2010). Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of nosocomial gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. Pediatrics, 125, 1171-1177.

Howard, C., Howard, F., Lawrence, R., Andresen, E., DeBlieck, E., & Weitzman, M. (2000). Office prenatal formula advertising and its effect on breast-feeding patterns. Obstet Gynecol, 95, 296-303.

Jones, K. (2010). Probiotics: preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. J Spec Pediatr Nurs, 15, 160-162.

Kalliomaki, M., Kirjavainen, P., Eerola, E., Kero, P., Salminen, S., & Isolauri, E. (2001). Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants in whom atopy was and was not developing. J Allergy Clin Immunol,107, 129-134.

Kilic, A. O., Pavlova, S. I., Ma, W. G., & Tao, L. (1996). Analysis of Lactobacillus phages and bacteriocins in American dairy products and characterization of a phage isolated from yogurt. Appl Environ Microb, 62, 2111-2116.

Kopp-Hoolihan, L. (2001). Prophylactic and therapeutic uses of probiotics: a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101, 229-241.

Lee, J., Seto, D., & Bielory, L. (2008). Meta-analysis of clinical trials of probiotics for prevention and treatment of pediatric atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immun, 121, 116-121.

Lilly, D. M., & Stillwell, R. H. (1965). Probiotics: growth-promoting factors produced by microorganisms. Science, 147, 747-748.

Liong, M. T. (2008). Safety of probiotics: translocation and infection. Nutr Rev, 66, 192-202.

Makras, L., Triantafyllou, V., Fayol-Messaoudi, D., Adriany, T., Zoumpopoulou, G., Tsakalidou, E., Tsakalidoub, E., Servin, A. & De Vuyst, L. (2006). Kinetic analysis of the antibacterial activity of probiotic lactobacilli towards Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium reveals a role for lactic acid and other inhibitory compounds. Res Microbiol, 157, 241-247.

Merenstein, D., Murphy, M., Fokar, A., Hernandez, R. K., Park, H., Nsouli, H., ... & Shara, N. M. (2010). Use of a fermented dairy probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001) to decrease the rate of illness in kids: the DRINK study A patient-oriented, double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Eur J Clin Nutr, 64, 669-677.

Metchnikoff, E., & Metchnikoff, I. I. (2004). The prolongation of life: optimistic studies. Springer Publishing Company.

Michail, S., Sylvester, F., Fuchs, G., & Issenman, R. (2006). Clinical efficacy of probiotics: review of the evidence with focus on children. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr, 43, 550-557.

Miele, E., Pascarella, F., Giannetti, E., Quaglietta, L., Baldassano, R. N., & Staiano, A. (2009). Effect of a Probiotic Preparation (VSL#3) on Induction and Maintenance of Remission in Children With Ulcerative Colitis. Am J Gastroenterol, 104, 437-443.

Pascual, L. M., Daniele, M. B., Ruiz, F., Giordano, W., Pajaro, C., & Barberis, L. (2008). Lactobacillus rhamnosus L60, a potential probiotic isolated from the human vagina. J Gen Appl Microbiol, 54, 141-148.

Pedone, C. A., Arnaud, C. C., Postaire, E. R., Bouley, C. F., & Reinert, P. (2000). Multicentric study of the effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei on the incidence of diarrhoea. J Clin Pract, 54, 568-571.

Reuter, G. (1971). Designation of type strains for Bifidobacterium species.International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 21, 273-275.

Saavedra, J. M. (2001). Clinical applications of probiotic agents. Am J Clin Nutr, 73, 1147-1151.
Sartor, R. B. (2004). Therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microflora in inflammatory bowel diseases: antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics. Gastroenterology, 126, 1620-1633.

Savino, F., Pelle, E., Palumeri, E., Oggero, R., & Miniero, R. (2007). Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730) versus simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic: a prospective randomized study.Pediatrics, 119, 124-130.

Savino, F., Cordisco, L., Tarasco, V., Palumeri, E., Calabrese, R., Oggero, R., & Matteuzzi, D. (2010). Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics, 126, 526-533.

Schrezenmeir, J., & de Vrese, M. (2001). Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics—approaching a definition. Am J Clin Nutr, 73, 361-364.

Salminen, S., von Wright, A., Morelli, L., Marteau, P., Brassart, D., de Vos, W. M., Fondeng, R., Saxelinh, M., Collinsi, K., Mogensenj, G., Birkeland., S.E. & Mattila-Sandholm, T. (1998). Demonstration of safety of probiotics—a review. Int J Food Microbiol, 44, 93-106.

Scott, J., Landers, M., Hughes, R. M., & Binns, C. (2001). Factors associated with breastfeeding at discharge and duration of breastfeeding. J Paediatr Child Health, 37, 254-261.

Scott, J. A. (2011). Attitudes to Breastfeeding Infant Feeding Practices (pp. 39-54): Springer.

Scott, J. A., Binns, C. W., Graham, K. I., & Oddy, W. H. (2006). Temporal changes in the determinants of breastfeeding initiation. Birth, 33, 37-45.

Scott, J. A., Binns, C. W., Oddy, W. H., & Graham, K. I. (2006). Predictors of breastfeeding duration: evidence from a cohort study. Pediatrics, 117, 646-655.

Scott, J. A., Shaker, I., & Reid, M. (2004). Parental attitudes toward breastfeeding: their association with feeding outcome at hospital discharge. Birth, 31, 125-131.

Shaker, I., Scott, J. A., & Reid, M. (2004). Infant feeding attitudes of expectant parents: breastfeeding and formula feeding. J Adv Nurs, 45, 260-268.

Shimamura, S., Abe, F., Ishibashi, N., Miyakawa, H., Yaeshima, T., Araya, T., & Tomita, M. (1992). Relationship Between Oxygen Sensitivity and Oxygen Metabolism of Bifidobacterium Species. J Dairy Sci,75, 3296-3306.

Sittlington, J., Stewart-Knox, B., Wright, M., Bradbury, I., & Scott, J. A. (2007). Infant-feeding attitudes of expectant mothers in Northern Ireland. Health Educ Res, 22, 561-570.

Szajewska, H., Ruszczyński, M., & Radzikowski, A. (2006). Probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr, 149, 367-372.

Szajewska, H. (2007). Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics: where are we now? Turk J Pediatr, 49, 231.

Szymański, H., Pejcz, J., Jawień, M., Chmielarczyk, A., Strus, M., & Heczko, P. B. (2006). Treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in infants and children with a mixture of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains–a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial. Aliment Pharm Therap, 23, 247-253.

Tanaka, H., Doesburg, K., Iwasaki, T., & Mierau, I. (1999). Screening of lactic acid bacteria for bile salt hydrolase activity. J Dairy Sci, 82, 2530-2535.

Thomas, D. W. and F. R. Greer (2010). Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics, 126,1217-1231.

Turnbull, G. K. (2000). Lactose intolerance and irritable bowel syndrome.Nutrition, 16, 665-666.

van Dijk, M., Benninga, M. A., Grootenhuis, M. A., & Last, B. F. (2010). Prevalence and associated clinical characteristics of behavior problems in constipated children. Pediatrics, 125, 309-317.

Vandenbergh, P. A. (1993). Lactic acid bacteria, their metabolic products and interference with microbial growth. FEMS Microbiol Rev, 12, 221-237.

Viljanen, M., Savilahti, E., Haahtela, T., Juntunen‐Backman, K., Korpela, R., Poussa, T., Tuure. T., & Kuitunen, M. (2005). Probiotics in the treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome in infants: a double‐blind placebo‐controlled trial. Allergy, 60, 494-500.

Weizman, Z., Asli, G., & Alsheikh, A. (2005). Effect of a probiotic infant formula on infections in child care centers: comparison of two probiotic agents.Pediatrics, 115, 5-9.

Weston, S., Halbert, A., Richmond, P., & Prescott, S. L. (2005). Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child, 90, 892-897.

World Health Organization & The United Nations Children''s Fund. (2003). Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

World Health Organization, G. (1981). International code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes: ERIC Clearinghouse.

王舒徽 (2000)。原生菌之機能性簡介。食品工業,32,41-51。

廖啟成 (1998)。乳酸菌之分類及應用。食品工業,30,1-10。

陳欽榮(2009)。飼料用益生菌(Bacillussubtilis)之發酵條件與菌株探討。朝陽科技大學應用化學系碩士論文。

李坤美與林應然 (2005)。益生菌在臨床上的使用。北市醫學雜誌, 2, 410-422。

施智源、黄怡文與黃芳亮 (2009)。益生菌的臨床應用:文獻回顧。感染控制雜誌,19, 182-188。

殷儷容 (2002)。探討以魚肉為基質之乳酸菌發酵新加工技術。國立海洋大學食品科學系博士論文。

行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局 (2010年4月),健康食品概說。2012年06月 01日讀取自行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局網站,網址: http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/siteContent.aspx?sid=1776

行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局。(2012年8月),食品衛生管理法。2013年5月20日讀取至行政院衛生署食品藥物消費者知識服務網,網址:http://consumer.fda.gov.tw/Law/Detail.aspx?nodeID=518&lawid=44


行政院衛生署(1992),嬰兒配方食品與較大嬰兒配方輔助食品行銷規範。2013年03月25日讀取自網站:
http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/includes/GetFile.ashx?mID=133&id=9607&chk=28ea968a-3569-431f-a697-92d6599d0d67

行政院衛生署食品藥物管局。(2012年9月),食品標示宣傳或廣告詞句涉及誇張易生誤解或醫療效能之認定基準。2013年5月20日讀取至行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局,網址:http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/siteContent.aspx?sid=1691

行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局(2010年7月),藥品廣告法令及審查準則。2013年04月30日讀取自行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局網站,網址:http://www.fda.gov.tw/upload/133/2013041111320066825.pdf

第一部分
Apple, R. D. (1995). Constructing mothers: Scientific motherhood in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Soc Hist Med, 8, 161-178.

Baker, W. E. (1999). When can affective conditioning and mere exposure directly influence brand choice? J Advertising, 28, 31-46.

Berelson, B. (1971). Content analysis in communication research. New York : Free Press.

Bergevin Cynthia Dougherty, Y., & Kramer, M. S. (1983). Do infant formula samples shorten the duration of breast-feeding? Lancet, 321, 1148-1151.

Berry, N. J., Jones, S., & Iverson, D. (2010). It''s all formula to me: women''s understandings of toddler milk ads. Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences-Papers, 21-30.

Berry, N. J., Jones, S. C., & Iverson, D. (2011). Relax, you''re soaking in it: Sources of information about infant formula. Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences-Papers, 9-18.

Berry, N. J., Jones, S. C., & Iverson, D. (2012a). Circumventing the WHO Code? An observational study. Arch Dis Child, 97, 320-325.

Berry, N. J., Jones, S. C., & Iverson, D. (2012b). Toddler milk advertising in Australia: Infant formula advertising in disguise? Aust Mark J , 20, 24-27

Cairney, P. A., & Alder, E. M. (2001). A survey of information given by health professionals, about bottle feeding, to first-time mothers in a Scottish population. Health B, 59, 97-101.

Carruth, B. R., & Skinner, J. D. (2001). Mothers'' sources of information about feeding their children ages 2 months to 54 months. J Nutr Educ, 33, 143-147.

Cobb-Walgren, C. J., Ruble, C. A., & Donthu, N. (1995). Brand equity, brand preference, and purchase intent. J Advertising, 24, 25-40.

Eidelman, A. I., Schanler, R. J., Johnston, M., Landers, S., Noble, L., Szucs, K., & Viehmann, L. (2012). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129, 827-841.

Foss, K. A., & Southwell, B. G. (2006). Infant feeding and the media: the relationship between Parents'' Magazine content and breastfeeding, 1972–2000. Int Breastf J, 1, 1-9.

Gray-Donald, K., Kramer, M. S., Munday, S., & Leduc, D. G. (1985). Effect of formula supplementation in the hospital on the duration of breast-feeding: a controlled clinical trial. Pediatrics, 75, 514-518.

Harris, J. L., Brownell, K. D., & Bargh, J. A. (2009). The food marketing defense model: integrating psychological research to protect youth and inform public policy. Soc Issues Policy Rev, 3, 211-271.

Hoddinott, P., & Pill, R. (2000). A qualitative study of women’s views about how health professionals communicate about infant feeding. Health Expect, 3, 224-233.

Howard, C., Howard, F., Lawrence, R., Andresen, E., DeBlieck, E., & Weitzman, M. (2000). Office prenatal formula advertising and its effect on breast-feeding patterns. Obstet Gynecol, 95, 296-303.

Lewallen, L. P. (2004). Healthy Behaviors and Sources of Health Information Among Low‐Income Pregnant Women. Public Health Nurs, 21, 200-206.

Manganello, J. A., Clegg Smith, K., Sudakow, K., & Summers, A. C. (2012). A content analysis of food advertisements appearing in parenting magazines. Public Health Nutr, 1, 1-9.

Nan, X. (2006). Affective cues and brand‐extension evaluation: Exploring the influence of attitude toward the parent brand and attitude toward the extension ad. Psychol Market, 23, 597-616.

Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

Palmer, G. (2009). The politics of breastfeeding: when breasts are bad for business. London: Pinter & Martin.

Park, C. W., Milberg, S., & Lawson, R. (1991). Evaluation of brand extensions: the role of product feature similarity and brand concept consistency. J Consum Res, 18, 185-193.

Potter, B., Sheeshka, J., & Valaitis, R. (2000). Content analysis of infant feeding messages in a Canadian women''s magazine, 1945 to 1995. J Nutr Educ, 32, 196-203.

Richter, J.(2002). Holding corporations accountable: Corporate conduct, international codes, and citizen action. New York: Zed Books.

Rose, G. (2001). Visual methodologies: An introduction to the interpretation of visual materials. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Sim, J., & Wright, C. C. (2005). The kappa statistic in reliability studies: use, interpretation, and sample size requirements. Phys Ther, 85, 257-268.

Schooler, R. (1971). Bias phenomena attendant to the marketing of foreign goods in the US. J Int Bus Stud, 71-80.

Stang, J., Hoss, K., & Story, M. (2010). Health Statements Made in Infant Formula Advertisements in Pregnancy and Early Parenting Magazines A Content Analysis. ICAN Infant Child Adolesc Nutr, 2, 16-25.

Stewart, J. F., Popkin, B. M., Guilkey, D. K., Akin, J. S., Adair, L., & Flieger, W. (1991). Influences on the extent of breast-feeding: a prospective study in the Philippines. Demography, 28, 181-199.

Suleiman, A. (2001). A study of marketing and its effect on infant feeding practices. Med J Malaysia, 56, 319.

Warner, D., & Procaccino, J. D. (2004). Toward wellness: Women seeking health information. J Am Soc Inform Sci Technol, 55, 709-730.

World Health Organization & The United Nations Children''s Fund. (2003). Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

World Health Organization, G. (1981). International code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes: ERIC Clearinghouse.

World Health Organization. (2012). 10 facts on breastfeeding. Retrieved June1st, 2012, from http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/breastfeeding/facts/en/index1.html.

屈蓮與白璐(1988)。嬰兒奶粉促銷活動與母親對嬰兒奶粉之選擇的探討。中華民國公共衛生學會雜誌,8, 230-247。

許名志(2009)。明星代言人說服力與廣告訴求對廣告溝通效果影響之研究-以廣告涉入為干擾變數。中國文化大學國際企業管理研究所碩士論文。

陳富莉(2001)。論菸品消費文化與青少年菸品消費行為。國立台灣大學衛生政策與管理研究所博士論文。

蔡甫昌、楊惠中 (2011)。醫事人員廣告代言之倫理議題工作坊紀要。醫療品質雜誌,第5卷第2期,7-14。

張艾雯、邵志忠、李河水 (1991)。台灣嬰兒食品消費現況分析。台北市:行政院農業委員會。

行政院衛生署(1992),嬰兒配方食品與較大嬰兒配方輔助食品行銷規範。2013年03月25日讀取自網站:
http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/includes/GetFile.ashx?mID=133&id=9607&chk=28ea968a-3569-431f-a697-92d6599d0d67

行政院衛生署國民健康局(2007年5月),嬰兒配方食品行銷規範達成共識。2013年01月25日讀取自行政院衛生署國民健康局健康九九網站:http://health99.doh.gov.tw/Hot_News/h_NewsDetailN.aspx?TopIcNo=3680

行政院衛生署 (2004年6月),醫師代言產品處理之說明。2013年01月 28日讀取自行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局網站,網址:http://www.doh.gov.tw/CHT2006/DM/DM2_p01.aspx?class_no=0&now_fod_list_no=&level_no=&doc_no=44994

行政院衛生署國民健康局(2011年10月),母乳哺育國內現況。2013年07月03日讀取字行政院衛生署國民健康局網站:https://www.bhp.doh.gov.tw/BHPNet/Web/HealthTopic/TopicArticle.aspx?id=201110060023&parentid=201110060004


第二部分
Allen, S., Jordan, S., Storey, M., Thornton, C., Gravenor, M., Garaiova, I., Jones, R., Macfarlane, T., Manshian, B., Moller, M., Omakobia, M., Plummer, S & Wang, D. (2012). Probiotics and atopic eczema: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child, 97, A2.

Barr, S. I. (1989). Nutrition in food advertising: Content analysis of a Canadian women''s magazine, 1928–1986. J Nutr Educ, 21, 64-72.

Bezirtzoglou, E., & Stavropoulou, E. (2011). Immunology and probiotic impact of the newborn and young children intestinal microflora. Anaerobe, 17, 369-374.

Berelson, B. (1971). Content analysis in communication research. New York : Free Press.

Braegger, C., Chmielewska, A., Decsi, T., Kolacek, S., Mihatsch, W., Moreno, L., Pieścik, M., Puntis, J., Sharmir, R., Szajewska, H., Turck, D & van Goudoever, J. (2011). Supplementation of infant formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics: a systematic review and comment by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 52, 238-250.

Bu, L. N., Chang, M. H., Ni, Y. H., Chen, H. L., & Cheng, C. C. (2007). Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 in children with chronic constipation. Pediatr Int, 49, 485-490.

Byrd-Bredbenner, C., & Grasso, D. (2000). What is television trying to make children swallow?: content analysis of the nutrition information in prime-time advertisements. J Nutr Educ, 32, 187-195.

Chapman, S. (1986). Great Expectorations: Smoking and Advertisements. London: Comedia.

Chuang, C. H., Yang, S. H., Chang, P. J., Chen, P. C., & Chen, Y. C. (2012). Dietary Supplement Intake by 6-month-old Taiwanese Infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 54, 71-76.

Codex Alimentarius Commission, & Codex Alimentarius Commission. (2004). Guidelines for use of nutrition and health claims. CAC/GL, 23-1997. Adopted in 1997. Revised in 2004.Amended in 2001, 2008, 2009 ,2010 and 2012.

Dicks, L. M., & Botes, M. (2010). Probiotic lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract: health benefits, safety and mode of action. Benef Microbes, 1, 11-29.

De Mooij, M. (2010). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising: SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

Dinleyici, E. C., Eren, M., Ozen, M., Yargic, Z. A., & Vandenplas, Y. (2012). Effectiveness and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii for acute infectious diarrhea. Expert Opin Biol Ther, 12, 395-410.

Francavilla, R., Miniello, V., Magista, A. M., De Canio, A., Bucci, N., Gagliardi, F., Peccarisi, L. (2010). A randomized controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG in children with functional abdominal pain. Pediatrics, 126, 1445-1452.

Gareau, M. G., Sherman, P. M., & Walker, W. A. (2010). Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 7, 503-514.

Hao, Q., Lu, Z., Dong, B. R., Huang, C. Q., & Wu, T. (2011). Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 9.

Hernell, O., & West, C. E. (2013). Clinical effects of probiotics: scientific evidence from a paediatric perspective. Brit J Nutr, 109, 70-75.

Indrio, F., Riezzo, G., Raimondi, F., Bisceglia, M., Filannino, A., Cavallo, L., & Francavilla, R. (2011). Lactobacillus reuteri accelerates gastric emptying and improves regurgitation in infants. Eur J Clin Invest, 41, 417-422.

Indrio, F., Riezzo, G., Raimondi, F., Francavilla, R., Montagna, O., Valenzano, M. L., Cavallo, L & Boehm, G. (2009). Prebiotics improve gastric motility and gastric electrical activity in preterm newborns. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 49, 258-261.

Ippolito, P. M., & Pappalardo, J. K. (2002). Advertising nutrition & health: evidence from food advertising, 1977-1997. Washington: DIANE Publishing.

Johnston, B. C., Goldenberg, J. Z., Vandvik, P. O., Sun, X., & Guyatt, G. H. (2011). Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 11.

Kim, K.-N. (2003). Health and Nutrition Messages in the Baby Food Advertisements of Women’s Magazines. J Comm Nutr, 5, 178-185.

Kumpu, M., Kekkonen, R., Kautiainen, H., Jarvenpaa, S., Kristo, A., Huovinen, P., Pitkaranta, A., Korpela, R. & Hatakka, K. (2012). Milk containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and respiratory illness in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr, 66, 1020-1023.

Lappalainen, R., Kearney, J., & Gibney, M. (1998). A pan EU survey of consumer attitudes to food, nutrition and health: an overview. Food Qual Prefer, 9, 467-478.

Lee, J., Seto, D., & Bielory, L. (2008). Meta-analysis of clinical trials of probiotics for prevention and treatment of pediatric atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immun, 121, 116-121.

Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

Ogden, N. S., & Bielory, L. (2005). Probiotics: a complementary approach in the treatment and prevention of pediatric atopic disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol, 5, 179.

Parker, B. J. (2003). Food for health. J Advertising, 32, 47-55.

Prescott, S., & West, C. (2011). Prebiotics and probiotics for treatment of allergic disease. UpToDate.

Prescott, S. L., & Bjorksten, B. (2007). Probiotics for the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immun, 120, 255-262.

Radimer, K., & Harvey, P. (1995). Where do Queenslanders get nutrition information? Aust J Nutr Diet, 52, 94-94.

Rose, M. A. (2011). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces frequency and severity of abdominal pain compared with placebo in children with irritable bowel syndrome. Evid Based Med, 16, 141-142.

Saavedra, J. M., Abi-Hanna, A., Moore, N., & Yolken, R. H. (2004). Long-term consumption of infant formulas containing live probiotic bacteria: tolerance and safety. Am J Clin Nutr, 79, 261-267.

Saxelin, M. (2008). Probiotic formulations and applications, the current probiotics market, and changes in the marketplace: a European perspective. Clin Infect Dis, 46, 76-79.

Sim, J., & Wright, C. C. (2005). The kappa statistic in reliability studies: use, interpretation, and sample size requirements. Phys Ther, 85, 257-268.
Severin, W. J., & Tankard, J. W. (1992). Communication theories: Origins, methods, and uses in the mass media. New York: Longman.

Stanton, C., Gardiner, G., Meehan, H., Collins, K., Fitzgerald, G., Lynch, P. B., & Ross, R. P. (2001). Market potential for probiotics. Am J Clin Nutr, 73, 476-483.

Szajewska, H., Wanke, M., & Patro, B. (2011). Meta‐analysis: the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation for the prevention of healthcare‐associated diarrhoea in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 34, 1079-1087.

Tabbers, M., De Milliano, I., Roseboom, M., & Benninga, M. (2011). Is Bifidobacterium breve effective in the treatment of childhood constipation? Results from a pilot study. Nutr J, 10, 19.

Tang, M. L., Lahtinen, S. J., & Boyle, R. J. (2010). Probiotics and prebiotics: clinical effects in allergic disease. Curr Opin Pediatr, 22, 626-634.

Thomas, C. M., & Versalovic, J. (2010). Probiotics-host communication: Modulation of signaling pathways in the intestine. Gut Microbes, 1, 148-163.

Thomas, D. W., & Greer, F. R. (2010). Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics, 126, 1217-1231.

Urala, N., Arvola, A., & Lahteenmaki, L. (2003). Strength of health‐related claims and their perceived advantage. Int J Food Sci Tech, 38, 815-826.

Vanderhoof, J. A., & Young, R. J. (1998). Use of probiotics in childhood gastrointestinal disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 27, 323-332.

Van der Aa, L., Van Aalderen, W., Heymans, H., Henk Sillevis Smitt, J., Nauta, A., Knippels, L., . . . Sprikkelman, A. (2011). Synbiotics prevent asthma‐like symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis. Allergy, 66, 170-177.

Wadhera, V., Lemberg, D. A., Leach, S. T., & Day, A. S. (2011). Complementary and alternative medicine in children attending gastroenterology clinics: Usage patterns and reasons for use. J Paediatr Child Health, 47, 904-910.

Wallace, B. (2009). Clinical use of probiotics in the pediatric population. Nutr Clin Pract, 24, 50-59.

王慧娟(2002)。你吃對了嗎?消費者對食品廣告中誤導訊息之解讀。國立台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。

行政院衛生署食品藥物管局。(2012年9月),食品標示宣傳或廣告詞句涉及誇張易生誤解或醫療效能之認定基準。2013年5月20日讀取至行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局,網址:http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/siteContent.aspx?sid=1691

消基會(2007)。母親節送健康,小心「保健食品」四大陷阱!。2013年5月20日讀取自:http://www.consumers.org.tw/unit412.aspx?id=858

行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局 (2010年4月),健康食品概說。2012年06月 01日讀取自行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局網站,網址: http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/siteContent.aspx?sid=1776

行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局。(2012年8月),食品衛生管理法。2013年5月20日讀取至行政院衛生署食品藥物消費者知識服務網,網址:http://consumer.fda.gov.tw/Law/Detail.aspx?nodeID=518&lawid=44

行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局(2010年7月),藥品廣告法令及審查準則。2013年04月30日讀取自行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局網站,網址:http://www.fda.gov.tw/upload/133/2013041111320066825.pdf

行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局(2011年11月),說明藥品管理與品質監控。2013年05月15日讀取自行政院衛生署食品藥物管理局網站,網址:http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/siteNews.aspx?sid=38&id=24&chk=a4ac604a-d964-4f99-863b-6057a8d1eb66
電子全文 電子全文(本篇電子全文限研究生所屬學校校內系統及IP範圍內開放)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔