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研究生:狄耀光
研究生(外文):Diðrik Sveinn Bogason
論文名稱:虔誠、創造性與作曲---阿南達瑪迦的音樂及其哲學基礎、美學與實踐
論文名稱(外文):Devotion, Creativity and Composition: Music in Ánanda Márga and Its Philosophical Base, Aesthetics and Practice
指導教授:蔡宗德蔡宗德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai, Tsung-Te
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺南藝術大學
系所名稱:民族音樂學研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:音樂學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:307
中文關鍵詞:印度靈性音樂曙光之歌靈性舞蹈普羅巴.阮將.沙卡阿南達瑪迦儀式與離散主義
外文關鍵詞:Indian devotional musicdiasporaritual studiesPrabháta SaîgiitakiirtanP. R. SarkarÁnanda Márga
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阿南達瑪迦(Ánanda Márga)由雪莉.普羅巴.阮將.沙卡(Shrii
P.R.Sarkar),又稱雪莉.雪莉.阿南達慕提(Shrii Shrii Ánandamurtiji),於1955年在印度創立,至今已擴展至全世界,建立了許多瑜珈與靜坐中心,並進行各種服務計畫。靈性音樂在阿南達瑪迦扮演重要的角色,旨在帶來吉祥,並讓心靈為靜坐做好準備。雪莉.沙卡在1970年將靈性舞蹈(kiirtana)引進阿南達瑪迦,並給予一個新梵咒:Bábá Nam Kevalam,伴隨古老的拉利塔瑪蜜卡(lalita marmika)舞。靈性舞蹈很快便在印度和其他國家的阿南達瑪迦組織中廣受歡迎,而創作新曲調與和聲的自由,則使這個本質上為印度的傳統,有機會依據其他國家的不同文化與音樂進行轉化。從1982年到1990年,雪莉.沙卡創作了5018首歌曲,稱之為「曙光之歌」(Prabháta Saîgiita)。其中大多數歌曲都使用孟加拉語,具有各種不同的靈性主題與音樂風格。歌曲與歌詞都是根據古代印度的上師-­‐弟子傳統(Guru-shishya Parampara)而口授,並記錄下來以流傳後世。
在這篇論文中,我試著:為聲音提供較完整的哲學背景與秘宗定義,並探
討它對人類心靈的影響;描述曙光之歌的作曲過程;對於來自不同曙光之歌與
靈性舞蹈類型的代表性歌曲,進行音樂與哲學分析;最後將我的發現連結到儀
式與離散主義的研究上,並解釋這些音樂如何在阿南達瑪迦的日常與集體生活
中發揮作用。過去三年間,我為了從事田野研究而到印度許多次;我也運用過
去十五年在北歐、台灣和俄羅斯身為阿南達瑪迦僧侶的經驗。

關鍵詞:印度靈性音樂、曙光之歌、靈性舞蹈、 普羅巴.阮將.沙卡、阿南達
瑪迦、儀式與離散主義。
Ánanda Márga was founded the year 1955 in India by Shrii P. R. Sarkar, aka Shrii Shrii Ánandamurtiji and has by now spread all over the world and established yoga and meditation centres and various service projects. Devotional music plays an important role in Ánanda Márga to prepare the mind for meditation. Shrii Sarkar introduced kiirtana into Ánanda Márga in 1970 and gave a new mantra, Bábá Nam
Kevalam accompanied by the ancient lalita mármika dance. Kiirtana soon became very popular in Ánanda Márga both in India and other countries and the freedom to create new tunes and accompaniment gave scope for this essentially Indian tradition to transform according to the different cultures and music in other countries. During the years 1982-1990, Shrii Sarkar composed Prabháta Saîgiita, a collection of 5018 songs, mostly in Bengali language with various devotional themes and music styles. The songs and lyrics were all given by dictation according to the ancient Indian Gurudisciple tradition (Guru-shishya Parampara) and recorded for posterity.
In this thesis I discuss the philosophical background and Tantric definitions of sound and its effect on the human mind; the composition process of Prabháta Saîgiita; music and philosophical analysis of representative songs of Prabháta Saîgiita and kiirtana; and finally relate my findings to ritual and diaspora studies. I went several
times to India during last three years for my fieldwork and also use my experience of being a monk in Ánanda Márga last fifteen years in Scandinavia, Taiwan and Russia.

Key Words: Indian devotional music, diaspora, ritual studies, Prabháta Saîgiita, kiirtan, P. R. Sarkar, Ánanda Márga.
Chinese Abstract ........................................ I
Abstract ............................................... II
Acknowledgments ........................................ III
Table of Contents ....................................... IV
Lists of Figures ........................................ VI
Lists of Tables ........................................ VII
Lists of Musical Examples.............................. VIII
List of Abbreviations .................................. IX
Transliteration of Romanized Sanskrit, Bengali and Hindi XI
Chapter 1. Introduction ................................1
1.1. Goals and Motivation............................... 3
1.2. Review of Main References.......................... 10
1.3. Theoretical Framework, Methods and Limitations..... 21
1.4. Contents and Research Area ........................ 44

Chapter 2. Philosophical Concepts of Ánanda Márga and Their Relation to Sound, Saîgiita and Aesthetics ............ 46
2.1. Brahmacakra: The Creation of the Universe......... 47
2.2. Oôîkara (Om ॐ) and the Concepts of Saguòa, Nirguòa and Taraka Brahma..................................... 58
2.3. Mantra and the Effect of Sound in Spiritual Practice.74
2.4. Lord Shiva’s Contributions to Music and Dance..... 81
2.5. Expression, Aesthetics, and the Role of Artists in Society ...............................................94
V

Chapter 3. Musical Composition in Ánanda Márga ........ 106
3.1. The Creation of ‘Bábá Nam Kevalam’ Kiirtana ..... 108
3.2. The Compositional Process of Prabháta Saîgiita by Shrii P. R. Sarkar ................................... 133
3.3. Bhajans and Other Devotional Songs ............... 162

Chapter 4. Analysis of the Music in Ánanda Márga .......165
4.1. Indian Music Terminology and Notation System .......165
4.2. Prabháta Saîgiita and Their Categorization .........176
4.3. Musical, Poetic and Philosophical Analysis of the
Prabháta Saîgiita Songs................................. 182
4.4. Analysis of Musical Aspects of Kiirtana............ 221
4.5. Analysis of Guru Puja.............................. 225

Chapter 5. Spiritual Practice, Devotion, and Wellbeing in Ánanda Márga............................................ 233
5.1. Music and Spiritual Practices in the Perspective of Ritual Studies ........................................ 234
5.2. Devotional Music, Diaspora, and the Universal Family........................................... .....260
5.3. Affecting Health and Wellbeing by the Spiritual Ideation of Mantra and Meditation..................... 280

Chapter6.Conclusions .................................. 287
Works Cited ........................................... 290
Appendices ............................................ 299
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