(3.238.173.209) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/08 15:39
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:曾于綾
研究生(外文):Yu-Ling Tseng
論文名稱:組織圖在國小學生字母拼讀教學之應用
論文名稱(外文):Applications of Graphic Organizers for Teaching Elementary Students Phonics
指導教授:藍美華藍美華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei-Hua Lan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:文藻外語大學
系所名稱:外語文教事業發展研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:213
中文關鍵詞:組織圖字母拼讀學習拼讀讀本
外文關鍵詞:Graphic organizersPhonics learningDecodable readers
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:293
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:42
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
過去的十年間,英語學習的研究者往往建議教育者對於初學者使用字母拼讀的教學來促進他們的閱讀能力。然而過去對於以組織圖和拼讀文本來教字母拼讀的相關研究不足,所以本研究旨在調查應用組織圖有系統地教字母拼讀並研究其是否改善唸讀拼讀文本的正確率及其延宕的影響。本研究針對3位一、二年級的女學童教學十二週,共計23小時。本個案研究包含了質性及量的研究,以蒐集唸讀文本評量表的正確率、老師的觀察記錄和學生及其母親的回饋來評量結果。為了更確定評分者間的信度,也請另一位老師幫忙評量學習者唸讀的正確率。研究結果指出,學生可以經由組織圖的應用有系統地學習字母拼讀及閱讀。再者,應用組織圖可以增進學生在拼讀讀本唸讀的正確率。然而,並非全部的學生在延宕測驗時都在唸讀拼讀讀本時,保有很高的正確率。此外,學生認同應用組織圖學習幫助他們清楚快速地學習並很快唸出英文字;媽媽們也指出類似的正面回饋,並且認為他們的孩子應用組織圖學習可以學得很好也很快樂。根據本研究結果,可以得出一些對於組織圖應用在唸讀拼讀讀本的意涵。首先,有系統的字母拼讀教學應該結合可以幫助學生有意義和全面性學習的拼讀文本和視覺化的組織圖。此外,應用組織圖學習字母拼讀可以幫助學習者增進字母拼讀的學習。而為了證實學習保留率的影響,則必須再延長教學時數或做延伸的研究。
In the last decade, researchers of English learning have often suggested that educators’ using of phonics instructions on novice learners facilitate their reading proficiency. However, relevant studies on the systematic phonics with graphic organizers and decodable texts are comparatively fewer. Therefore, this study examined the application of graphic organizers in phonics instructions in a systematic way, and also investigated the leaners’ improvements in reading decodable texts as measured by accuracy rates and the effects across time. This study was implemented to three first and second-grade female students for 12 weeks, with totally 23 instructional hours. It was a case study involving both quantitative and qualitative analyses, in which comprised of the accuracy rates gathered from the evaluation forms, the teacher’s observations during the tutoring and the feedback from both the students and their mothers. To ensure the inter-rater reliability of the students’ readings of the decodable readers, another teacher was also involved to help evaluate accuracy rates of learners’ readings. The results of the study indicate that the students could learn phonics better with the application of graphic organizers which supported learners’ learning of phonics and reading in a systematic way. Also, the application of graphic organizers significantly improved students’ decoding skills in reading decodable readers as measured by accuracy rates. However, not all of the students’ retention of accuracy rates remained at a high level with the application of graphic organizers in reading decodable readers. In addition, the students agreed that the application of graphic organizers assisted them to learn phonics explicitly and quickly and they could read the decodable readers quickly with the use of graphic organizers. The subjects’ mothers indicated similar positive feedback and expressed that their children learned well and enjoyed their learning with the use of graphic organizers. Based on the study findings, some pedagogical implications for the application of graphic organizers in reading decodable readers can be drawn. First, systematic phonics instructions should incorporate teaching materials with decodable texts and visual organizers that can be helpful for guiding students’ learning in a meaningful and holistic way. Furthermore, learning phonics with the application of graphic organizers can contribute to learners’ improvements in their phonics learning. However, longer instructions and further studies should be conducted to verify the effects of retention.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background and Motivation 1
Statement of Problems 4
Purpose of the Study 6
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 7
Limitations of the Study 8
Definitions 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 11
Phonics Instructions 11
Phonics and Reading 13
Phonological Awareness and Zhuyin Fuhao 14
Phonics Instruction Approaches 15
Phonics Instruction in Taiwan, the EFL Contexts 21
Graphic Organizers 24
Instructions of Graphic Organizer 26
Graphic Organizer in Language Teaching and Learning 28
Graphic Organizer in Phonics and Reading 29
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 33
Research Methods 33
Subjects 34
Instruments 35
Teaching Methods and Materials 36
Decodable Readers 37
Worksheets 38
Course Syllabus 41
Accuracy Evaluation Forms 44
Observation Logs 49
Questions Used in the Interview 49
Questionnaires on Students’ Feedback to Graphic Organizers and Worksheets 50
Procedure 51
Data Collection 54
Data Analyses 55
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 57
Application of Graphic Organizers on Students for Systematic Phonics Learning 57
Effects of Graphic Organizers on Students’ Decoding Skills in Reading Decodable Readers 70
Effects of Graphic Organizers on Melody's Decoding Skills in Reading Decodable Readers 71
Effects of Graphic Organizers on Dora's Decoding Skills in Reading Decodable Readers 78
Effects of Graphic Organizers on Lucy's Decoding Skills in Reading Decodable Readers 83
Effects of Graphic Organizers on Students’ Decoding Skills in Reading Decodable Readers Across Time 89
Student And Parent Feedback on the Use of Graphic Organizers in Phonics Learning 93
Results of Questionnaires 93
Results of Student Interviews 119
Results of Mothers Interviews 123
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS 129
Conclusions 129
Implications 130
Suggestions 132
REFERENCES 135
Abbott, L., Dornbush, A., Giddings, A., & Thomas, J. (2012, May 1). Implementing Guided Reading Strategies with Kindergarten and First Grade Students. Online Submission,
Ae-Hwa Kim, B. A., Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., & Shangjin Wei, J. (2004). Graphic Organizers and Their Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with LD: A Synthesis of Research. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 37(2), 105-118.
Agnello, C., Jockl, P., Pearson, I., & Velasco, D. (1998, May 1). Improving Student Reading Comprehension in the Content Areas through the Use of Visual Organizers.
Alabama State Dept. of Education, M. y. (2001). Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction: Grades 2-3. Alabama Reading Initiative.
Alabama State Dept. of Education, M. y. (2001). Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction: Grades K-1. Alabama Reading Initiative.
Amaratunga, Baldry, Sarshar, & Newton (2002). Quantitative and qualitative research in the built environment: application of "mixed" research approach. Retrieved June 17, 2013, from University of Salford, School of Construction and Property Management Web site: http://www.adolphus.me.uk/emx/research_design/meth_be_files/p17.htm
Alshatti, S., Watters, J. J., & Kidman, G. (2010). Enhancing the Teaching of Family and Consumer Sciences: The Role of Graphic Organizers. Journal Of Family & Consumer Sciences Education, 28(2), 14-35.
Alexander Laszlo and Stanley Krippner (1998). Systems Theories: Their Origins, Foundations, and Development. Retrieved from http://archive.syntonyquest.org/elcTree/resourcesPDFs/SystemsTheory.pdf
Anderson (2006). Qualitative and Quantitative research. Retrieved June 17, 2013, from Imperial County Office of Education, Superintendent of Schools Web site: http://www.icoe.org/webfm_send/1936
Ausubel, D. P., & ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science Education, C. H. (1970). The Use of Ideational Organizers in Science Teaching. Occasional Paper 3.
Baxendell, B. W. (2003). Consistent, Coherent, Creative The 3 C's of Graphic Organizers. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(3), 46.
Beverly, B. L., Giles, R. M., & Buck, K. L. (2009). First-Grade Reading Gains Following Enrichment: Phonics Plus Decodable Texts Compared To Authentic Literature Read Aloud. Reading Improvement, 46(4), 191-205.
Blevins, W. (1998). Phonics from A to Z: A Practical Guide. New York: Scholastic.
Blevins, W. (2003). Phonics and the Beginning Reader. New York: Scholastic.
Bowey, J. A. (2006). Need for systematic synthetic phonics teaching within the early reading curriculum. Australian Psychologist, 41(2), 79-84.
Braselton, S., & Decker, B. C. (1994). Using graphic organizers to improve the reading of mathematics. Reading Teacher, 48(3), 276.
Brooks, M. C., & Brooks, J. S. (2005). Whole Language Or Phonics: Improving Language Instruction Through General Semantics. ETC: A Review Of General Semantics, 62(3), 271-280.
Buckland, C., & Fraser, H. (2008). Phonological literacy: Preparing primary teachers for the challenge of a balanced approach to literacy education. Australian Journal Of Language & Literacy, 31(1), 59-73.
Calder, H., (2001). Reading Freedom Teacher Resource Book. New South Wales, Australia: Pascal Press.
Callinan, C., & van der Zee, E. (2010). A comparative study of two methods of synthetic phonics instruction for learning how to read: Jolly Phonics and THRASS. Psychology Of Education Review, 34(1), 21-31.
Chin-Wen, C. (2012). Use of Graphic Organizers in a Language Teachers' Professional Development. English Language Teaching, 5(10), 49-57. doi:10.5539/elt.v5n10p49
Cihon, T. M., Gardner, R., Morrison, D., & Paul, P. V. (2008). Using Visual Phonics as a Strategic Intervention to Increase Literacy Behaviors for Kindergarten Participants At-Risk for Reading Failure. Journal Of Early And Intensive Behavior Intervention, 5(3), 138-155.
Clay, M. M. (2000). Running records for classroom teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Connelly, V., Johnston, R., & Thompson, G. (2001). The effect of phonics instruction on the reading comprehension of beginning readers. Reading & Writing, 14(5/6), 423-457.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Culbert, E., Flood, M., Windler, R., & Work, D. (1998). A Qualitative Investigation of the Use of Graphic Organizers.
Department for Education (2013). The Importance of Phonics: Securing Confident Reading evidence. Retrieved from https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/DFE-00155-2011B.pdf (Online Accessed on 2013-04-16)
Dexter, D. D., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Graphic Organizers and Students with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 34(1), 51-72.
DiCecco, V. M., & Gleason, M. M. (2002). Using Graphic Organizers to Attain Relational Knowledge From Expository Text. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 35(4), 306.
Dombey, H. (1999). Towards a Balanced Approach to Phonics Teaching. Reading, 33(2), 52.
Driscoll, Appiah-Yeboah, Salib, & Rupert (2007). Merging Qualitative and Quantitative Data in Mixed Methods Research: How To and Why Not. Ecological and Environmental Anthropology,3,19-28.
During (2012, June 8). Phonics Graphic Organizer. Retrieved from http://msdurning.blogspot.tw/2011/03/phonics-graphic-organizers.html
Dye, G. A. (2000). Graphic Organizers to the Rescue!. Teaching Exceptional Children, 32(3), 72.
Edwards, K. (2008). Examining the Impact of Phonics Intervention on Secondary Students' Reading Improvement. Educational Action Research, 16(4), 545-555.
Egan, M. (1999). Reflections on effective use of graphic organizers. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 42(8), 641.
Ermis, S. (2008). Using Graphic Organizers To Facilitate Elementary Students' Comprehension Of Informational Text. College Reading Association Yearbook, (29), 87-102.
Fu, Y. C. (2008). The effects of balanced reading instruction on elementary school students' English word recognition, reading comprehension, and reading attitude. Unpublished Masteral thesis, National Ping Tung University of Education, Ping Tung.
Gajria, M., Jitendra, A.K., Sood, S., Sacks, G. (2007). Improving comprehension of expository text in students with LD: A research synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 210 – 225.
Gall, J. P., Gall, M. D., & Borg, W. R. (2005). Applying educational research: A practical guide. Boston: Pearson Education.
Gallavan, N. P., & Kottler, E. (2007). Eight Types of Graphic Organizers for Empowering Social Studies Students and Teachers. Social Studies, 98(3), 117-128.
Geva, E., & Wang, M. (2001). The development of basic reading skills in children: A cross-language perspective. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 182-204.
Goodman, K .S. (1976). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. In H. Singer & R. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (pp. 497-508). Newark, DE: International Reading Association http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~r99922026/tmp_zero/Reading_A_Psycholinguistic_Guessing_Game.pdf (Online Accessed on 2012-02-06)
Gottardo, A., Yan, B., Siegel, L., & Wade-Woolley, L. (2000). Factors related to English reading performance in children with Chinese as a first language: More evidence of cross-language transfer of phonological processing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 530-542.
Groff, P. (1989). Modern Phonics Instruction.
Hall, T., & Strangman, N. (2002). Graphic organizers. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/graphic_organizers
Herron, J. (2008). Why Phonics Teaching Must Change. Educational Leadership, 66(1), 77-81.
Horton, S. V., & And, O. (1990). The Effectiveness of Graphic Organizers for Three Classifications of Secondary Students in Content Area Classes. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 23(1), 12-22.
Jiang, X., & Grabe, W. (2007). Graphic Organizers in Reading Instruction: Research Findings and Issues. Reading In A Foreign Language, 19(2), 34-55.
Krashen, S. (2002). Defending Whole Language: The Limits of Phonics Instruction and the Efficacy of Whole Language Instruction. Reading Improvement, 39(1), 32-42.
Lai (2009). Acoustic Correlates of Mandarin Nasal Codas and Their Contribution to Perceptual Saliency. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics,35(2), 143-166.
Lapp, D., & Flood, J. (1997). Where's the phonics? Making the case (again) for integrated code instruction. Reading Teacher, 50(8), 696.
Leou, Yea-Mei (2009). A Comparison of the Implementation of Balanced Reading Instruction between the First and the Second Language Classrooms. 課程與教學, 12(1)
Mesmer, H. E. (2010). Textual Scaffolds for Developing Fluency in Beginning Readers: Accuracy and Reading Rate in Qualitatively Leveled and Decodable Text. Literacy Research And Instruction, 49(1), 20-39.
McDermott, M. (2012). Using Graphic Organizers in Preschool. Teaching Young Children, 5(5), 29-31.
Miller G.A. (1956). "The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information". Psychological Review 63 (2): 81–97. Republished: Miller G.A. (1994). "The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. 1956". Psychological Review 101 (2): 343–52.
Ministry of Education (2008). Total outline of Nine-year Integrated Curriculum of National education. Taipei: Ministry of Education (Taiwan).
Monroe, E. (1997). Using Graphic Organizers To Teach Vocabulary: How Does Available Research Inform Mathematics Instruction?.
National Reading Panel. (2000). A report of the national reading panel: Teaching children to read. Washington, DC. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Olsen, W. K. 2004. Triangulation in social research: qualitative and quantitative methods can really be mixed, in Holborn, M. (ed.), Developments in Sociology: An Annual Review, Ormskirk, Lancs, UK, Causeway Press
Oullette, G. P. (2006). What's Meaning Got to Do with It: The Role of Vocabulary in Word Reading and Reading Comprehension. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566.
Ozmen, R. (2011). Comparison of Two Different Presentations of Graphic Organizers in Recalling Information in Expository Texts with Intellectually Disabled Students. Educational Sciences: Theory And Practice, 11(2), 785-793.
Pressley, M., Roehrig, A., Bogner, K., Raphael, L. M., & Dolezal, S. (2002). Balanced Literacy Instruction. Focus On Exceptional Children, 34(5), 1-14.
Reutzel, D. (1998, December). On balanced reading. Reading Teacher. p. 322.
Robinson, D., Corliss, S., Bush, A., Bera, S., & Tomberlin, T. (2003). Optimal presentation of graphic organizers and text: A case for large bites?. Educational Technology Research & Development, 51(4), 25-41.
Sam D., P., & Rajan, P. (2013). Using Graphic Organizers to Improve Reading Comprehension Skills for the Middle School ESL Students. English Language Teaching, 6(2), 155-170. doi:10.5539/elt.v6n2p155
Schwantes, F. M., Boesl, S. L., & Ritz, E. G. (1980). Children's Use of Contest in Word Recognition: A Psycholinguistic Guessing Game. Child Development, 51(3), 730-736. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.ep12330346
Scott Foresman. (2004). Scott Foresman Reading Take-Home Decodable Readers Grade 1. The United Stated of America: Scott Foresman Pearson.
Shanahan, T. (2006). The National Reading Panel Report. Practical Advice for Teachers. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates.
Stahl, S. A. (2001). Teaching phonics and phonemic awareness. In S.B. Neuman & D.K.Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of Early Literacy Research (pp.333-347). New York: The Guilford Press.
Stanovich, K. E. (2008). Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Literacy. Journal Of Education, 189(1/2), 23-55.
Stevenson (2000). Clearing Up Your Students’ Confusion of b and d. Retrieved from http://www.stevensonlearning.com/sites/default/files/Resolving%20b%20and%20d%20confusion.pdf (Online Accessed on 2013-06-12)
Sukamolson, S. (2005). Fundamentals of Quantitative Research. Bangkok, Thailand: EJTR. http://www.culi.chula.ac.th/e-Journal/bod/Suphat%20Sukamolson.pdf (Online Accessed on 2012-06-20)
Wade-Woolley, L. (1999). First language influences on second language word reading: All roads lead to Rome. Language Learning, 49, 447-471.
Wade-Woolley, L., & Geva, E. (2000). Processing novel phonemic contrasts in the acquisition of L2 word reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4, 295-312.
Wyse, D., & Goswami, U. (2008). Synthetic phonics and the teaching of reading. British Educational Research Journal, 34(6), 691-710.
Xiangying, J. (2012). Effects of discourse structure graphic organizers on EFL reading comprehension. Reading In A Foreign Language, 24(1), 84-105.
Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading Acquisition, Developmental Dyslexia, and Skilled Reading Across Languages: A Psycholinguistic Grain Size Theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3-29.
朱洪平、马莲、罗奕、陈仁吉、孙勇刚、王光和(2003)。鼻化元音的频谱特点与过高鼻音主观判听的相关关系研究。中国口腔颌面外科杂志,1,56-58。2013年6月24日,取自 http://news.kq35.com/uploadfiles/201004/20100426141358364.pdf
呂立民(2011)。追尋新課標中的新理念。快樂教學報,6,4。2013年6月12日,取自http://www.malayapress.com.my/cms/upload_files/document_file/00000000015.pdf
邵慧綺(民91)。閱讀障礙者的視、聽知覺功能對其識字學習之影響。屏師特殊教育,3,9-16。
林素娥、謝靜惠、Waltz Huanz(2002年8月)。Learning to Read with Phonics。台北:東西圖書。
林奇伯(民96年8月)。日本閱讀新運動 晨讀10分鐘,造就教育大奇蹟。遠見雜誌,254。取自http://www.gvm.com.tw/Boardcontent_13293.html
「悅讀101」教育部國民中小學提升閱讀計畫(民99年4月)。教育部電子報,404。取自http://epaper.edu.tw/topical.aspx?period_num=404&topical_sn=436&page=0
曾世杰(譯)(民100)。有效的讀寫教學平衡取向教學。(原作者:Michael Pressley)臺北市:心理出版。(原作出版年:2006)
劉怡伶(民98年8月)。淺談字母拼讀法的教學及應用。敦煌英語教學電子雜誌。取自http://www.cavesbooks.com.tw/e_magazine/e_magazine_article.aspx?sn=300&language1=0
劉政宏(民98年)。對學習行為最有影響力的動機成分?雙核心動機模式之初探。教育心理學報,2,361-384。

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔