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研究生:黃龍聖
研究生(外文):Long-Sheng Huang
論文名稱:應用於汽車防碰撞之多核心車用電子系統設計與實現
論文名稱(外文):Multi-core car electronic system design &; implementation for collision prevention
指導教授:蘇慶龍蘇慶龍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Lung Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:電子與光電工程研究所碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:防碰撞車道線偵測視差車輛特徵車輛偵測
外文關鍵詞:Lane detectionAnti collisionVehicle detectio
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隨著科技的蓬勃發展,在汽車大量普及的時代,為了避免行車糾紛,行車記錄器被廣泛的應用,功能也越來越多元化。目前車輛大多採用雷達偵測器、雷射偵測器、紅外線偵測器以偵測前方車輛。但對於一般人來說價格非常昂貴。有鑒於此,為了降低成本與提高偵測的準確度,使用了攝影機感測器。然而一般單鏡頭攝影機所拍攝的影片,會因為畫面資訊不足,導致對於偵測距離的誤差大。因此透過雙鏡頭攝影機,以人類視覺之立體成像的概念來找出前方車輛之視差(Disparity),再將視差轉換成真實距離,以提高偵測距離的準確度。

本論文提出汽車防碰撞系統演算法,分為車道線偵測(Lane detection)、車輛偵測(Vehicle detection)、雙鏡頭視差距離偵測與單鏡頭幾何距離偵測四個部分,其中車道線偵測演算法包含車道線偵測處理與移除齊性區塊(Homogeneous Region)處理,用來找出前方車道線資訊;車輛偵測演算法包含車輛陰影搜尋處理與車輛偵測處理,並依照車輛特徵的來找出汽車陰影與車尾燈。最後估計前車車輛距離以防止車禍發生。
Due to the reasons of the technique highly developed and the popularization of automobiles, vehicle video recorder became multi-functional and had been used extensively to avoid the car accidents and arguments. Most of automobiles used radar, laser and infrared rays to detect the front cars. However, the price is expensive in general; therefore, cameras had been used as a replacement for decreasing the costs and enhancing the accuracy of detection. However, because the insufficiency of scene information from films which were produced by single camera lead to inaccuracy of detective distances. Consequently, through dual cameras and the concepts from stereo vision to find out the disparity from the front car, and turned the disparity into the real distances to enhancing the accuracy of detection.

This thesis proposes anti-collision methods are lane detection, vehicle detection, the disparity distances detection from dual cameras and the geometric distances detection from single camera four parts, lane detection algorithm included lane detection processing and exclude homogeneous region processing to find out the information of front lane;vehicle detection algorithm included vehicle shadow search processing and vehicle detection processing, according to the characteristics of vehicles to find out the vehicle shadow and taillight. Ultimately, estimates the distances from front vehicle to avoid car accidents.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究方向 1
1.3 論文架構 2
第二章 研究背景與相關知識 3
2.1 智慧型車輛防撞技術概況 3
2.1.1 文獻回顧 3
2.1.2 車前防碰撞 5
2.1.3 車側防碰撞 7
2.2 智慧型車輛感測器技術 8
2.2.1 超音波 8
2.2.2 雷達 8
2.2.3 雷射 8
2.2.4 衛星定位 9
2.2.5 攝影機 9
2.3 攝影機與視差關係 11
2.4 色彩模型 13
2.4.1 RGB 13
2.4.2 HSV 14
第三章 汽車防碰撞之多核心車用電子系統 15
3.1 系統架構 15
3.2 車道線偵測演算法 16
3.2.1 移除齊性區塊演算法 16
3.2.2 ROI設定 22
3.2.3 邊緣線偵測 24
3.2.4 擷取車道線特徵 26
3.2.5 霍夫轉換 30
3.2.6 車道線修正 32
3.3 車輛偵測演算法 41
3.3.1 白天場景 41
3.3.1.1 偵測陰影 42
3.3.1.2 色彩分群 44
3.3.1.3車輛陰影判斷 45
3.3.2 夜間場景 50
3.3.2.1過濾車尾燈 51
3.3.2.2擷取車尾燈特徵 52
3.3.2.3車尾燈特徵位置判斷 55
3.4 單鏡頭幾何距離偵測 56
3.5 雙鏡頭視差距離偵測 61
3.6 單鏡頭、雙鏡頭距離偵測整合 66
第四章 實作方式與模擬結果 69
4.1 實驗模擬環境與設定 69
4.2 攝影機校正 70
4.3 開發平台環境 72
4.4 OpenCL多核平行化技術 73
4.5 白天車距偵測結果 75
4.6 夜間車距偵測結果 78
4.7 模擬結果總結 80
第五章 結論與未來展望 82
參考文獻 83
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