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研究生:李祐承
研究生(外文):You-Cheng Lee
論文名稱:牙科數位X光立體影像評估
論文名稱(外文):The stereoscopic evaluation of digital dental radiography
指導教授:吳先晃
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:數位放射影像立體影像牙科放射立體拍攝技術影像扭正
外文關鍵詞:Stereoscopic imagingDental stereo radiographyImage rectificatioDigital radiography
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隨著立體影像的技術演進,在牙醫醫學領域的應用上,已經有不少研究發現立體影像可提供有用的診療資訊。牙醫師在對於病徵的判斷,除了表面可依據自己所觀察和經驗去判斷,在更多情況需依靠X光去診斷病情。在口腔X光拍攝中有環口、根尖片及3D斷層掃描(CT),其中3D斷層掃描是通過單一軸面的X射線旋轉照射,再經由電腦將每一個光源的平面成像加以重組形成,因此最後呈現是三度空間立體影像,有別於環口及根尖片所呈現是平面影像,因此可以準確地瞭解牙齒的立體排列與傾斜程度,但是病人所承受輻射量卻是一般數位X光攝影6倍左右,其機器價格也昂貴很多,所以在一般診所並不普及。因此,如果能以輻射劑量較低的數位根尖片或環口數位X光影像,運用立體拍攝技術來呈現立體效果,不僅病人所承受輻射劑量降低,對於醫生在診療上的判斷也會大大提高,減少診斷上的困難度及增加精確性。
本論文所用方法是先將根尖片或環口影像,拍攝兩張具左右視差X光的立體影像對,因數位根尖片與全口拍攝形式不同,所以在立體影像取得方式也不同。接著再進行影像扭正,由於在拍攝過程可能因拍攝的角度或病人頭顱偏轉角度並不是水平移動,而導致立體影像不呈現水平共線狀態或變型,因此需做此步驟,使立體圖像對呈現水平共線,進而改善立體效果,最後以立體觀看方式,來評估立體效果。
其實驗結果,在最後立體顯示中可以明顯看出牙齒立體感,以及相鄰牙齒的前後關係。以及將扭正後與扭正前圖像合成立體影像進行觀看比較,扭正後比扭正前效果較佳。
With the technological gradual progress of the three-dimensional image, on dental medical application of field, have to discover the three-dimensional vision can offer a lot of useful message of making a diagnosis already. When a dentist judged the disease, In addition to Surface can be based on their own observations and experience to judge, more often need to rely on X-rays to diagnose the disease. Dental X-ray taken have periapical、panoramic and 3D tomography in which 3D tomographic scanning is accomplished by a single rotation axis of the X-ray irradiation, Then through the PC will be combined for each planar imaging, so the final rendering is 3D display , it is different from panoramic and periapical image presented is a planar image, therefore can be accurately understand the arrangement and inclination of the three-dimensional of the teeth, But the radiation is six times more than Digital X-ray and more expensive machines, So in general clinic is not universal. Therefore, if can used the low radiation dose radiography, like periapical film、panoramic film, and use three-dimensional film technology to render three-dimensional effect, not only reduce the radiation dose but also Dentists will greatly enhance the judgment and reduce the difficulty and increase accuracy of diagnosis.
In this thesis, first use periapical or panoramic to shoot parallax stereoscopic X-ray images, because Digital periapical and radiographs shoot with different forms, o in different ways to obtain three-dimensional images. Second rectify the image, because while shooting two pieces of X-rays, X-ray machine might not only make the movement of competence, and patients may have some little movements ,then the resulting three-dimensional image does not show the level of line status or variant, so this step is necessary to do, showing the level of the stereo image pairs of lines, thereby improving the three-dimensional effect. Finally, use three-dimensional to view to evaluate the three-dimensional effect.
The experimental results, in the final three-dimensional display can be clearly seen that the teeth stereoscopic and the adjacent teeth context. And, non-rectify images and after rectify images do three-dimensional image synthesis to compare Three-dimensional effect, the result, after rectify images is better than and non-rectify image
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 1
1.3 探討文獻 3
1.4 論文大綱 3
第二章 立體視覺技術研究 4
2.1 立體視覺概念 4
2.2 立體視覺原理 5
2.2.1 生理因素 5
2.2.2 心理因素 6
2.2.3 視差種類 9
2.3 立體顯視裝置 10
2.4 數位雙螢幕立體顯示系統 14
第三章 扭正數位口腔立體影像 16
3.1 X光照射技術 16
3.2 立體X光拍攝 18
3.2.1 牙根尖立體拍攝 18
3.2.2 全口X光立體拍攝 18
3.3 頰側物體法則(Buccal object rule, BOR) 19
3.4 適用立體口腔病例 20
3.4.1 下顎管(mandibular canal) 22
3.4.2 阻生齒(tooth impaction) 23
第四章 數位X光根尖及全口影像立體扭正 25
4.1 X光影像立體扭正必要性 25
4.2 系統流程 25
4.3 特徵點匹配 26
4.3.1 影像強化 28
4.3.1.1 Retinex 28
4.3.1.2 Unsharp Mask (USM) 29
4.3.2 基於SIFT特徵點提取 31
4.3.2.1 特徵點檢測 31
4.3.2.2 定位極值點 32
4.3.2.3 尺度空間極值檢測 32
4.3.2.4 特徵點方向 33
4.2.3.5 特徵點描述 34
4.2.3 匹配改進 35
4.2.3.1 刪除與標準長度不符匹配 35
4.2.3.2 刪除與標準角度不符匹配 37
4.2.3.3 刪除多對一情況 39
4.4 立體影像扭正 40
4.4.1 相似轉換 40
4.4.2 影像延伸 40
4.4.3 剪割轉換(Shearing Transform) 41
第五章 實驗結果與討論 42
5.1 扭正實驗結果 42
5.1.1 根尖片扭正實驗比較結果 42
5.1.2 全口扭正實驗比較結果 46
5.2 軟體介面 51
第六章 結論與未來方向 53
參考文獻 54
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