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研究生:李子杰
研究生(外文):Tzu-Chieh Lee
論文名稱:具障礙物環境下之無線感測器網路(WSN)的動態功率控制研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Dynamic Power Control with obstacle Environment for Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:竇奇
指導教授(外文):Chie Dou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:S-MACFixed-StepMulti-Step功率控制調整
外文關鍵詞:Fixed-StepMulti-Step.S-MACpower control adjustment
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在Sensor-MAC(S-MAC)中,提出了固定式週期睡眠排程機制來減少監聽時所消耗的能量。但是卻沒考慮到資料封包在傳輸時可能會因為能量不足而導致資料封包在傳輸途中遺失而造成重傳次數上升和接收錯誤,造成額外的能量消耗,和 Throughput的降低。為了增加Throughput和減少重傳次數跟能量消耗,本篇論文中我們提出了Fixed-Step與Multi-Step功率控制調整的技術來讓傳送節點在傳送資料封包給接收節點時,接收節點會測量接收訊號的強度指標(Received Signal Strength Indication, RSSI),並回傳給傳送節點,做為傳送功率調整的依據,以確保接收訊號功率可以大於接收端設定的臨界值以上。如此一來,就可以降低封包接收的錯誤率跟封包遺失所造成的重傳次數,同時可以增加系統的吞吐量(Throughput)。在本篇論文中,我們提出的方法可以分為四個步驟:(i)首先傳送節點的Request-To-Send(RTS)封包會用最大功率去傳送給接收節點來保證接收節點能夠接收到RTS封包,而接收節點收到RTS封包後會回傳Clear-To-Send(CTS)封包,(ii) 傳送節點收到CTS封包後,就可以從CTS封包中知道訊號的強度,再根據訊號強度來調整功率去傳送資料封包給接收節點,(iii) 傳送節點會判斷給接收節點的資料封包可以功率調整的重傳的上限,來避免超過功率上限,(iv)因為經過功率控制調整過後的資料封包可以保持訊號大於接收的臨界值以上,所以接收節點可以接收到由傳送節點所傳送的完整封包。
在本篇論文中我們分別探討系統模擬與實作。在系統模擬中,我們先在Free Space跟有障礙物的情況下做有環境差異的模擬,接下來依據ZigBee的XBee ZNet 2.5 與Wi-Fi的RFPA5201的規格書做模擬,另外在S-MAC協定下使用我們提出的功率控制的技術去調整RSSI。在實作方面我們使用HBE-Zigbex的無線感測器網路節點模組在障礙物干擾的條件下進行使用功率控制調整達到增加系統吞吐量與降低能量消耗及重傳次數,並與沒有使用功率控制調整技術時的情況做比較。根據系統模擬結果跟實作的結果對照可以得知,我們使用Fixed-Step跟Multi-Step功率調整的技術的任一種方法,只要經過功率控制調整過後,都會降低資料封包的的錯誤率跟重傳次數,提升了資料封包的成功傳送次數跟系統吞吐量。
關鍵字:功率控制調整、S-MAC 、Fixed-Step、Multi-Step。
In the Sensor-MAC (S-MAC), proposing that steady sleep cycle system to reduce the energy consumed by monitoring. But it is ill-considered that perhaps the data pockets disappeared during transmission which is caused by energy shortage. And then receiving the errors result in repeating delivery data frequency with additional energy consumed and the decrease of Throughput. In order to increase throughput and decrease the frequency of repeating delivery and the energy consumed, however, in this Paper, we propose the skill of the Fixed-Step and the Multi-Step for the Transmitting node while transmitting the data pockets to receiving node is able to estimate and ensure the signal can be above of the threshold limit value of the receiver when Access-Point receiving the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) from Transmitting node.Because the received signal strength ensured and the data packets maintained intact, it can not only decrease the errors frequency and increase the systems of Throughput.In this Paper, there are four steps we proposed:(i) First of all, the Request-To-Send (RTS) of the Transmitting node will transmit the maximum power to the receiving node to ensure that receiving node can receive RTS packet, the receiving node will receive the RTS packet and callback to Clear-To-Send (CTS) packet.(ii) After Transmitting node receiving the CTS packet , you can know the signal strength from the CTS packet, and depend on the signal strength to adjust the power to send data packets to the receiving node. (iii) Transmitting node will determine the data packet to the receiving node power to adjust the maximum repeating transmission to avoid exceeding the maximum power.(iv) Because the data pocket adjusted by the power control can keep the signal be above of the threshold limit value of the receiver so that the receiving node can receive the whole data packets from Transmitting node transmits. In this Paper, we investigate the system by simulation and implementation.In the simulation system, we make a simulated experiment in the different environment with a Free Space and a situation with an obstacle. And then depends on the XBee ZNet 2.5 of ZigBee and the RFPA5201 of Wi-Fi to do the simulation. Besides, we can use this skill we proposed to adjust the RSSI in S-MAC.In the implementation, we use the wireless sensor network node module of HBE-Zigbex and we use the power control skill to adjust increasing the system throughput and lowing energy consumed and the number of times repeating transmitting compared with no using the skill. According to the system simulation results, we could know we will reduce the error rate of data packets and retransmission that increase the data transferring and Throughput successfully with any method with Fixed-Step and Multi-Step successfully
Keywords: power control adjustment, S-MAC, Fixed-Step, Multi-Step.
中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機 1
1.3 論文架構 1
第2章 無線感測器網路相關介紹 2
2.1 多重存取簡介 2
2.2 IEEE802.15.4協定簡介 2
2.3 IEEE 802.15.4實體層(PHY)通訊協定介紹 3
2.4 IEEE 802.15.4媒體存取控制層((Medium Access Control,MAC)介紹 3
2.5 超級訊框(Superframe)的架構介紹 4
2.6 資料傳輸模型(Data transfer model)簡介 5
2.7 CSMA/CA機制介紹 7
第3章 無線感測網路MAC協定簡介 10
3.1 前言 10
3.2 無線感測器網路 MAC協定設計原則 10
3.3 無線感測器網路的MAC協定分類 11
3.3.1 實體層通訊協定 11
3.3.2 資料鏈結層(Data-Link Layer) 通訊協定: 12
3.4 無線感測器網路MAC協定的介紹 12
3.4.1 競爭型MAC協定 12
3.4.2 排程型MAC協定 17
3.4.3 混合型MAC協定 19
3.5 總結 21
第4章 功率控制調整的技術的介紹 22
4.1 前言 22
4.2 功率控制技術的方法 22
4.2.1 Fixed-Step 22
4.2.2 Multi-Step 24
第5章 S-MAC (Sensor-MAC) 與功率控制調整的技術的分析 26
5.1 前言 26
5.2 資料封包與能量的介紹 26
5.3 S-MAC活動週期的設定與分析 26
5.3.1 佈建拓樸 27
5.3.2 資料傳輸與功率控制 28
5.3.3 S-MAC在功率控制調整下的成果 31
5.4 總論 39
第6章 系統模擬結果 41
6.1 前言 41
6.2 在Free Space環境下的功率控制與分析 41
6.3 在障礙物的環境下的功率控制與分析 48
6.4 在ZigBee與WiFi的環境下的功率控制與分析 56
6.5 在實體感測器網路節點模組的功率控制與分析 61
6.6 總結 66
第7章 結論與未來研究方向 67
7.1 結論 67
7.2 未來研究方向 67
參考文獻 68
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