(3.236.231.14) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/15 08:10
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃靖文
研究生(外文):Ching-wen Huang
論文名稱:概念圖同儕互評對台灣高職生整合式寫作能力之效益研究
論文名稱(外文):How concept mapping enhances EFL students’ integrated writing through peer review
指導教授:葉惠菁葉惠菁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hui-ching Yeh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:鷹架作用同儕互評第二外語寫作發展概念圖
外文關鍵詞:Integrated WritingPeer ReviewConcept MapEF
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:280
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:15
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本研究旨在探討使用同儕互評修正之概念圖引導台灣高職生整合式英語寫作發展之影響。本研究提出三個問題:(一)使用概念圖之鷹架作用對於高職學生整合式英語寫作之影響如何?(二)同儕互評如何支持學生修正概念圖?(三)在本研究中高職學生對於將同儕互評之概念圖應用於整合式英語寫作的看法為何?
在本研究中的三十八位參與者為中台灣一所高職一年級的學生,他們在課後參加本英語寫作補救教學。本課程每周舉行一次,一次一百分鐘,共達五個月。本研究採用學生寫作分析,概念圖分析及訪談等多種資料蒐集方式。
本研究結果顯示,使用概念圖引導寫作不僅可以提升學生英語寫作的流暢性,更可以促進詞彙使用的多樣性。此外,透過同儕互評以修正概念圖亦可以促進學生概念圖繪製的完整性,以及豐富概念圖的內容。更甚者,學生們認為使用概念圖引導融合式寫作獲益良多,經由同儕互評可以觀摩學習他人的概念圖,並且獲得立即有效的回饋。
本研究在最後根據研究結果提出此研究的限制,對於教師及教育者的建議,並提出未來相關研究的方向。
This study aimed to examine the effect of using concept map as a pre-writing tool for improving English integrated writing performances of students at a vocational high school in Taiwan. In order to achieve the goal, three research questions are addressed as follows: (1) What progress do vocational high school students make in their integrated reading-writing with the scaffold of concept mapping? (2) To what extent does peer review support the students’ concept mapping? (3) What are the students’ perceptions of using concept maps for integrated reading-writing?
Thirty-eight vocational senior high school students in central Taiwan joined in an English remedial course were divided into high-proficient, middle-proficient, and low-proficient writers according to their pre-test writing scores. The study lasted for five months, and the writing course was held two hours per-week for 15 weeks. All students went through all three writing cycles for completing four writing assignments. Data from various sources were collected to validate the result, including students’ integrated reading-writing texts, different versions of concept map, and semi-structured interviews.
Results of this study revealed that concept mapping with peer review instruction had equally positive effects on both high-proficient and low-proficient students’ writing performance in terms of text length and lexical sophistication. Through different versions of concept map, the researcher examined how students’ revised concept map through peer review. With the transcripts of interview, these EFL VHS students’ perceptions toward the application of concept map with peer review on writing were also elaborated.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………...........i

Abstract………..………………………………………………………………..........ii

Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………….........iii

Table of Contents……………………...........…………………………………..........v

List of Tables……..………………………………...………………………….........ix

List of Figures……..……………………………………………………………..…..x

Chapter One. Introduction……………………………………………………….......1
1.1 Background of the Study………………………………………………......1
1.2 Statement of Problems ………………………………………………….....3
1.3 Purpose of the Study and Research Questions…………………….....…….6
1.4 Definition of Terms……………………………………………………..….7
1.5 Significance of the Study……………….......……………...........................8
Chapter Two. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE….......………………........10
2.1 Concept Mapping……………................................................................... 10
2.1.1 What is Concept Mapping………...................................................10
2.1.2 The Kinds of Concept Mapping……..............................................13
2.1.3 Approaches to Concept-Mapping…….....................……...............15
2.1.4 How to Build a Concept Map………………………….................17
2.1.5 How Concept Mapping is applied to education……......................18
2.1.6 How to Evaluate Concept Maps ….................................................23
2.1.7 Theoretical framework of peer review............................................26
2.1.7.1 Scaffolding..........................................................................26
2.1.7.2 Peer review………………..................................................27

2.1.8 Evaluating Rubrics for Concept Mapping………..........................30
2.1.9 How to Revise Concept Map……...................…...........................32
2.2 English as a Second Language (ESL) writing?..........................................33
2.2.1 What are the difficulties of ESL writing?.......................................33
2.2.2Concept mapping and writing…......................................................35
2.2.3 Integrated writing tasks..................................................................37
2.2.4 Writing problems for vocational senior high school students in Taiwan...........................................................................................39
Chapter Three. Method………………………………………….....…………….....43
3.1 Introduction……………………................................................................43
3.2 Design of the study……………………………........................................ 44
3.3 Participants……………………………….................................................46
3.4 Instruments………………………….........................................................46
3.4.1 Integrated reading-writing rubric………………………................46
3.4.2Concept mapping score rubric………………………….................47
3.4.3 The Semi-structure Interviews………………………....................47
3.5 Data Collection………………………........................…...........................48
3.6 Data Analysis…………………………......................................................51
3.6.1 A quantitative analysis…………………………............................52
3.6.1.1 Lexical sophistication……………………….....................53
3.6.1.2 Syntactic complexity…………………….….....................53
3.6.1.3 Text length…………………………..................................54
3.6.1.4 Grammatical accuracy……………………........................54
3.6.2 A qualitative analysis…………………………..............................55


Chapter Four. Results and Discussion………………………………………...........56
4.1Results for Research Question1…………………………………...............56
4.1.1 Lexical Sophistication………………………………....................56
4.1.2 Syntactic Complexity………………………………….................57
4.1.3 Text Length………………………………….................................58
4.1.4 Grammatical Accuracy…………………………….…..................58
4.2 Results for Research Question2………………...........................…….......59
4.2.1 Different version of students’ concept map…………....................59
4.2.2 How the revised concept map support writing………...................62
4.2.3 The progress of students’ writing performance………..................64
4.2.3.1 Lexical Sophistication…………………...….....................65
4.2.3.2 Syntactic Complexity…………………...…......................66
4.2.3.3 Text Length…………………….........................................66
4.3 Results for Research Question3….……………………………….............66
4.3.1 Participants’ perceptions of applying concept
map on writing ................................................................................67
4.3.2 Participants’ perspectives of Peer review on
concept mapping............................................................................67
4.3.3 Participants’ actual utilization of the concept
map while writing ....................................................................... 68
Chapter Five. Discussion and Conclusions..…………….............…………….......69
5.1Overview of the Study………………………………………......…..........69
5.2 Discussion of the Results……………………………....………...…….....70
5.3 Pedagogical implications………………………………………...…….....73

5.4 Limitations of the Study……………………………………….................74
5.5 Suggestions for Future Research……………………………....................75
References………………………………………………….............................….....76
Appendices…………………………………………................................………..103
Appendix A :Integrated Writing Rubrics …………………………...............103
Appendix B: Rubric for Concept Map ……………….................……….....105
Appendix C: Interview Questions..........................……………...………….106
Appendix D: Writing Materials.... ………………………………….............107
Appendix E: Writing worksheet ………………………………………........110
Appendix F: Concept map worksheet ……………....……………...……....111
Appendix G: Student’s concept map example ……………....………….......112
Appendix H: Student’s concept map example……....……………...…….....113
References:
Anderson, J. R. &; Lebiere, C. (1998). The atomic components of thought. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Alonso Delgado, J., &; Araya Rivera, C. (2008). Concept mapping as an assessment tool in higher education activities. In A. J. Canas, J. D. Novak, P. Reiska, &; M.K. Alberg (Eds.). Concept mapping-Connecting Educators, Proceedings of the Third Conference on Concept Mapping. Tallinn University, Estonia, and University of Helsinki, Finland. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://cmc.ihmc.us/cmc2008papers/cmc2008-p326.pdf.
Arter, J., &; McTighe, J. (2001). Scoring rubrics in the classroom. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press Inc..
Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Ausubel, D., Novak, J., &; Hanesian, H. (1978). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View (2nd Ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart &; Winston.
Ausubel, D. P. (2000). The Acquisition and Retention of Knowledge: a Cognitive View. Dordrect; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bachman, L. F. (2000). Modern Language Testing at the Turn of the Century: Assuring That What We Count counts. Language Testing, 17, 1-42.
Bardovi-Harlig, K., &; Bofman, T. (1989). Attainment of syntactic and morphological accuracy by advanced language learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 17-34.
Basso S., Margarita S. (2004). Teaching By Doing With Concept Maps: From Http://cmc.ihmc.us/CMC2004Programa.html ( Retrieved September 20, 2008)
Baumann, J. F., &; Bergeron, B. (1993). Story-map instruction using children’s literature: Effects on first graders’ comprehension of central narrative elements. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25, 407-437.
Besnard, D., &; Bastien-Toniazzo, M. (1999). Expert error in trouble-shooting: An exploratory study in electronics. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 50, 391–405.
Berg, B. C. (1999). The effects of trained peer response on ESL students’ revision types and writing quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8(3), 215–241.
Biggs, J. B. (1995). Assumptions underlying new approaches to educational assessment: implications for Hong Kong. Curriculum Forum, 4(2), 1-22.
Biktimirov E. N. &; Nilson, L. B. (2006). Show them the money: Using mind mapping in the introductory finance course. Journal of Financial Education, 32(Fall), 72-86.
Boscolo, P. &; Ascorti, K. (2004). Effects of collaborative revision on children’s ability to write understandable narrative texts. In L. Allal, L. Chanqouy, &; P. Largy (Eds.). Revision: Cognitive and instructional processes, 13(pp. 157-170). Boston, MA: Kluwer.
Boyle, J. R., &; Weishaar, M. (1997). The effects of expert-generated versus student-generated cognitive organizers on the reading comprehension of students with mild disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research &; Practice, 12, 228-235
Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: Longman.
Budd, J.W. (2004). Mind maps as classroom exercises. Journal of Economic Education, 35(1), 35–46.
Busching, B. (1998). Grading inquiry projects.New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 89–96.
Camerer, C., Loewenstein, G., &; Weber, M. (1989). The Curse of Knowledge in Economic Settings: An Experimental Analysis. The Journal of Political Economy, 97(5), 1232-1254.
Canas, A. J., Coffey, J.W., Carnot, M. J.,Feltovich, P.J., Feltovich, J., Hoffman, R. R.,Feltovich, J., &; Novak, J. D. (2003). A summary of literature pertaining to the use of concept mapping teaching and technologies for education and performance support (Technical Report). Pensacola, FL: Institute for Human and Machine Cognition.
Canas, A. J. &; Novak, J. D. (2006). Re-Examining The Foundations for Effective Use of Concept Maps. In A. J. Canas, &; J.D. Novak (Eds.), Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concept Mapping, (pp.494-502). Universidad de Costa Rica , San Jose, Costa Rica .
Carlisle, R. (1989). The writing of Anglo and Hispanic elementary school students in
bilingual, submersion, and regular programs. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 257-280.
Carrell, P., Pharis, B., &; Liberto, J. (1989). Metacognitive strategy training for ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 647-678.
Carson, J. (2001). A task analysis of reading and writing in academic contexts. In D. Belcher &; A. Hirvela (Eds.), Linking literacies: Perspectives on L2 reading-writing connections (pp. 48-83). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
Chai, C. (2006). Writing plan quality: relevance to writing scores. Assessing Writing, 11(3), 198–223.
Chang, K.E, Sung, Y.T., &; Chen, I. D. (2002). The effect of concept mapping to enhance text comprehension and summarization. The Journal of Experiment Education, 71(1), 5–23.
Chang, K.E., Sung Y.T., &; Chiou S.K. (2002). Use of hierarchical hyper concept map in web-based courses. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 27, 335–353.
Chapelle, C. A., Enright, M. K., &; Jamieson, J. M. (2008). Test score interpretation and use. In C. A. Chapelle, M. K. Enright, &; J. M. Jamieson (Eds.), Building a validity argument for the test of English as a foreign language (pp. 145-186). NY: Routledge.
Chase, W. G., &; Simon, H. A. (1973). The mind’s eye in chess. In W. G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 215–281). New York: Academic Press.
Chastain, K. (1990). Characteristics of graded and ungraded compositions. Modern Language Journal, 74, 10-14.
Chenoweth, A., &; Hayes, J. R. (2001). Fluency in writing: Generating text in L1 and L2. Written Communication, 18, 90-98.
Chen, S. M. (2012). A study on correlations between English Professional Subject of the Technological and Vocational Education Joint College Entrance Exam and picture writing performance of students from department of applied foreign languages of vocational high schools. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Cheng Chi University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiesi, H. L., Spilich, G. J., &; Voss, J. F. (1979). Acquisition of Domain-related Information in Relation to High and Low Domain Knowledge. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 257-273.
Chipere, N., Malvern, D., Duran, P., &; Richards, B. (2003, March). Some quantifiable aspects of literacy development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC.
Cho, K., Chung, T. R., King, W. R., &; Schunn, C. D. (2008). Peer-based computer supported knowledge refinement: An empirical investigation. Communications of the ACM, 51(3), 83-88.
Cho, Y. (2003). Assessing writing: Are we bound by only one method?’ Assessing Writing, 8(3), 165-191.
Chou, H. C. (2009). Effects of Weblog-based Writing Instruction on English Writing Performance of Vocational High School Students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaoshiung Normal University, Kaoshiung, Taiwan.
Chung, G. K. W. K., Herl, H. E., Klein, D. C., O''Neil, H. F. &; Schacter, J. (1997). Estimate of the Potential Costs and Effectiveness of Scaling Up CRESST Assessment Software.
Clarke, J. H. (1991). Using visual organizers to focus on thinking. Journal of Reading, 34(7), 526-534.
Cliburn, J.W. (1990). Concept maps to promote meaningful learning. Journal of College Science Teaching, 19, 212–217.
Cobb, K., Billings, D., Mays, R., &; Canty- Mitchell, J.(2001). Peer review of teaching in web-based courses in nursing. Nurse Educator, 26(6), 274-279.
Cohen, A. D. (1980). Testing Language Ability in the Classroom. Cambridge: Newbury House Publishers.
Conklin, E. (2007). Concept mapping: impact on content and organization of technical writing in science. (Doctoral Dissertation, Walden University, USA, 2007) Dissertation Abstract International (UMI 3254433).
Crane, M. (1998). Writing away! Out of chaos: Using concepts maps to re-envision students writing. The University of Louisville’s Writing across the Curriculum Newsletter, 3(4).
Cronin, H., Sinatra, R., &; Barkley, W. F. (1992). Combining writing with text organization in content instruction. NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principles) Bulletin, 76, 34-45.
Cumming, A., Kantor, R., Baba, K., Erdosy, U., Eouanzoui, K., &; James, M. (2005).
Differences in written discourse in independent and integrated prototype tasks for next generation TOEFL. Assessing Writing, 10, 5–43.
Day, J. D., Cordon, L. A., &; Kerwin, M. L. (1989). Informal instruction and development of cognitive skills: A review and critique of research. In M. Pressley, C. B. McCormick, &; G. E. Miller (Eds.).Cognitive strategy research: From basic research to educational applications (pp. 83–103).New York: Springer-Verlag.
De Bruin A.B.H., Thiede K.W., Camp G.&; Redford J. Generating keywords improves metacomprehension and self-regulation in elementary and middle school children
(2011) Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109 (3) , 294-310.
Di Pardo, A., &; Freedman, S.W. (1988). Peer Response Groups in the Writing Classroom: Theoretical Foundations and New Directions. Review of Educational Research 58, 2:119-149.
Dochy, F., Segers, M., &; Sluijsmans, D. (1999). The Use of Self-, Peer and Co-assessment in Higher Education: a review. Studies in Higher Education, 24(3), 331.
Dorough, D.K. and Rye, J.A. (1997). Mapping for Understanding-Using Concept Maps as windows to students minds. Science Teacher, 64(1), 36-41.
Downing, J., &; Morris, B. (1984). An Australian program for improving high school reading in content areas. Journal of Reading, 28, 237-243.
Duarte, P.V.E. &; Mesa, P.A.R. (2008). Concept maps in teaching and learning process of rate of change concept. In A. J. Canas, J. D. Novak, P. Reiska, &; M.K. Alberg (Eds.). Concept mapping-Connecting Educators, Proceedings of the Third Conference on Concept Mapping, Vol. 1(pp. 75-78). Tallinn University, Estonia, and University of Helsinki, Finland.
Dunston, P. J. (1992). A critique of graphic organizer research. Reading Research and Instruction, 31(2), 57-65.

East, M. (2006). The impact of bilingual dictionaries on lexical sophistication and lexical accuracy in tests of L2 writing proficiency: A quantitative analysis. Assessing Writing, 11, 179-197.
Edmondson, K. (2000). Assessing science understanding through concept maps. In J. Mintzes, J. Wandersee &; J. Novak (Eds.), Assessing science understanding (pp. 19-40). San Diego: Academic Press.
Englert, C.S., &; Mariage, T. V. (1991). Shared understandings: Structuring the writing experience through dialogue. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 330-342.
Eriksson, L.T., &; Hauer, A.M. (2004). Mind Map Marketing: A Creative Approach in Developing Marketing Skills. Journal of Marketing Education, 26 (2), 174-187.
Falchikov, N., &; Goldfinch, J. (2000). Student peer assessment in higher education: A meta-analysis comparing peer and teacher marks. Review of Educational Research 70 (3), 287 – 323.
Feak, C. &; Dobson, B. (1996). Building on the impromptu: a source-based academic writing assessment. College ESL, 6(1), 73-84.
Fisher, C., Gleitman, H., &; Gleitman, L. R. (1991). On the semantic content of subcategorization frames. Cognitive Psychology, 23, 331-392.
Fischer, R. (1984). Testing written communicative competence in French. Modern Language Journal, 68, 13-20.
Flower, L., &; Hayes, J. R. (1981). A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing. College Composition and Communication, 32( 4), 365-387
Fong, Q. Y. (2004). A research on teaching concept mapping writing to fourth-graders. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan.
Frantzen, D. (1995). The effects of grammar supplementation on written accuracy in an intermediate Spanish content course. Modern Language Journal, 79, 329-344.
Gebril, A. (2009). Score generalizability of academic writing tasks: Does one test method fit it all? Language Testing, 26(4), 507–531
Gebril, A. &; Plakans, L. (2009).Investigating Source Use, Discourse Features, and Process in Integrated Writing Tests. Spaan Fellow Working Papers in Second or Foreign Language Assessment, 7, 47-84.
Giombini L. (2004). From Thought Conceptual Maps CmapTools as a Writing System In A. J. Canas, J. D. Novak, &; F. M. Gonzales (Eds.), Concept Maps: Making Learning Meaningful. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Concept Mapping , Vol. I (pp. 273-280). Pamplona, Spain: Universidad Publica de Navarra.
Giombini L. (2008) Concept Maps and CmapTools: A cognitive Writing System for the General Development of Thought in Scholar Age, In A. J. Canas , J. D. Novak , P. Reiska , &; M.K. Alberg (Eds.). Concept mapping-Connecting Educators, Proceedings of the Third Conference on Concept Mapping, Vol. 1 (pp. 252-259). Tallinn University, Estonia, and University of Helsinki, Finland.
Gonzales, F. M., &; Novak, J. D. (1993). Aprendizaje significativo technicas y aplicaciones. Serie: Educacion y Futuro, 18. Madrid, Argentina: Editorial Cincels. A.
Gould, B. T.(1987). Effect of prior knowledge and text structure instruction on the comprehension and memory for expository reading of intermediate and junior-high grade students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, Boston.
Gouli, E., Gogoulou, A., &; Grigoriadou, M. (2003). A coherent and Integrated Framework using Concept Maps for various Educational Assessment Functions. Journal of information technology Education, 2, 215-240.

Gouveia, V., &; Valadares, J. (2004). Concept maps and the didactic role of assessment. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Concept Mapping. Pamplona, Spain, 2004.
Grabe W. (2003). Reading and writing relations: Second language perspectives on research and practice. In Kroll B (ed.), Exploring the Dynamics of Second Language Writing Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Graham, S. &; Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 445-476.
Grainger, D. W. (2007) Peer Review as Professional Responsibility: A Quality Control System Only as Good as the Participants. Biomaterials, 28, 5199-5203.
Grant, L., &; Ginther, A. (2000). Using computer-tagged linguistic features to describe L2 writing differences. Journal of Second Language Writing, 9, 123-145.
Graves, D.H. (1975). An examination of the writing processes of seven-year-old children. Research in the Teaching of English, 9, 227-241.
Greenfield, P. M. (1999). Historical change and cognitive change: A two-decade follow-up study in Zinacantan, a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 6, 92-98.
Guo, L. (2011). Product and Process in Toefl iBT Independent and Integrated Writing Tasks: A Validation Study. Applied Linguistics and English as a Second Language Dissertations. (pp. 19).
Hafner, J and Hafner, P, (2003). Quantitative analysis of the rubric as an assessment tool: An empirical study of student peer group rating. International Journal of Science Education, 12, 1509-1528
Hamp-Lyons, L., &; Kroll, B. (1996). Issues in ESL writing assessment: An overview. College ESL, 6, 52-72.
Hall, R.H. &; Blair, R. (1993). Knowledge maps and spatial-verbal processing: A temporal analysis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77, 611-621.
Hall, R.H., Dansereau, D.F., &; Skaggs, L.P. (1992). Knowledge maps and the presentation of related information domains. Journal of Experimental Education, 61(1), 5-18.
Hall, R.H. &; O’Donnell, A. (1996). Cognitive and affective outcomes of learning from knowledge maps. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 94-101.
Hall, R. (1988). Knowledge maps and the presentation of related information domains. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth.
Hale, S. (2003). Concept mapping handout. Handouts from Georgia Perimeter College. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from
http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~shale/humanities/composition/handouts/concept.html
Harley, P., A. Guenther and P. Zimmerman. (1996). Effects of light, temperature and canopy position on net photosynthesis and isoprene emission from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves. Tree Physiology, 16 (1-2), 25-32.
Haswell, R. H. (2005). NCTE/CCCC’s recent war on scholarship. Written Communication, 22, 198-223.
Haugwitz, M., Nesbit, J., &; Sandmann, A. (2010). Cognitive Ability and the Instructional Efficacy of Collaborative Concept Mapping. Learning and Individual Differences, 20 (5), 536-543. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2010.04.004
Hay, D.B., Kinchin, I.M., &; Lygo-Baker, S. (2008). Making learning visible: the role of concept mapping in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 33 (3), 295-311. doi:10.1080/03075070802049251
Heimlich, J.E., &; Pittelman, S.D. (1986). Semantic Mapping: Classroom Applications. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Heinze-Fry, J., &; Novak, J.D. (1990). Concept mapping brings long-term movement toward meaningful learning. Science Education, 74, 461-472.
Henry, K. (1996). Early L2 writing development: A study of biographical of essays by
university-level students of Russian. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 309-26.
Herl, H. E., Baker, E. L. &; Niemi, D. (1996). Construct validation of an approach to
modeling cognitive structure of U. S. history knowledge. Journal of Educational
Research, 89, 206-218.
Herl, H. E., O''Neil, H. F., Jr., Chung, G. K. W. K., Dennis, R. A. &; Lee, J. J. (1997).
Feasibility of an on-line Concept Mapping construction and scoring system. In H.F. O''Neil, Jr. (Chair), An integrated simulation approach to assessment. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.
Hidi, S., &; Anderson, V. (1986). Producing written summaries: Task demands, cognitive operations and implications for instruction. Review of Educational Research, 56(4), 473-493.
Hilbert, T. S. &; Renkl, A. (2008). Concept mapping as a follow-up strategy to learning from texts: What characterizes good and poor mappers? Instructional Science, 36, 53-73.
Hill, M. (1991). Writing summaries promotes thinking and learning across the curriculum- but why are they so difficult to write? Journal of Reading, 34(7), 536-539.
Hirumi, A., &; Bowers, D. (1991). Enhancing motivation and the acquisition of coordinate concepts through the use of concept trees. Journal of Educational Research, 84(5), 273-279.
Homburg, T. J. (1984). Holistic evaluation of ESL compositions: Can it be validated
objectively? TESOL Quarterly, 18, 87-107.
Horton, P., McConney, A., Gallo, M., Woods, A, Senn, G., Hamelin, D. (1993). An investigation of the effectiveness of concept mapping as an instructional tool. Science Education, 77, 95-111.
Huang ,C.F. (2006) A Comparison of Three Types of Writing Assessment for EFL Vocational High School Students in Taiwan .Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan:.
Huang, H. C. (2012). Mother Tongue Interference: Analysis of Grammar Errors in EFL High School Students’ Writing. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan.
Hunter, L. (2008). CMAP linking phrase constraint for the structural narrowing of constructivist second language tasks. In A. J. Canas, J. D. Novak, P. Reiska, &; M.K. Alberg (Eds.). Concept mapping-Connecting Educators, Proceedings of the Third Conference on Concept Mapping, Vol. 1 (pp. 146-151). Tallinn University, Estonia, and University of Helsinki, Finland.
Ifenthaler, D. (2010).Bridging the Gap between Expert-Novice Differences: The Model-Based Feedback Approach. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(2), 103-117.
Jamieson, J. M., Eignor, D., Grabe, W., &; Kunnan, A. J. (2008). Framework for a new TOEFL. In C. A. Chapelle, M. K. Enright, &; J. M. Jamieson (Eds.). Building a validity argument for the test of English as a foreign language (pp. 145-186). NY: Routledge.
Johnson, D, &; Steele, V. (1996). So many words, so little time:helping college ESL learners acquire vocabulary-building strategies. Journal of Adolescent &; Adult Literacy, 39(5), 352-354.
Jonassen, D. H., Beissner, K., &; Yacci, M. A. (1993). Structure knowledge: Techniques for representing, assessing, and acquiring structural knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Jonassen, D. H., Reeves, T.C., Hong, N., Dyer, D., &; Peters, K.M. (1997). Concept mapping as cognitive learning and assessment tools. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 8 (3/4), 289-308.
Jones, F. B., Pierce, J.,&; Hunter, B.(1988). Teaching students to construct graphic representations. Educational Leadership, 46, 20-25.
Kao, G. Y. M., Lin, S. S. J., &; Sun, C. T. (2008). Breaking concept boundaries to enhance creative potential: Using integrated concept maps for conceptual self-awareness. Computers &; Education, 51(4), 1718-1728.
Kao, M. T. (1996, April). Scaffolding in hypermedia assisted instruction: An example of integration. Paper presented at the 1996 National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Indianapolis.
Katayama, A. D., &; Robinson, D. H. (2000). Getting students “partially” involved in note-taking using graphic organizers. The Journal of Experimental Education, 68, 119-133.
Kaufman, D. (2004). Constructivist issues in language learning and teaching. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (24), 303-319. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from ED538 Information Technology and Education Study Guide. Cooranbong, Australia: Avondale.
Kay, J. (2004). Teaching Quality Assurance Manual. Exeter, UK:University of Exeter.
Kelley, C. M., &; Jacoby, L. L. (1996). Adult egocentrism: Subjective experience versus analytic bases for judgment. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 157-175. doi:10.1006/jmla.1996.0009.
Kepner, C. (1991). An experiment in the relationship of types of written feedback to the development of second-language writing skills. Modern Language Journal, 75, 305-313.
Kinchin, I.M. (2003). Effective teacher–student dialogue: A model from biological education. Journal of Biological Education, 37(3), 110-113.
Kinchin, I.M., &; Hay, D.B. (2005). Using concept maps to optimize the composition of collaborative student groups: a pilot study. Journal of Advance Nursing, 51(2), 182-187.
Kinchin, I., Hay, D. &; Adams, A. (2000). How a qualitative approach to concept map
analysis can be used to aid learning by illustrating patterns of conceptual development. Educational Research, 42(1), 43-57.
Kinchin, I.M., (2006). Concept mapping, PowerPoint, and a Pedagogy of Access. Journal of Biological Education, 40 (2), 79-83.
Kobayashi, H. &; Rinnert, C. (1992). Effects of first language on second language
writing: Translation versus direct composition. Language Learning, 42, 183-215.
Kroll, B. (1990). What does time buy? ESL student performance on home versus class
compositions. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 140-154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kollar, I., &; Fischer, F. (2010). Peer assessment as collaborative learning: A cognitive perspective. Learning and Instruction, 20(4), 344-348.
doi: DOI 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.005
Kumar, N. B., Ranjit, M., &; Sunil, M. (2005). The agony and the ecstasy of the peer-review process. Indian journal of ophthalmology, 50(3), 153-155.
Lambiotte, J. G., Dansereau, D. F., Cross, D. R., &; Reynolds, S. B. (1989). Multirelational Semantic Maps. Educational Psychology Review, 1(4), 331-367.
Lantolf, J. P. (Ed.) (2000). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lantolf, J. P., &; Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the sociogenesis of second language development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lee, S. H. (2006). The use of interpersonal resources in argumentative/persuasive essays by East-Asian ESL and Australian tertiary students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Lee, P. S. (2012). A Case Study of Taiwanese Vocational High School Students'' English Writing Strategies and Writing Difficulties. Unpublished master’s thesis, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan .
Lee, W.L. (2009). The Effects of Integrating Blogging into Peer Feedback Revision on English Writing Performance and Attitude of Vocational High School Students in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Leki, I. &; Carson, J. (1997). Completely different worlds: EAP and the writing experiences of ESL students in university courses. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 36-69.
Leki, I. (2005). The challenges of teaching EFL writing. Selected Papers from the Fourteenth International Symposium and Book Fair on English Teaching (pp. 79-90). Taipei, Crane.
Leu, M. M. (2004). The Use and Evaluation of Teaching Materials for Vocational High Schools in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan Normal University ,Taipei, Taiwan.
Lewkowicz, J. (1997). The integrated testing of a second language. In C. Clapham &; D. Corson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education, 7( pp. 121-130). Dordrecht, The Netherland: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lin, Y. (2006). The study of integrating picture books reading in writing instruction for second grade students-take the concept mapping and low achievement students as the core and the objects of the investigation respectively. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Hualien University of Education, Hualien, Taiwan.
Lin, Y. L. (2002). The effect of "composition program of integrating picture book and concept mapping" on writing performance of third grade children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Taipei, Taiwan: National Taiwan Normal University.
Lin, Y. W. (2012). The Effects of the Concept Mapping Strategy Instruction on Reading Comprehension and Writing Performance of Vocational High School Students Department of Applied Foreign Languages. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Liou, H. C. (2006).The effectiveness of concept mapping instruction on summarization learning for elementary school sixth graders. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Hualien University of Education, Hualien, Taiwan.
Lipson, M. (1995). The effect of semantic mapping instruction on prose comprehension of below-level college readers. Reading Research and Instruction, 34, 367-378.
Liu, C-C., Chen, H.S.L., Shih, J-L., Huang, G-T., &; Liu, B-J. (2011). An Enhanced Concept Map Approach to Improving Children''s Storytelling ability. Computers &; Education, 56 (3), 873-884.
Liu, P. L. (2011). A study on the use of computerized concept mapping to assist ESL learners’ writing. Computers &; Education, 57, 2548-2558
Liu, X. &; Hinchey, M. (1996). The internal consistency of a concept mapping scoring scheme and its effect on prediction validity. International Journal of Science Education, 18(8): 921 - 937.
Li, L., Liu, X., &; Steckelberg, A. L. (2010). Assessor or assessee: How student learning improves by giving and receiving peer feedback. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(3), 525-536.
doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00968.x
Lu, H. Y. &; You, Y. L., &; Joe, S. G. (2003). A Study of the EEFTC English Cloze Procedure and Reading Comprehension Test. Proceedings of the 12th ROC TEFL. (pp.240-250). Crane Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan.
Luckie, D.B., Batzli, J.M., Harrison, S., &; Ebert-May, D. (2003). C-TOOLS: ConceptConnector Tools for Online Learning in Science. International Journal of Learning 10, 332-338.
MacArthur, C.A. (1996). Using technology to enhance the writing processes of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29 (4), 344-354.
Martinez- Canas, R. &; Ruiz-Palomino, P. (2011). Concept mapping as a learning tool
for the employment relations degree. Journal of International Education Research, 7(5), 23-28.
McCagg, E. C., &; Dansereau, D. F.(1991). A convergent paradigm for examining knowledge mapping as a learning strategy. Journal of Education Research, 84(6), 317-324.
McClure, J. R., Sonak, B., &; Suen, H. K. (1999). Concept Map assessment of classroom learning: Reliability, validity, and logical practicality. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(4), 475 - 492.
Mento, A.J., Martinelli,P., &; Jones ,R.M. (1999). Mind Mapping in Executive Education: Applications and Outcomes. Journal of Management Development, 18 (4), 390-407.
Min, H. T. (2003). Why peer comments fail? English Teaching and Learning, 27(3), 85-103.
Min, H. T. (2005). Training students to become successful peer reviewers. System, 33(2), 293-308.
Mintzes, J.J., Wandersee, J.H., &; Novak, J.D. (2001). Assessing understanding in biology. Journal of Biological Education, 35(3), 118-124.
Mohamed, W. A.W. &; Omar, B. (2008). Using concept map to facilitate writing assignment. In A. J. Canas, P. Reiska, M. Ahlberg , &; J. D. Novak (Eds). Concept Mapping: Connecting Educators Proc. of the Third Int. Conference on Concept Mapping. Tallinn, Estonia &; Helsinki, Finland, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://cmc.ihmc.us/cmc2008papers/cmc2008-p172.pdf
Morin, R., &; Goebel,J.(2001). Basic vocabulary instruction: teaching strategies or words? Foreign Language Annals 34(1), 8-16.
Morrison, G. R., &; Ross, S. M. (1998). Evaluating technology-based processes and products. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 74, 69-77.
Nakhleh, M. B., Samarapungavan, A. and Saglam, Y. (2005). Middle school students'' beliefs about matter. J. Res. Sci. Teach, 42, 581-612. doi: 10.1002/tea.20065
Naveh-Benjamin, M., Lin, Y-G., &; McKeachie, W. J. (1995). Inferring student''s cognitive structures and their development using the "fill-in-the-structure" (FITS) technique. In P. Nichols, S. E. Chipman, &; R. L. Brennan (Eds.). Cognitively diagnostic assessment (pp. 279-304). NJ: Erlbaum.
Naveh-Benjamin, M., McKeachie, W.J., Lin, Y-G.&; Nelly, R. K. (1998). Assessment and Modification of Flexibility of Cognitive Structures Created in University Courses. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23(3), 209-232.
Naveh-Benjamin, M., Hussain, Z., Guez, J., &; Bar-On, M. (2003). Adult age differences in episodic memory: Further support for an associative-deficit hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,Memory, and Cognition, 29, 826-837.
Nesbit, J. C., &; Adesope, O. O. (2006). Learning with concept and knowledge maps: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 76, 413-448.
Nettleship, J. (1992). Active Learning in Economics: Mind Maps and Wall Charts. Economics, 28 (Summer), 69-71.
Nicoll, G., Francisco, J., &; Nakhleh, M. (2001). A three-tier system for assessing concept map links: A methodological study. International Journal of Science Education, 23, 863-875.
Novak, J. D. (1977). A Theory of Education. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Novak, J.D. (1990).Concept maps and diagrams: Two metacognitive tools for science and mathematics education. Instructional Science, 19, 29-52.
Novak, J.D. (1999). Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools, and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Novak, J. D., &; Canas, A. J. (2007). Theoretical origins of concept maps, how to construct them and their uses in education. Reflecting Education, 3(1), 29 - 42.
Novak, J.D. &; Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning How to Learn. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Novak, J.D., Gowin, D. B., &; Johansen, G. T. (1983).The use of concept mapping and knowledge mapping with junior high school science students. Science Education, 67(5), 625-645.
Novak, J. D., &; Musonda, D. (1991). A twelve-year longitudinal study of science concept learning. American Educational Research Journal, 28(1), 117-153.
Novak, J. D. (1998). Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Novak, J. D., &; Canas, A. J. (2008). The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them (Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition Technical Report). Retrieved May 18, 2013, from
http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/Theor.
Novak, J. D. (2010).Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 6(3), 21-30.
Odom, A.; &; Kelley, P. (2001). Integrating concepts mapping and learning cycle to teach diffusion and osmosis concepts to high school biology students. Science Education, 85, 615-635.
Ojima, M. (2006). Concept mapping as pre-task planning: a case study of three Japanese ESL writers. System, 34, 566-585.
Okebukola, P. A. (1990). Attaining meaningful learning concepts in genetics and ecology: an examination of the potency of the concept mapping technique. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 493-504.
O''Keefe, J. &; Nadel, L. (1978). The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Onozawa, Ch. (2010). Promoting autonomy in the language class - how autonomy can be applied in the language class. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.kyoai.ac.jp/college/ronshuu/no-10/onozawa1.pdf
Orsmond, P., &; Merry, S. (1996). The importance of marking criteria in the use of peer assessment. Assessment &; Evaluation in Higher Education, 21, 239-250.
Ortega, L. (2003). Syntactic complexity measures and their relationship to L2 proficiency: A research synthesis of college-level L2 writing. Applied Linguistics, 24(4), 492-518.
Osman-Jouchoux, R. (1997a). Linking reading and writing: concept mapping as an organizing tactic. In R. E. Griffin, J. M. Hunter,C. B. Schiffman, &; W.J. Gibbs(Eds.), Vision quest: Journeys toward visual literacy (1996 conference). Corsicana, TX: International Visual Literacy Association.
Osman-Jouchoux, R. (1997b). The use of concept mapping tactics in cognitive strategies for writing summaries of technical material. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Denver, University of Colorado at Denver.
Oxford, R, L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know.
Boston: Heinle &; Heinle Publishers.
Ozgun-Koca, S. A. &; Şen, A. İ (2004).The Development of a Qualitative Analyzing Method for Concept Maps. Hacettepe Universitesi Eğitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 27, 165-173.
Patterson, J. (2001). Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and It’s Troubled Legacy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pearsall, N. R., Skipper, J., &; Mintzes, J. (1997). Knowledge restructuring in the life sciences: a longitudinal study of conceptual change in biology. Science Education, 81(2), 193-215.
Perkins, K. (1980). Using objective methods of attained writing proficiency to discriminate among holistic evaluations. TESOL Quarterly, 14, 61-69.
Perlman, C.C. (2003). Performance assessment: Designing appropriate performance tasks and scoring rubrics. North Carolina, USA.
Pieronek, F. (1994). Using maps to teach note taking and outlining for report writing. The Social Studies 85, 165-169.
Plakans, L. (2008). Comparing composing processes in writing-only and reading-to- write test tasks. Assessing Writing, 13, 111-129.
Polio, C. (1997). Measures of linguistic accuracy in second language writing research.
Language Learning, 47, 101-143.
Quinlan, K.M. (2002). Inside the peer review process: How academics review a colleague’s teaching portfolio. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 1035-1049.
Read, J. (1990). Providing relevant content in an EAP writing test. English for Specific Purposes, 9, 109-121.


Reese, D. J. (1988). Effects of training in expository text structure on reading comprehension. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Florida.
Renner, C.E.(1992). Getting started: overcoming “writer’s block” in EFL students. Journal of TESOL- Italy 18, 53-65.
Rey, V.M. (2000). Writing poetry from stories. Annual Meeting of the College Reading Association, St. Pete’s Beach, FL.
Rice, D., Ryan, J., &; Samson, S. (1998). Using Concept Maps to assess student learning in the science classroom: Must different methods compete? Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(10), 1103-1127.
Rieber, R. W. (Ed.). (1998). The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky: Volume 5: Child psychology. New York: Springer.
Robley, W., Whittle, S., &; Murdoch-Eaton, D. (2005). Mapping generic skills curricula: Outcomes and discussion. Journal of Further &; Higher Education, 39, 321–339.
Roth, W. M., &; Royoudhury, A. (1992). The social construction of scientific concepts or the concept map as conscription device and tool for social thinking in high school science. Science Education, 76(5), 531-557.
Roth, W. M., &; Royoudhury, A. (1993a). Using Vee and concept maps in collaborative settings: Elementary education majors construct meaning in physical science courses. School Science and Mathematics, 93(5), 237-244.
Roth, W. M., &; Royoudhury, A. (1993b). The concept map as a tool for the collaborative construction of knowledge: A microanalysis of high school physics students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30(50), 503-534.
Roth, W. M. (1994). Student views of collaborative concept mapping: An emancipatory project. Science Education, 78, 1-34.
Ruddell, R. B., &; Boyle, O. F. (1989). A study of cognitive mapping as a means to improve comprehension of expository text. Reading Research and Instruction, 29(1), 12-22.
Ruiz-Primo, M. A., &; Shavelson, R. J. (1996). Problems and issues in the use of concept maps in science assessment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(6), 569-600.
Rye, J. a. &; Rubba, P. a. (2002). Scoring Concept Maps: An Expert Map-Based SchemeWeightedfor Relationships. School Science and Mathematics, 102(1), 33-44. Available at: doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.2002.tb18194.x
Safayeni, F., Derbentseva, N., &; Canas, A. J. (2005). A Theoretical Note on Concept Maps and the Need for Cyclic Concept Maps. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(7), 741-766.
Sawyer, R. K. (2006). The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schneider, W., &; Shiffrin, R. M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84(1), 1-66. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.84.1.1
Schultz, M. (1991). Mapping and cognitive development in the teaching of foreign language writing. The French Review, 64(6), 978-988.
Shaka, F. &; Bitner, B. (1996). Construction and validation of a rubirc for scoring concept maps. Paper presented at the Association for the Education of Teachers of Science. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
From: http://www.ed.psu.edu/CI/Journals/96pap43.htm
Sinatra, R.C., Beaudry, J., Pizzo, J., &; Geisert, G. (1994). Using computer-based semantic mapping, reading and writing approach with at risk fourth graders. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 5 (1), 93-112.
Sluijsmans, D. M. A., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merrienboer, J., &; Martens, R. (2004).
Redesigning education for training peer assessment skills in teacher education.
Innovations in Education and Training International, 41(1), 59-78.
Smith, H., Cooper, A., &; Lancaster, L. (2002). Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Peer Assessment: A Case for Student and Staff Development. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 39(1), 71-81.
Steiner, C. M., Albert, D., &; Heller, J. (2007). Concept mapping as a means to build E-learning. In N. A. Buzzetto-More (Ed.), Advanced principles of effective e-learning (pp. 59-111). Santa Rosa, California: Information Science Press.
Stone, C.A. (1998). The metaphor of scaffolding: Its utility for the field of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(4), 344-364.
Straubel, L. H. (2006a). Character and plot nodes: Writing fiction with concept maps. In Canas, A. J., Novak, J. D. (Eds.). Concept maps: Theory, methodology, technology (pp. 236-244). San Jose, Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica.
Straubel, L. H. (2006b). Creative concept mapping: From reverse engineering to writing Inspiration. In Canas , A. J., Novak ,J. D. (Eds.). Concept maps: Theory, methodology, technology (pp. 118-126). San Jose, Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica.
Svinicki, M., &; Lewis, K. (2002). Gathering feedback on teaching and learning. Austin: University of Texas.
Tang, G. (1992). The effect of graphic representation of knowledge structures on ESL reading comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. 14, 177-195.
Tedick, D.J. (1990). ESL writing assessment: Subject-matter knowledge and its impact on performance. English for Specific Purposes, 9, 123-143.


Thiede, K.W., Griffin, T. D., Wiley, J., Anderson, M.C.M. (2010).Poor metacomprehension accuracy as a result of inappropriate cue use. Discourse Processes, 47, 331-362.
Tocalli-Beller, A., &; Swain, M. (2005). Reformulation: The cognitive conflict and L2 learning it generates. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15(1), 5-28.
Tompkins, G. E. (1993). Teaching Writing: Balancing process and product. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Macmillan.
Topping, K. (1998). Peer assessment between students in colleges and universities. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 249-276.
Topping, K. (2003). Self and peer assessment in school and university: Reliability, validity and utility. In M. Segers, F. Dochy &; E. Casacallar (Eds.), Optimising new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (pp. 55-87). London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Trowbridge, J.E., &; Wandersee, J.H. (1996). How do graphics presented during college biology lessons affect students’ learning. Journal of College Science Teaching, 26(1), 54-57.
Tsui, A.B.M., &; Ng, M. (2000). Do secondary L2 writers benefit from peer comments? Journal of Second Language Writing, 9, 147-170.
Tversky, A., &; Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5(2), 207-232.
Tversky, A., &; Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124-1131.
Tynjala, P. (1999). Towards expert knowledge? A comparison between a constructivist and a traditional learning environment in the university. International Journal of Educational Research 31, 357-442.

Van Lier, P. (2008). Learning from Ohio''s Best Teachers: A homegrown model to improve our schools. A report from Policy Matters Ohio.
Van Merrienboer, J.J.G. &; Paas, F.G.W.C. (1990). Automation and schema acquisition in learning elementary computer programming: Implications for the design of practice. Journal of computers in Human Behavior, 6 (3), 273-289.
Van Zundert, M., Sluijsmans, D., van Merrienboer, J. (2010). Effective peer assessment processes: Research findings and future directions. Learning and Instruction, 20, 270-279. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.004
Vedder, P. (1985). Cooperative Learning: A Study on Processes and Effects of Cooperation Between Primary School Children. Netherlands: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Villamil, O. S. &; de Guerrero, M. C. M. (2006). Sociocultural theory: A framework for understanding the social-cognitive dimensions of peer feedback. In K. Hyland &; F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues (pp. 21-41). New York: Cambridge.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Washington, V.M. (1988). Report writing: a practical application of semantic mapping. Teacher Educator, 24, 24-30.
Weigle, S. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weigle, S. (2004). Integrating reading and writing in a competency test for non-native
speakers of English. Assessing Writing, 9, 27-55.
White, R. &; Gunstone, R. (1992). Probing understanding. London and New York: The Falmer Press.
Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Winn, W., &; Snyder, D. (1996). Cognitive perspectives in psychology. In D.H. Jonassen, Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 112-142). New York: Macmillan.
Wolfe-Quintero, K., Inagaki, S., &; Kim, H-Y. (1998). Second language development in writing: Measures of fluency, accuracy &; complexity. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Wood, D., Bruner, J.S., &; Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. J Child Psychol. Psychiat., 17, 89-100.
Wu, H. R. (2003). A study of the attitudes of multilevel third graders engaged in English instruction with predictable books in Taiwan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Kansas State University, U. S. A.
Yang, N. (2003). Integrating portfolios into learning strategy-based instruction for
EFL college students. IRAL, 41(4), 293-317.
Yeh, S. F. (2008). Error Analysis of Picture-cue English Compositions of Students in Vocational High Schools. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaoshiung Normal University, Kaoshiung, Taiwan.
Yin, Y., &; Shavelson, R. (2004). Application of generalizability theory on concept map assessment research. (CSE Tech. Rep. No. 640). Los Angeles: University of California, national center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student testing.
Zhang, S. (1987). Cognitive complexity and written production in English as a second
language. Language Learning, 37, 469-481.
Zimmaro, D. M., &; Cawley, J. M. (1998). Concept map module. Schreyer Institute for Innovation in Learning, The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved May 18 2013, from: http://www.inov8.psu.edu/faculty/cmap.htm.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 42. 馮丹白,1998,職業訓練師應具備的能力內涵,就業與訓練,16期,頁3-5。
2. 42. 馮丹白,1998,職業訓練師應具備的能力內涵,就業與訓練,16期,頁3-5。
3. 38. 陳欣蘭,2006,從諾爾斯的自我導向學習看成人學習者在創意教學中的學習成效之個案研究,明新學報,Vol.32,頁51-63。
4. 38. 陳欣蘭,2006,從諾爾斯的自我導向學習看成人學習者在創意教學中的學習成效之個案研究,明新學報,Vol.32,頁51-63。
5. 24. 林孟宗,1979,特殊教育師資專業能力分析研究,新竹師專學報,第5期,頁125-212。
6. 24. 林孟宗,1979,特殊教育師資專業能力分析研究,新竹師專學報,第5期,頁125-212。
7. 19. 李隆盛,1998,企業內訓練的課程設計與實施,就業與訓練,第16卷,第2期,頁60-66。
8. 19. 李隆盛,1998,企業內訓練的課程設計與實施,就業與訓練,第16卷,第2期,頁60-66。
9. 18. 李政憲,2008,化學品安全管理新發展,工安技術論壇,工業安全科技,頁 21-25。
10. 18. 李政憲,2008,化學品安全管理新發展,工安技術論壇,工業安全科技,頁 21-25。
11. 14. 李大偉,1983,能力本位教學與職業教育,家政教育,第9卷,第1期,頁56-58。
12. 14. 李大偉,1983,能力本位教學與職業教育,家政教育,第9卷,第1期,頁56-58。
13. 51. 楊憲明,2006,認知能力、認知歷程與學習成就關係探究,教育資料與研究,第73期,頁25-40。
14. 51. 楊憲明,2006,認知能力、認知歷程與學習成就關係探究,教育資料與研究,第73期,頁25-40。
15. 61. 賴炳况、錢天真,2009,提昇公用事業服務品質之員工訓練需求分析-某公司為例,美和技術學院學報,第28卷,第1期,頁105-119。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔