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研究生:許旭亨
研究生(外文):Syu-Heng Syu
論文名稱:斗六地區大氣PM2.5微粒季節化學特徵之探討
論文名稱(外文):The chemical characristics of the seasonal PM2.5 particle in atmosphere in Dauliou ,Yulin
指導教授:李經民李經民引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:環境與安全衛生工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:PM2.5生質燃燒長程傳輸空氣品質光化反應
外文關鍵詞:biomass burningPM2.5long –range transportationair qualityphotochemical reaction
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依據環保署測站數據顯示斗六測站粒狀物居全台前三名,因而本研究探討斗六地區大氣粒狀汙染物化學特徵及來源解析。實驗利用高流量採樣器採集兩種粒徑粒子(PM2.5與PM10),解析其三種脫水醣類、十五種水溶性陰陽離子與二十種金屬元素成份特徵。
結果顯示四季PM粒徑分布以細粒子為主( PM2.5/PM10 , 0.63±0.09 ),秋冬季PM濃度高於春夏季。冬季夜間濃度較高,可能因冬季日間光化反應旺盛夜間濕度上升,有利於PM2.5前驅物硝酸銨等衍生性氣膠形成。陰陽離子結果顯示,斗六PM2.5四季皆以SO42-為主要分布物種。而 SO42- 及NO3-皆以夜間濃度較高,可能因白天氧化反應旺盛,夜間高濕度使得酸性氣體 ( H2SO4(g) 、HNO3(g) ) 與氨氣生成微粒氣膠。粒子酸性方面,秋冬季PM2.5 AE/CE平均比值大於1,微粒呈現酸性,可能與上風帶來衍生型老化氣膠有關。而稻作燃燒PM2.5 AE/CE比值皆小於1,粒子具微鹼性,可能因稻作燃燒排放有機酸與煙塵陽離子結合使其帶鹼性。
粒子氧化性方面,斗六地區春夏季NOR 0.06~0.07 (< 0.1) 其可能受當地汙染物影響;而秋冬季NOR 0.16~0.25、SOR ~ 0.5,顯示秋冬粒子具有高氧性與來自長程傳輸。 稻作燃燒粒子佔地區PM2.5貢獻17~ 23 %,顯示生質燃燒是地區大氣PM主要來源之一。重金屬方面,斗六粒子以粗粒徑分布為主,細粒子包含稻作燃燒的鉀,交通源排放Pb、Cu及V;燃煤電廠As、Se、Cr、Cd、Sb等重金屬。本研究尚藉由逆軌跡推估斗六地區可能污染來源,春夏季經西南氣流帶入低濃度污染物;秋冬季節隨東北季風帶來上風二次氣膠污染物或經長程傳輸(如中國大陸)影響斗六地區。因此,本研究結果將有助於解析斗六地區PM季節成分特徵與可能汙染來源,供相關研究參考之用。
The data of ROC EPA indicates the particle matter of Douliou monitoring station is higher than other area in Taiwan.This study investigates the chemical characristics and source apportionment of the atmosphere particle matter in Douliou area. Pollution included three androsugars , fifty water-soluble ions and twenty metal elements are measured by collecting from high-vol monitor.
The result shown that PM in Douliou was mainly dominated by fine particle in four seasons ( PM2.5/PM10 , 0.63 ± 0.09 ) and that PM concentration was higher in spring and winter than in summer and spring. The PM concentration in winter was higher at night, suggested that intense photochemical reaction and high R.H.% induced formation of PM2.5 precursors such as ammonium nitrate and other secondary aerosols.The result of water-soluble ions shown that the PM2.5 in Douliou was mainly dominated by sulfate in four seasons. Both secondary aerosol concentration of sulfate and nitrate concentration were higher at night because the intense oxidation reaction in the daytime and high R.H.% induced acidic gas ( H2SO4(g),HNO3(g) ) to combine with ammonia. The average ratio of anion equivalents / cation equivalents (AE/CE) in PM2.5 exceeded 1 that the particle were acidic in autumn and winter due to the stationary upwind acidic pollutants in Douliou .On the other hand, the average ratio of AE/CE in PM2.5 of rice straw burning period was less than 1 that the particle were alkaline, which suggested that organic acid combined with dust cations.
The range of nitrogen oxidation ratio ( NOR ) were 0.06 and 0.07 in spring and summer,respectively, which shown that dominated in Douliou by local emissions ; meantime , NOR were 0.16 ~ 0.25 in autumn and winter which shown high oxidation of PM and related to long-range transportation. PM2.5 contribution of rice straw burning was accounted for 17~ 23 % , and indicated biomass burning was the major PM source. But metal elements in Douliou were mainly dominated by coarse particle,and fine particle of metal elements included K from rice straw burning,Pb,Cu,V from traffic emissions and As,Se,Cr,Cd,Sb from coal-fired power plants. The investigation estimated possible source of pollutants in Douliou by using HYSPLIT model . PM from southwesterly monsoons was found in relatively low concentrations in spring and summer. The PM pollutants not only might be transported by northerly winds in the autumn and winter,but also were affected by long-range transportation from China.Therefore, this investigation are helpful to realize PM seasonal component characteristics and possible sources of pollutants ,and provide researchers for some reference
目錄
中文摘要
英文摘要
目錄
圖目錄
表目錄
一、前言
二、文獻回顧
2-1大氣懸浮微粒之特性
2-1-1 懸浮微粒來源及物理特性
2-1-2 懸浮微粒對人體健康之影響
2-1-3懸浮微粒對環境之影響
2-2脫水醣類之特性
2-2-1脫水醣類之生成機制
2-2-2 脫水醣類之應用
2-3水溶性離子之特性
2-3-1 水溶性離子之來源
2-3-2 水溶性離子之化學特性
2-3-3硫酸鹽及硝酸鹽轉化現象
2-4 金屬之特性
2-4-1 金屬之來源
2-4-2 金屬之化學特性
2-4-3 金屬對人體的危害
三、實驗方法
3-1採樣設備
3-1-1 PM10 二階採樣器
3-1-2 氣象資料收集
3-2 採樣地點與採樣條件概述
3-3 樣本處理與化學分析製備
3-3-1採樣濾紙樣本處理
3-3-2 化學分析製備
3-4 化學分析方法
3-4-1 粒狀物採樣濾紙萃取
3-4-2 化學成分分析
3-5 本研究斗六測站推估
3-5-1 逆軌跡模式分析
3-6 分析方法品保/品管 ( QA/QC )
3-6-1 分析化合物檢量線製作
3-6-2 方法偵測極限測定 ( MDL )
3-6-3 回收率 ( Recovery )
3-6-4 再現性 ( Reproducibility )
3-6-5 空白樣本分析 ( Blank )
四、結果討論
4-1大氣懸浮微粒粒徑分佈特徵
4-1-1 雲林斗六EPA測站 PM 數據分析
4-1-2雲林斗六測站採樣日PM 數據分析
4-1-3本研究與EPA斗六測站 PM 數據分析
4-2水溶性離子組成成分特徵
4-3 脫水醣類組成成份特徵
4-4金屬成份特徵 46
4-5 斗六大氣微粒可能來源解析
4-5-1 Hysplit 逆軌跡模式大氣微粒來源解析
4-5-2 PM事件日探討
五、結果與建議
5-1 結論
5-2 建議
參考文獻
附錄
參考文獻
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