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研究生:彭琦崴
研究生(外文):Chi-Wei Peng
論文名稱:加工處理對未成熟鳳梨釋迦果生理活性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of processing methods on the biological activity of immature custard apple (Annona squamosa ×Annona cherimola) fruit
指導教授:劉黛蒂楊宗熙楊宗熙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tai -Ti LiuTsung- Shi Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元培科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:未成熟鳳梨釋迦抗菌抗氧化
外文關鍵詞:immaturecustard appleantimicrobialantioxidant activity
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本研究以鳳梨釋迦未成熟之青果作為研究樣品,以三種不同乾燥溫度進行處理,分別為日照風乾(AD)、30℃(OD-30)及50℃(OD-50)三種方式進行處理,以水蒸餾法(Water distillation)萃取鳳梨釋迦果中的精油(EO),再利用氣相層析儀(Gas Chromatography;GC)分析鳳梨釋迦精油之成分,其鳳梨釋迦果精油產率分別為0.04±0.00%、0.18±0.01%及0.19±0.02%,且精油經分析後並以氣相層析質譜儀(Gas Chromatography-Mass;GC/MS)分別鑑定出34個揮發性化合物,其中以spathulenol為主要成分化合物,含量分別約為44.51±2.58%、45.0±0.76%及46.01±0.06%。
在抗菌實驗中,以Escherichia coli (O157:H7)及Staphylococcus aureu作為指標菌,於生長週期進行抑菌率試驗,結果顯示,在低濃度下,例如750 mg/L對E. coli (O157:H7)及187 mg/L對S. aureu,以乾燥溫度50℃處理所得之精油抗菌效果最好,然而當濃度高於上述數值時,三種精油的抗菌效果並無明顯差異,例如當濃度為1500 mg/L時,對E. coli (O157:H7)之抑制而言, 三種精油均可達90%以上的抑菌率,同樣地,當濃度為375 mg/L時,對S. aureu 而言,三者亦可達99%以上的抑菌率。
由其他微生物之抗菌實驗結果得知,在高濃度下,三種不同加工精油在抗菌效果上並無明顯差異。三種精油對所有測試之微生物的最小殺菌濃度測定如下:Aspergillus niger (BCRC30204)及Penicillium italicum (BCRC30567)的最小殺菌濃度(MMC)為6000 mg/L、Cladosporium herbarum (BCRC33511)為 >6000 mg/L 、Trichoderma reesei (BCRC31863,32924) 分別為750 mg/L、375 mg/L 、E.coli (O157:H7)為3000 mg/L、Vibrio parahaemolyticus為6000 mg/L、S. aureu為750 mg/L、Listeria monocytogenes為1500 mg/L。
抗氧化活性測定項目包括DPPH自由基清除能力、一氧化氮及還原力等三項。抗氧化活性以半抑制濃度(IC50)表示,乾燥溫度50℃萃取所得之精油在DPPH自由基清除能力(IC50為3177 mg/L)、一氧化氮(IC50為2156 mg/L)及還原力(3000 mg/L相當於維生素E 668.9 mg/L)效果較日照風乾及30℃好。

Custard apple has been a popular fruit in Taiwan. The quality of this fruit is labile during storage due to its rapid ripening characteristics. Therefore, many studies have been devoted to enhancing its stability as well as maintaining its quality during storage. In contrast to the ripe fruit, the unripe fruit in a large amount is normally regarded as a waste and discarded. This research aimed at studying the biologically active components of the unripe fruit of custard apple, especially the essential oil (EO), and trying to potentiate its commercial value.
The unripe fruit was subjected to different processing methods and the yield as well as the composition of the EO was analyzed. The EO was obtained by a water distillation method and the yields of the EO were 0.04±0.00%, 0.18±0.01%, and 0.19±0.02% for the treatments of the fruits by air-dried outdoors (AD), oven-dried at 30°C (OD-30), and oven-dried at 50°C (OD-50), respectively. The components and composition of the EO were analyzed by GC-MS. There were 34 compounds tentatively identified. Spathulenol was found the largest compound in the EO in terms of quantity and its concentrations were 44.51±2.58%, 45.0±0.76% and 46.01±0.06% for the AD, OD-30, and OD-50, respectively.
The inhibition of microbial growth during incubation by the EOs from the three treatments was studied by using E.coli (O157:H7) and S. aureu as representative organisms. The results showed that at lower concentrations such as 750 mg/L for E.coli (O157:H7) and 187 mg/L for S.aureu, the EO from OD-50 showed a higher antimicrobial effect than those from AD and OD-30. However, at the concentrations beyond those, the three EOs did not show any significant suppressing effects on the microbial growth. For example, over 90% of the E. coli (O157:H7) was inactivated by the EO at 1500 mg/L, and 99% of the S.aureu was inhibited by the EO at 375 mg/L. Antimicrobial activity of the EO from the three treatments was similar in terms of microbicidal effect. The minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) was determined as 6000 mg/L for Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum, >6000 mg/L for Cladosporium herbarum, 750 mg/L and 375 mg/L for Trichoderma reesei (BCRC31863), Trichoderma reesei (BCRC 32924), 3000 mg/L for E.coli (O157:H7), 6000 mg/L for V.parahaemolyticus, 750 mg/L for S.aureu, and 1500 mg/L for L.monocytogenes.
Antioxidant activity of the EO was measured by the following methods: DPPH, NO, and reducing power. Antioxidant activity of the EO is expressed as the concentration of the EO required for inhibiting half of the oxidative effect (IC50). The EO from OD-50 exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than those from AD and OD-30. The concentrations of IC50 for the EO from OD-50 based on DPPH, NO, and reducing power tests were 3177 mg/L, 2156 mg/L, and 3000 mg/L, respectively.

中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 III
致謝 V
目錄 VII
圖目錄 X
表目錄 XI
前言 1
第一章、文獻回顧 4
1.1 精油之簡介 4
1.1.1 精油化學成分 4
1.1.2 精油萃取方法 6
1.2 精油生理活性之研究 8
1.2.1精油之抗菌活性 8
1.2.2 精油之抗菌機制 8
1.2.3 精油抗氧化作用 9
1.3台灣番荔枝之簡介 10
1.3.1 本省番荔枝之主要栽培品種 11
1.3.2 台灣番荔枝之產業概況 14
1.3.3 台灣番荔枝果實之後熟 15
1.4研究動機與目的 16
研究架構 18
第二章、材料與方法 19
儀器設備 19
2.1鳳梨釋迦果樣品的來源與製備 20
2.1.1鳳梨釋迦未成熟青果加工方法 20
2.1.2鳳梨釋迦果精油水蒸餾之萃取 20
2.2鳳梨釋迦乾果精油揮發性成份之分析鑑定 21
2.3抗菌試驗 21
2.3.1試驗菌株 21
2.3.2培養基 22
2.3.3菌株培養 22
2.3.4鳳梨釋迦乾果精油抗菌試驗之乳化液製備 24
2.3.5鳳梨釋迦乾果精油抗菌能力試驗方法 24
2.3.6鳳梨釋迦乾果精油對食品之應用試驗 26
2.4抗氧化能力分析 26
2.4.1鳳梨釋迦乾果精油抗氧化試驗之製備 26
2.4.2 DPPH(α,α-Diphenyl-β- picrylhydrazyl)自由基清除能力 27
2.4.3清除nitrite oxide能力之測定 28
2.4.4鳳梨釋迦乾果精油還原力之測定 28
2.5 統計分析 29
第三章、結果與討論 30
3.1鳳梨釋迦果精油之分析 30
3.1.1鳳梨釋迦果精油之產率探討 30
3.1.2鳳梨釋迦果精油的成分鑑定 30
3.2鳳梨釋迦乾果精油的抗菌活性探討 31
3.2.1鳳梨釋迦乾果精油對黴菌抗菌之探討 31
3.2.2鳳梨釋迦乾果精油對Escherichia coli (O157:H7) 及Staphylococcus aureu抑菌率之探討 31
3.2.3鳳梨釋迦乾果精油對細菌能力抑菌之探討 32
3.2.4鳳梨釋迦乾果精油對食品之應用試驗 32
3.3鳳梨釋迦乾果精油的抗氧化活性探討 32
3.3.1鳳梨釋迦乾果精油DPPH自由基清除能力之探討 32
3.3.2鳳梨釋迦乾果精油清除 nitrite oxide能力之探討 33
3.3.3鳳梨釋迦乾果精油還原力之探討 33
第四章、結論 34
第五章、參考文獻 47

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