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研究生:賴律翰
研究生(外文):Lu-Han Lai
論文名稱:醫用迴旋加速器環境輻射劑量評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of Environmental Radiation Dose for Medical Cyclotron
指導教授:林招膨林招膨引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jao-perng Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元培科技大學
系所名稱:醫學影像暨放射技術研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學技術及檢驗學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:迴旋加速器長桿型蓋格偵檢器氣泡式中子劑量計中子侖目儀
外文關鍵詞:CyclotronGM CounterBubble Detector Personal Neutron DosimeterNeutron Rem Detector
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正子斷層掃描(Positron Emission Tomography, PET)所需的短半衰期放射性藥物由迴旋加速器(Cyclotron)生產,國內目前有九座醫用迴旋加速器在負責生產。迴旋加速器在生產放射性藥物時,過程中除了產生γ、β輻射,亦將額外產生中子。迴旋加速器雖有完善的屏蔽設計,但屏蔽逸出的中子與加馬輻射亦不容小覷,尤其中子輻射若忽略注意,易使工作人員直接或間接造成體外輻射劑量。根據NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements)116號報告中,不同能量之中子輻射其加權因素亦不同。本研究為評估醫用迴旋加速器運轉時產生之光子與中子輻射造成環境之影響。
本研究以高雄義大醫院迴旋加速器中心為量測地點,採用之輻射偵檢器光子部分為長桿型蓋格偵檢器,中子偵檢器為中子侖目儀(Neutron Rem Detector, NRD)、移動式中子偵檢器(Portable Neutron Survey Meter)及氣泡式中子劑量計(Bubble Detector Personal Neutron Dosimeter, BD-PNDTM)。研究方法將長桿型蓋格偵檢器以固定距離、時間,量測運轉後之迴旋加速器室內光子劑量。中子侖目儀及氣泡式中子劑量計分別佈點於迴旋加速室自動門之軌道上,量測運轉中之迴旋加速器所誘發中子輻射是否穿透至室外。研究結果得知迴旋加速器室內光子劑量分佈,可依據時間及劑量曲線來推估機器故障時建議維修工程師進入維修時間,以遵循合理抑低原則。中子劑量結果得知自動門屏蔽足以阻擋中子輻射並室內屏蔽設計非常完善。本研究結果可提供給迴旋加速器中心作為輻射防護之參考。

Medical advances in positron emission tomography (PET) have developed rapidly, as evidenced by ten medical cyclotrons that currently produce PET radiation pharmaceuticals in Taiwan. Staff employees are unfortunately exposed to the highest radiation dose in the manufacturing of radiation pharmaceuticals. This study evaluates radiation dose exposure towards laboratory technicians as a function of the cyclotron measurement device used when drawing out 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) that occurs during processing and transporting if radiation pharmaceuticals. The dose of radiation exposure having accumulated in the technologists is evaluated.
We performed this work in E-Da hospital Cyclotron Center and utilized the bubble detectors to measure the neutron dose contribution around the GE PETtrace cyclotron during the operation. The bubble detector has adequate neutron energy response to meet the ICRP 60 recommendations for neutron dosimeter. For the neutron dose calibration, the bubble detectors were irradiated with 252Cf neutron source in National Radiation Standards Laboratory. The bubble detectors were positioned for twelve points which located along four directions around the cyclotron. It showed that the right front of the space had the highest dose in the cyclotron room, and this phenomenon was related to the angle of beam collision. The result of this dose was also agree with Ionizing Radiation Protection Act. This study can provide the hospitals which have medical cyclotron center with a reference for radiation protection.

中文摘要 ………………………………………………………………. I
英文摘要 ……………………………………………………………… II
致 謝 ……………………………………………………………… III
表 目 錄 ……………………………………………………………… IV
圖 目 錄 ……………………………………………………………… V
第一章 緒論
1.1 前言……………………………………………………….1
1.2 研究背景及目的………………………………………….2
1.3 文獻回顧………………………………………………….5
1.4 實驗架構………………………………………………….7
第二章 基礎理論
2.1 輻射劑量學……………………………………………… 8
2.1.1吸收劑量………………………………………… 8
2.1.2等價劑量………………………………………… 8
2.1.3有效劑量………………………………………… 9
2.1.4暴露量………………………………………….. 11
2.1.5通量…………………………………………….. 11
2.1.6通量率………………………………………….. 11
2.1.7能通量………………………………………….. 12
2.1.8能通量率……………………………………….. 12
2.2 中子來源……………....……………………………… 13
第三章 實驗設備與材料
3.1 迴旋加速器中心……………………………………….. 18
3.2 迴旋加速器結構……………………………………….. 20
3.3 度量地點與屏蔽結構介紹…………………………….. 23
3.4 長桿型蓋革偵檢器.………………………………………………… 25
3.5 氣泡式中子劑量計……………………………………… 32
3.4.1氣泡式中子劑量計原理………………………… 33
3.4.2氣泡式中子劑量計應用………………………… 36
3.6 中子侖目儀……………………………………………… 37
第四章 實驗方法與步驟
4.1 運轉後之迴旋加速器室………………………………… 40
4.1.1長桿型蓋革偵檢器……………………………… 40
4.2 運轉中之迴旋加速器室外……………………………… 43
4.2.1氣泡式中子劑量計……………………………… 43
4.2.2中子侖目儀……………………………………… 45
4.3 區域輻射劑量評估……………………………………… 47
4.4 迴旋加速器屏蔽計算…………………………………… 53
第五章 結果與討論
5.1 光子劑量評估…………………………………………… 55
5.1.1運轉後之迴旋加速器室…………………………55
5.1.2迴旋加速器故障建議工程師進入維修時間……56
5.2 中子劑量評估…………………………………………… 61
5.2.1運轉中之迴旋加速器室外………………………61
5.3 區域輻射劑量結果……………………………………… 63
5.4 屏蔽計算結果…………………………………………… 65
第六章 結論……………………………………………………………… 70
參考文獻………………………………………………………………… 72

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