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研究生:朱怡蓁
研究生(外文):Yi-Chen Chu
論文名稱:注意力偏誤操弄作業在蜘蛛畏懼者上的應用和時間進程效果的探討
論文名稱(外文):The Application of Attentional Bias Modification in Spider-fearful Individuals And The Discussion of Time Course Effect
指導教授:鄧閔鴻鄧閔鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Hung Teng
口試委員:張素凰周蔚倫
口試委員(外文):Sue-Hwang ChangWei-Lun Chou
口試日期:2014-05-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:臨床心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:注意力偏誤注意力偏誤操弄作業特定對象畏懼症時間進程效果
外文關鍵詞:attentional biasattention bias modification taskspecific phobiatime course effect
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根據回顧,特定對象畏懼症者(specific phobia)可能具有「警覺—逃避」(vigilance- avoidance)的注意力偏誤(attentional bias)歷程,而該歷程與其焦慮的產生或維持可能有顯著的關係。MacLeod與Mathews的團隊(Mathews & MacLeod, 2002)透過操弄個體的注意力偏誤,發現除了能降低個體的注意力偏誤程度之外,更可能進而減緩個體在面對壓力作業時的焦慮反應。近年來,雖然此注意偏誤操弄 (attention bias modification; ABM) 作業,被認為是具有臨床應用潛力的治療技術,其作用機制尚未被仔細探究,而過去有關注意偏誤操弄作業的研究也未考慮到不同焦慮疾患可能有注意力偏誤的異質性,使得此作業目前只能零星的應用在廣泛性焦慮症、社交畏懼症、及高特質焦慮者的研究,而無法在特定對象畏懼症患者上獲得療效的驗證。本研究的主要目的是藉由操弄ABM作業的時間進程 (time course) 效果,探討蜘蛛畏懼個體的注意力偏誤異質性及其接受注意偏誤操弄作業作業前後的影響。在本研究中,各31位的高、低蜘蛛畏懼者,分別接受短 (100毫秒) 、中 (500毫秒) 、長 (980毫秒) 等三種呈現時間的注意偏誤操弄 (以蜘蛛圖片與中性動物圖片為呈現刺激材料) ,觀察在注意偏誤操弄作業前後,二組參與者的三種注意偏誤指標、主觀蜘蛛畏懼、及行為逃避程度的改變。本研究結果顯示,注意偏誤操弄作業的訓練成功的改變了高、低蜘蛛畏懼者的注意力型態,參與者接受操弄前,無論其注意力偏誤為何,在接受注意偏誤操弄作業後,皆能夠一致的呈現出逃避的注意力偏誤。而且,本研究發現進一步發現,在投注指標的部分,接受較長操弄時間的參與者,逃避的注意力傾向越明顯;在後測的點偵測作業也顯示,刺激呈現的時間越長,參與者逃避的注意力傾向也越明顯。然而,整體來說參與者對蜘蛛圖片的主觀害怕程度上升、逃避傾向亦增加。不同的是,在接受短時間操弄的低蜘蛛畏懼組受試者,在接受操弄後的主觀害怕程度上升、逃避傾向下降,但卻未達顯著差異。根據研究結果,本研究嘗試進一步探討注意偏誤的異質性對注意偏誤操弄作業的影響、注意偏誤操弄作業的機制、注意力偏誤操弄作業的時間進程效果、以及注意偏誤操弄未來於臨床上的可能應用。
According to the review, individuals with specific phobia may possess the symptom of “vigilance – avoidance ” in the attentional bias process. And the cause of this bias may produce or maintain the symptoms of specific phobia. Through the attentional bias modification (ABM) procedure, MacLeod and Mathews (2002) discovered that ABM may reduce the extent of attentional bias toward the threat and diminish their anxiety during stress task. Recently, though ABM is viewed as an effective technology for clinical treatment, its’ mechanism hasn’t been investigated clearly and it hasn’t taken the specificity of attentional bias in different anxiety disorders into consideration. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of ABM in different presentation times. In the present study, we randomly assigns 31 spider-fearful individuals and 31 normal individuals to receive short (100 ms), medium (500 ms), and long (980 ms) ABM exposure times (using pictures of spiders and neutral animals as stimuli) respectively. The changes of the three attentional bias index, the subjective fear of spider, and the avoidance behavior of two groups before and after the ABM are investigated. The result shows that individual’s attentional bias can be trained successfully. Before receiving ABM, no matter what individuals attentional bias patterm is, they would show avoidant bias after ABM. Moreover, in the engagement index, the longer ABM’s exposure times which individuals receive, the more obvious avoidant bias individuals show. And after receiving ABM, the longer stimulus present in the dot probe task, the more obvious avoidant bias individuals show. Nevertheless, the study reveals individual’s increase subjective fear of spider and the tendency of avoidance behavior are also increased. The difference is that the low spider-fearful individuals who receive short exposure time of ABM, their subjective fear of spider and the avoidance behavior are reduced. According to the results, we will try to investigate the specificity of attentional bias and ABM’s mechanism. In addition, we also want to explore the possibility of clinical application in the future.
第一章 緒論..........................................................................................................1
第一節 特定對象畏懼症的臨床特徵與流行病學...............................................1
第二節 特定對象畏懼症的心理病理模式...........................................................3
第三節 注意力偏誤的研究作業介紹.................................................................11
第四節 特定對象畏懼症的注意力偏誤.............................................................17
第五節 注意力偏誤的異質性.............................................................................21
第六節 注意偏誤操弄與注意偏誤操弄治療療效.............................................25
第七節 研究目的、假設、與預期.....................................................................31
第二章 方法.........................................................................................................35
第一節 參與者.....................................................................................................35
第二節 實驗設計與實驗程序.............................................................................37
第三節 工具.........................................................................................................41
第四節 注意偏誤作業與情緒刺激素材.............................................................45
第五節 資料分析.................................................................................................49
第三章 研究結果...............................................................................................51
第一節 刺激圖片的特徵.....................................................................................51
第二節 受試者基本資料與自陳量表分析.........................................................53
第三節 蜘蛛畏懼程度在注意偏誤操弄前後的差異.........................................57
第四節 接受注意偏誤操弄前後三種注意偏誤指標的差異.............................67
第四章 討論........................................................................................................87
第一節 綜合結果與討論.....................................................................................87
第二節 研究貢獻.................................................................................................97
第三節 研究限制與未來展望.............................................................................99
參考文獻..............................................................................................................101
附錄........................................................................................................................113

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