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研究生:喻祖蒂
研究生(外文):Tsu-Ti Yu
論文名稱:從歐盟及英國電子隱私法制論網路追蹤式廣告之隱私保護
論文名稱(外文):Online Behavioural Advertising and Privacy Protection- Focusing on the E.U. and U.K. law of Electronic Communications Privacy.
指導教授:江耀國江耀國引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yao-kuo Eric Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:財經法律研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:160
中文關鍵詞:網路追蹤式廣告Cookie自律規範經告知同意個人資料保護法個人資料資訊隱私權電子個人隱私指令
外文關鍵詞:Personal Data Protection Actonline behavioural advertisingcookieinformed consentself-regulation.the right of Information Privacythe e-Privacy Directivepersonal data
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現今網際網路的普及化,再加上網路對於現代社會之不可或缺,我們可以多元利用網際網路,不論是繳費、購買商品、查詢資料、使用社交網站,甚或利用雲端儲存資料、文書處理等,在現代均能夠經由簡便的方式透過網路而輕易取得。這些由網路所提供的行為便民且利民,更使得網路平台萌發巨大商機。此外,使用者在網路中的資訊日益漸多,更是成為網路業者得以獲利的重要一環。這些網路行為不外乎需要使用網路瀏覽器,而為增進網路瀏覽器使用順暢而發展出來的Cookie或類似技術,卻演變為網路商業廣告蒐集個人資料的利器,並成為可能侵害隱私的一大隱憂。

在蒐集網路資訊的最大隱私侵害方面,為網路追蹤式廣告。假若將這些網路資訊,利用在網路廣告上,優點是可以增加廣告效益,缺點卻是使用者資訊隱私權之侵害。故為令使用者在使用網際網路所產生之資訊亦能獲得保障,首先,本文主要介紹利用Cookie之追蹤式廣告,進而整理分析2009年歐盟議會修正之歐盟電子個人隱私指令(2002/58/EC)及英國相關規定,並討論英國在實際執行之困難與解決辦法。

其次,因商業行為不應過度抑制其發展,然亦不應過度放任,故而歐盟及英國之廣告行業之自律規範,作其第一線解決機制。並在歐盟及英國主管機關對其自律規範之建議下,更加深自律規範之合規性及有效執行,冀能提供予我國廣告行業以作為其採取自律機制之借鏡。再者,在我國個人資料保護法修法後,試討論「經告知同意」及「個人資料」之界定範圍,進而提出在追蹤式廣告可能規制之淺見。最後,希望能夠藉本論文對國外法制之介紹,提供我國在追蹤式廣告侵害個人資訊隱私權之探討研究。




Internet has been a common and necessary online tool in this modern society for everyone to use for many purposes, such as paying bills, shopping, looking up information, utilizing social network, or even saving information in the cloud-based platform and managing documents etc. Everything is easy to access by just a click away on the internet. Internet has facilitated a lot of things and benefited people as to grow numberless business opportunities. Moreover, users can obtain more information on the internet, which is possible for those internet businesses to make money. All those internet behaviours require a browser to reach information, and thus cookie-alike technology is developed for this need. This technology has become a means for online advertisers to gather personal information and might present a concern on the privacy infringement issues.

Something gathers our personal information and may infringe our privacy is "online behavioural advertising (OBA)". If we allow online advertising, it might attract more business, but it also has a potential to invade our personal privacy. Therefore, we must make sure users’ privacy can be secured when we browse on the internet. First of all, this essay gives introduction to OBA using cookie. Second, E-Privacy Directive (2002/58/EC) of the E.U. and legal rules alike in the UK are major parts presented in the thesis.

Furthermore, business behaviours should neither be over-oppressed nor over-promoted, this is why the EU and the UK have set up self regulation to manage online advertising business as a frontline solution. Under the guidance of the EU and the UK authorities, the self regulation system has better legal compliance and has been effective - a good example for Taiwan. After Taiwan revised Personal Data Protection Act, some issues like the definition on the extent of "Informed consent" and "Personal Information" can be discussed. Legal rules and suggestions for OBA are proposed in this essay.




摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝辭 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 VIII
中英簡稱對照表 X

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的與研究提問 3
第三節 研究方法 5
第四節 論文架構 5
第二章 簡介網路追蹤式廣告 7
第一節 前言 7
第二節 追蹤式廣告從業者間之關係 12
第三節 追蹤式廣告之技術類別 15
第四節 小結 24
第三章 歐盟個人隱私指令 26
第一節 歐盟隱私指令背景介紹 26
第一項 普通法─個人資料保護指令(95/46/EC) 26
第二項 特別法─電子個人隱私指令(2002/58/EC) 27
第三項 特別法修正─電子個人隱私指令之修正(2009/136/EC)30
第四項 小結 38
第二節 歐盟電子個人隱私指令(2002/58/EC)第5-3條分析 38
第一項 行為客體 39
第二項 條件1:經告知同意(Informed consent) 40
第三項 條件2:告知資訊 48
第三節 本指令第5-3條之例外規定及Cookie合法應用 48
第四節 追蹤式廣告從業者在歐盟電子個人隱私指令第5-3條之法律責任 56
第一項 網路廣告商之責任 57
第二項 線上出版者之責任 57
第三項 製作使用者檔案之責任 58
第四項 使用敏感性資料之責任 60
第五節 小結 60
第四章 英國隱私與電子通訊規則(PECR)第6條法條分析 63
第一節 本法第6條分析 63
第二節 英國資訊官辦公室指導原則 72
第三節 英國資訊官辦公室之職權及執法實況 79
第四節 小結 88
第五章 歐盟及英國在追蹤式廣告之自律規範 91
第一節 歐盟網路互動廣告組織(IAB Europe)及歐盟廣告標準聯盟(EASA)在追蹤式廣告之自律規範 91
第一項 歐盟廣告行業自律規範產生背景 91
第二項 歐盟廣告行業自律規範之範圍及方法 93
第三項 歐盟廣告行業自律規範原則 95
第四項 歐盟第29條工作小組之建議 104
第二節 英國廣告委員會(CAP)在追蹤式廣告之自律規範 110
第一項 英國廣告行業自律組織介紹 110
第二項 英國廣告自律規範介紹 112
第三項 英國廣告標準管理機構(ASA)執行半年報告書 115
第四項 英國對追蹤式廣告之管制機關 118
第五項 英國公平交易辦公室(OFT)之建議 121
第三節 小結 125
第六章 網路追蹤式廣告在我國法規適用上之可能性及建議 130
第七章 結論 139
參考文獻 146

圖目錄
圖1 廣告分類樹狀圖 8
圖2 說明第一方廣告之運作模式 19
圖3 第一方廣告如何關注使用者而配給適當之廣告19
圖4 第三方廣告之運作模式21
圖5 第三方廣告如何關注使用者而配給適當之廣告22
圖6 服務條款之範例 74
圖7 置頂或底部跳出橫幅方框之範例75
圖8 不符合規定之彈出視窗範例 76
圖9 設定導向同意之範例77
圖10 功能導向之同意78
圖11 MoneySavingExpert.com合法取得同意方式85
圖12 Nationwide.co.uk合法取得同意方式85
圖13 Channel4.com合法取得同意方式 85


表目錄
表1 第一方及第三方名稱區分表17
表2 Cookie綜合運用之例子17
表3 修正條文內容簡述32
表4 法條差異63
表5 Cookie在例外規定之適用範圍70
表6 網站是否符合本規則第6條規定的調查83
表7 ICO對網站業者遵守規則的報告調查 87
表8 歐盟指令與英國規則之比較88
表9 自律組織區分表94
表10 廣告報告及廣告傳遞區分表98
表11 原則一規範之告知義務之責任區分表100
表12 追蹤式廣告自我管制組織對照表113
表13 歐盟及英國在電子個人隱私法制規定對照表140
表14 歐盟及英國對追蹤式廣告之自律規範對照表141
表15 政府機關對自律規範建議與業者回應整理表141

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37.Memorandum of understanding between ASA and Defra, http://www.cap.org.uk/General/Transparency/~/media/Files/CAP/Transperancy/CAP%2011%20and%2014%20Memorandum%20of%20Understanding%20between%20ASA%20and%20DEFRA.ashx .
38.Office of Fair Trading, Online Targeting of Advertising and Prices- A market study, OFT1231 (May, 2010), http://www.oft.gov.uk/shared_oft/business_leaflets/659703/OFT1231.pdf .
39.Richard M. Smith, The Web Bug FAQ, Version 1.0 (1999), available online at <http://w2.eff.org/Privacy/Marketing/web_bug.html> (Last visited Jan.20, 2014)
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41.Press Release, Press Release from Article 29 data protection working party to OBA industry (Mar. 1, 2012), Ref.Ares (2012) 240896, http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/other-document/files/2012/20120301_reply_to_iab_easa_en.pdf.
42.The Committee of Advertising Practice, The CAP Code-The UK Code of Non-broadcast Advertising, Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing, Appendix 3 Online Behavioural Advertising (12th Ed.), online available at <http://www.cap.org.uk/Advertising-Codes/Broadcast-HTML.aspx> (Last visited Jan.20, 2014).
43.The Committee of Advertising Practice (CAP), HELP NOTE-online behavioural advertising, http://www.cap.org.uk/~/media/Files/CAP/Help%20notes%20new/Online%20Behavioural%20Advertising.ashx.
44.The Office of Fair Trading (OFT), Guidance on the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 (CPRs), http://www.oft.gov.uk/shared_oft/business_leaflets/cpregs/oft1008.pdf.
45.The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003 (The PECR), UK Statutory Instrument 2003 No. 2426, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2003/2426/made.
46.Wikipedia, Interactive Advertising Bureau(IAB), available online at<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interactive_Advertising_Bureau> (last visited Jan.20, 2014).
47.Wikipedia, Self-regulatory organization, online available at <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-regulatory_organization> (last visited Jan 19, 2014).

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