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研究生:劉美蘭
研究生(外文):SARI-Mira Luxita
論文名稱:運用數位RPG 於英語閱讀教學之成效:學習成果與教師回饋
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Using Digital RPG on EFL Reading Instruction : Student Learning Outcome and Teaching Perceptions
指導教授:陳正婷
指導教授(外文):Chen-Cheng Ting
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:應用外語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:253
中文關鍵詞:RPG遊戲、閱讀策略、英語學習、英語教學
外文關鍵詞:Role Playing GameEnglish TeachingEnglish learningreading skills
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運用數位RPG於英語閱讀教學之成效; 學習成果與教師回饋
摘要

本研究旨在探討RPG遊戲對於教學之效能,以及檢視透過數位RPG遊戲之學生閱讀技巧能否提升。另,本研究也探討了RPG作為輔助教學策略,對於學生在英語學習中,學習動機及學習態度之影響。此外也發現,過去許多的研究成果支持了本研究的假設。也就是數位RPG遊戲對於提升英語教學成效和學生閱讀技巧是有效的。
本研究採用了質量化並重的混合設計探討五項主要的研究問題。在一所位於印尼西部的私立小學中,由九十四名學生以及六位英語教師共同擔任本研究的實驗對象。研究用的英語教材由研究者自行研發,其中包括了十二種RPG遊戲。實驗數據主要有量化以及質化兩種。在量化方面,學生的閱讀技巧、學習動機、學習態度,以及RPG遊戲的使用成效,分別透過前後測與ELAMU問卷收集。另外,英語教師對於RPG遊戲和閱讀策略的想法也透過另一項問卷收集。另外,為了要深入了解教師如何操作RPG遊戲,以及RPG遊戲帶給英語教學的影響;於實驗過程中,研究者也進行了課堂觀察以及半開放式訪談來收集數據。在分析方面,本研究採用描述性統計與成對樣本T檢定,對學生的學習成效以及心理因素進行分析。另外,克魯格框架分析法(Krueger framework analysis)則用於檢視教師的訪談內容。至於課堂觀察,則是用於支持本研究對於RPG遊戲的假設。而透過問卷調查所收集的教師意見,本研究採用內容分析法探討之。
研究結果顯示,數位RPG遊戲可以作為提升學生閱讀技巧的輔助教學工具,並且讓學生的英語能力有顯著提升。另外學生也展現了對於使用RPG遊戲的正面態度,以及明顯成長的學習動機。RPG遊戲裡的圖像與動畫對於提升英語學習成效非常有用。另外,課堂觀察的結果顯示,學生對於課堂任務的專注力大幅提升,並且主動積極參與段落閱讀與其他課室活動。又,某位英語教師對於數位RPG遊戲提升學習動機一事,表達了自己的正面看法。她提到RPG遊戲能夠讓學生在課堂上更為專心,並且與教師能夠有更多互動的機會。教師意見的問卷則驗證了本研究對於RPG遊戲能否成為輔助教學工具的看法。問卷中,參與本研究的教師同意了RPG遊戲對於英語學習帶來的正面影響。不過,他們也表示,因為對RPG遊戲的設計了解不夠深入,因此在執行面上會遇到困難。
總而言之,本研究證實了RPG遊戲可以作為英語輔助教學的工具,用以提升學生的閱讀技巧語學習動機。另外,學生也能更專注於課堂任務,更能於課堂之中與他人積極互動。

關鍵字:RPG遊戲、閱讀策略、英語學習、英語教學







The Effect of Using Digital RPG on EFL Reading Instruction:
Student Learning Outcome and Teaching Perceptions
Abstract
This present study intends to explore the effectiveness of RPG for English teaching and to investigate the improvement of students’ reading skills by using digital RPG. Moreover, this present study investigates the students’ motivation and learning attitude regarding RPG as a tool for English learning. It is also found that many of the previous studies have supported the claim made in the present study with respect to the digital RPG as an effective way for enhancement of English teaching and improvement of students’ reading skills.
To address four main research questions, a mixed-research design was employed as the research method. Ninety-four students and six English teachers of a private school in West Indonesia were recruited in the present study. Teaching materials were designed by the researcher, which were comprised by twelve digital RPGs. Data were collected both quantitatively and qualitatively. Participants’ learning outcome of reading skills, learning motivation/attitude, and the usefulness of RPG were collected by means of pre/posttest and ELAMU, respectively. A questionnaire for reading strategy teaching is also employed to collect teachers’ feedback. On the other hand, the classroom observation and a semi-structured interview were conducted, in order to collect English teacher’s responses to the use and effectiveness of RPG on English language teaching.
Furthermore, descriptive statistics and paired-sample t-test were used to examine the participants’ achievement and psychological attributes. Also, Krueger framework analysis was employed an analyzing tool for the interview protocol. Regarding the classroom observation, its major findings were used as the supporting claims on the use of RPG. The feedback collected from the teacher was analyzed through content analysis.
The findings indicate that the effect of digital RPG can be an alternative tool for improving students’ reading skills. The students’ English proficiency has significantly improved after the intervention of RPG. The test results also reveal that the students have acquired positive attitudes and a high level of motivation toward English learning via digital RPG. As shown, moreover, the pictures and the animations of RPG are useful for English learning. The result of observation demonstrated that digital RPG can help the students focus more on their assignment to a large extent. The students have actively engaged in reading the passage and participated in the activity.
Moreover, one of the English teachers has shown positive attitude toward the idea that digital RPGs can increase the level of the students’ motivation for English learning. Additionally, she mentioned that RPG can help the students to have concentration and enhance the students-teacher’s interaction during learning. The test results of Teaching Reading Strategy Questionnaire confirm that five English teachers mention that digital RPG can be a tool for English teaching. The English teachers agreed that the features of RPG can facilitate English learning process. However, the teachers pointed out that they have difficulty designing RPG on their own, because they have not mastered the program yet.
Overall, it is concluded that the effect of using digital RPG can be a tool for improving students’ reading skills, and increasing students’ level of motivation in English learning. By using RPG, students become more focused on their assignment, and also demonstrate active interaction with one another in class.
Keywords: Role Playing Game, reading skills, English learning, English Teaching







TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………. ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………….. vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………… viii
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………... xiv
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………. xvi
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………1
1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………1
1.1.1 Education system in Indonesia……………………………………….2
1.1.2 The Use of Digital RPG for Improving Students’ Reading Skills…...2
1.2 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………3
1.3 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………….......................6
1.4 Significance of the Study………………………………………………………8
1.5 Research Questions…………………………………………………………….9
1.6 Hypotheses &; Assumptions……………………………………………………9
1.7 Definitions of the Terms………………………………………………………12
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………..13
2.1 The Influence of Technology in Education……………………………………13
2.2 Reading Skills………………………………………………………………….16
2.2.1 Lexical Orthographic–Phonological Processes………………………17
2.2.2 Processing Lexical Meaning…………………………………………18
2.2.3 Processing Syntax…………………………………………………….18
2.2.4 Processing Text……………………………………………………….18
2.3 RPG for improving reading skill……………………………….........................19
2.3.1 The Characteristics of the Game……………………………………..22
2.3.1.1 Rules/Goals………………………………………………...23
2.3.1.2 Sensory Stimuli…………………………………………….23
2.3.1.3 Challenge…………………………………………………..23
2.3.1.4 Mystery…………………………………………………….23
2.3.1.5 Control……………………………………………………..24
2.4 RPG as a Tool on EFL Reading Instruction …………………………………..24
2.5 RPG and Immersion Motivation……………………………………………….26
2.6 Authentic Material for English Teaching……………………………………...27
2.6.1 Authenticity of the texts……………………………………………..27
2.6.2 Authenticity of the learners’ interpretations……………………….28
2.6.3 Authenticity of tasks for language learning…………………………28
2.6.4 Authenticity of the social learning in language classroom………….28
2.7 Teaching Vocabulary Using Authentic Material……………………………...29
2.8 Teachers’ perceptions of computer technology in language learning………...30
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………33
3.1 Research Design………………………………………………………………33
3.2.1 Research Paradigm………………………………………………….37
3.2 Participants……………………………………………………………………38
3.2.1 The Students.......................................................................................38
3.2.2 The Teachers………………………………………………………..39
3.3 The Materials………………………………………………………………….41
3.3.1 RPG Syllabus………………………………………………………..41
3.3.1.1 Getting the Ticket…………………………………………45
3.3.1.2 Watching a Movie…………………………………………47
3.3.1. 3 A Documentary Film……………………………………...49
3.3.1.4 A Cartoon Comic…………………………………………..50
3.3.1.5 Watching Video of World Cup 2012………………………52
3.3.1.6 A Vacation to Green Island………………………………...53
3.3.1.7 In the Airport……………………………………………….57
3.3.1.8 Visiting Aunty……………………………………………...58
3.3.1.9 My Brother’s Birthday……………………………………..60
3.3.1.10 A gift from my brother……………………………………63
3.3.1.11 The Secret Place…………………………………………..64
3.3.2 Authenticity in the Language Testing………………………………..66
3.4 Instruments and data collection………………………………………………...70
3.4.1 Pretest and posttest assignment………………………………………71
3.4.2 ELAMU Questionnaire…………..…………………………………..72
3.4.3 Observation…….…………………………………………………….74
3.4.4 Teacher Interview……………………………………………………75
3.4.5 Teaching Reading Strategy Questionnaire…………………………..76
3.5 Data analysis…………………………………………………………………..78
3.6 Pilot study……………………………………………………………………..86
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS…………………………………………………………………90
4.1 Results of Students’ Perception regarding RPG as an Alternative Strategy…..90
4.1.1 Results of the Score Comparison Between pretest and posttest……..91
4.1.2 The Result of English Language Attitude, Motivation and Usefulness Questionnaire…………………………………………………….....93
4.1.2.1 The Participants’ Background Information……………….93
4.1.2.2 Students’ Attitude toward Learning by Using RPG………98
4.1.2.3 Students’ Motivation toward Learning by Using RPG…..100
4.1.2.4 The usefulness of RPG…………………………………...102
4.1.2.5 Students’ Self-Evaluation toward RPG…………………..104
4.2 Results of Classroom Observation and Teachers’ Perception regarding
RPG as an Alternative Strategy for Teaching………………………………...110
4.2.1 Classroom Observation……………………………………………..111
4.2.1.1 Observation Result of Class 4A…………………………..111
4.2.1.2 Observation Result of Class 4B…………………………..114
4.2.1.3 Observation Result of Class 4C…………………………..116
4.2.1.4 Observation Result of Class 4D…………………………..119
4.2.1.5 The Result Comparison of Class 4A, 4B, 4C and 4D…….122
4.2.2 Teacher Interview…………………………………………………..131
4.2.3 Teaching Reading Strategy Questionnaire…………………………141
4.2.3.1 The Finding of Teaching Reading Strategy Questionnaire
(1st teacher)……………………………………………...142
4.2.3.2 The Finding of Teaching Reading Strategy Questionnaire
(the 2nd teacher)…………………………………………144
4.2.3.3 The Finding of Teaching Reading Strategy Questionnaire
(the 3rd teacher)…………………………………………147
4.2.3.4 The Finding of Teaching Reading Strategy Questionnaire
(the 4th teacher)…………………………………………..149
4.2.3.5 The Finding of Teaching Reading Strategy Questionnaire
(the 5th teacher)………………………………………….151
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………….161
5.1 Digital RPG as an alternative strategy for improving students’
reading skills………………………………………………………………...161
5. 2 RPG as a strategy to enhancement of participants’ attitude and motivation
in learning English…………………………………………………………..163
5. 3 Students’ interactions during playing digital RPG in the class……………...168
5. 4 RPG for problem solving in reading…………………………………………169
5. 5 RPG as an alternative strategy in English teaching ………………………….171
5.6 Pedagogical Implication………………………………………………………174
5.7 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for the Future Research…………..179
5.8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………....180
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………..182
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A : The Indonesian national syllabus curriculum
APPENDIX B : RPG Syllabus
APPENDIX C : Grade 4 Lesson Plan (Gloria Elementary School)
APPENDIX D : RPG -Lesson Plan 1
APPENDIX E : RPG -Lesson Plan 2
APPENDIX F : RPG -Lesson Plan 3
APPENDIX G : RPG -Lesson Plan 4
APPENDIX H : RPG -Lesson Plan 5
APPENDIX I : RPG -Lesson Plan 6
APPENDIX J : RPG -Lesson Plan 7
APPENDIX K : RPG -Lesson Plan 8
APPENDIX L : RPG -Lesson Plan 9
APPENDIX M: RPG -Lesson Plan 10
APPENDIX N : RPG -Lesson Plan 11
APPENDIX O: RPG -Lesson Plan 12
APPENDIX P : The pretest and posttest assignments
APPENDIX Q : The English Learning Attitude, Motivation and Usefulness of RPG (ELAMU) questionnaire
APPENDIX R: Interview Questions for English Teacher
APPENDIX S : The Observations Coding
APPENDIX T : Teaching Reading Strategy Questionnaire
APPENDIX U : The Pictures of This Current Research

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 The RPG Syllabus 43
Table 3.2 The relationship among research questions, data collections, purposes, and data
analysis approach 85
Table 3.3 Reading Comprehension Assignment Results 87
Table 3.4 The reliability of ELAMU questionnaire 88
Table 4.1 Descriptive statistics of pretest and posttest 90
Table 4.2 Data normality of pretest and posttest 92
Table 4.3 Differences in score comparison before and after intervention of RPG 93
Table 4.4 English learning history 94
Table 4.5 The participants’ English learning in a cram school 94
Table 4.6 The perception of participants’ English proficiency 95
Table 4.7 The frequency of practicing English in a week 96
Table 4.8 The summary table of students’ background information 97
Table 4.9 Descriptive result of students’ attitude toward learning by using RPG 98
Table 4.10 Students’ attitude toward learning by using RPG 102
Table 4.11 Descriptive result of Students’ Motivation toward Learning by Using RPG 102
Table 4.12 Students’ motivation toward learning by using RPG 102
Table 4.13 Descriptive result of the usefulness of RPG 103
Table 4.14 The usefulness of RPG 104
Table 4.15 The favorite features of the participants 105
Table 4.16 The least favorite feature of RPG 106
Table 4.17 English Learning Process through RPG 107
Table 4.18 The students’ preference of using RPG than textbook 108
Table 4.19 The use RPG in the school 108
Table 4.20 The summary table of students’ self evaluation 109
Table 4.21 Observation Coding of Class 4A 111
Table 4.22 Observation Coding of Class 4B 114
Table 4.23 Observation Coding of Class 4C 117
Table 4.24 Observation Coding of Class 4D 120
Table 4.25 The summary of students’ interactions in class 4A, 4B, 4C and 4D 125
Table 4.26 The summary table of observation 128
Table 4.27 The summary of the observation findings 130
Table 4.28 The summary of interview result 140
Table 4.29 Frequency of the 1st teacher answer 143
Table 4.30 The finding of the 2nd teacher’s answer 145
Table 4.31 The finding of the 3rd teacher’s answer 148
Table 4.32 The finding of the 4th teacher’s answer 150
Table 4.33 The finding of the 5th teacher’s answer 152
Table 4.34 The summary of the results in teachers’ perceptions 157
Table 4.35 The summary of the results of teachers’ perceptions in questionnaire 160


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1 Research procedure 33
Figure 3.2Game direction 46
Figure 3.3 The preface story 46
Figure 3.4 Multiple choice questions 47
Figure 3.5 Infinitive in sentences 47
Figure 3.6 In the studio 3 48
Figure 3.7 Reading comprehension 48
Figure 3.8 The chocolate factory in the park 48
Figure 3.9 Willy Wonka question 48
Figure 3.10 In the cinema 49
Figure 3.11 A Documentary Reading 49
Figure 3.12 False or true questions 50
Figure 3.13 The questions on the comic book 51
Figure 3.14 Change the coupon in the bookstore 51
Figure 3.15 Andy’s house 52
Figure 3.16 The end of game 4 52
Figure 3.17 Swimming pool guard question 52
Figure 3.18 The end of the reading 53
Figure 3.19 One of the world cup questions 53
Figure 3.20 Go to Green Island 54
Figure 3.21 The first clue 54
Figure 3.22 The reading in the cartoon area 55
Figure 3.23 The challenge in the sport area 55
Figure 3.24 The points in the adventure area 55
Figure 3.25 The points in the seaworld area 55
Figure 3.26 One of the questions in the sport area 56
Figure 3.27 The final points in the game 6 56
Figure 3.28 A teacher picture 57
Figure 3.29 The effect and lighting 57
Figure 3.30 The virtual airport 58
Figure 3.31 A departure board animation 58
Figure 3.32 An audio-visual equipment in the airplane 58
Figure 3.33 Questions before flying 58
Figure 3.34 The first clue 59
Figure 3.35 A dialogue in the village 60
Figure 3.36 Getting the reward 60
Figure 3.37 The first challenge 60
Figure 3.38 Camcorder reading 60
Figure 3.39 The points in the stadium 61
Figure 3.40 The discussion in the class 61
Figure 3.41 The first clue in game 10 62
Figure 3.42 A dialogue in hospital 62
Figure 3.43 Answer the question in hospital 63
Figure 3.44 The last challenge in the school 63
Figure 3.45 A short story of game 11 63
Figure 3.46 A question before watching a movie 63
Figure 3.47 A question provided in a movie 63
Figure 3.48 A question in TV studio 63
Figure 3.49 Answer the questions before going out 64
Figure 3.50 The points of cartoon area 64
Figure 3.51 The compliment in the sport area 66
Figure 3.52 The question in the adventure area 66
Figure 3.53 The analysis continuum of Krueger framework analysis 80
Figure 3.54 Triangulation data compiling technique 82


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