跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.38.248) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/11/27 05:45
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:王偉誠
研究生(外文):Wei-Cheng Wang
論文名稱:基於影像目標偵測與追蹤之四旋翼室內懸停方法研究
論文名稱(外文):A quadrotor hovering method using vision-based target detection and tracking in indoor
指導教授:鄭文昌鄭文昌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Chang Cheng
口試委員:莊家峰吳世弘鄭文昌
口試委員(外文):Chia-Feng JuangShih-Hung WuWen-Chang Cheng
口試日期:2014-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:四旋翼影像追蹤粒子濾波器色彩直方圖Arduino室內定位
外文關鍵詞:quadrotorImage trackingParticle filterHistogramArduinoIndoor positioning
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:692
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:67
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
目前四旋翼在室外環境中可以使用全球定位系統(Global Positioning System, GPS)定位,執行定點飛行,但是在室內環境中則無法使用GPS定位,為了讓四旋翼能夠在室內環境中執行定點飛行,本文提出了一個四旋翼結合影像偵測與追蹤的方法,讓四旋翼能夠在室內空間中擁有定點懸置的功能。在影像偵測與追蹤方面,我們使用了粒子濾波器結合HSV色彩直方圖比對,目的是為了增加目標偵測的正確性與追蹤的穩定性,正確與快速的找出目標物的位置。在四旋翼控制方面,我們擷取了接收機的方向控制訊號至Arduino微控制器,經過修正運算後傳至飛行控制器使四旋翼往目標位置移動,然後透過超音波感測模組,測量四旋翼與地面的距離,控制四旋翼保持在固定高度。實驗的結果表示,系統在追蹤模式下,四旋翼的位置與目標的水平距離以及高度保持在一定範圍內完成定高定點懸置飛行,有效減少人為操作的不確定性因素,系統可以達到長時間定高定點懸置飛行的穩定度。
Currently quadrotor can be oriented in the outdoor environment by using Global Positioning System in order to perform sentinel flight, but the same GPS orientation cannot be done in the indoor environment. In order for quadrotor to perform sentinel flight indoor, this article has proposed a synthesized image detecting and tracing method for quadrotor, so that quadrotor can have the function of fixed-point suspension in the indoor space. As for image detecting and tracking aspects, we used a combination of particle filters of HSV color histogram matching, in order to increase the accuracy and the stability in tracking the detecting object, to accurately and quickly locate the position of the target object. As for controlling the quadrotor, we capture the receiver’s direction control signal to Arduino microcontrollers, after modifying on its calculation to pass the arithmetic to the flight controller so quadrotor can move toward the target position, then, through ultrasonic sensing module, to measure the distance between quadrotor and the ground, so to maintain quadrotor at a fixed height position. The result of the experiment has shown, when the system is under the tracking mold, the position of the quadrotor and the targeting horizontal distance and the altitude can maintain within a definite range, so to achieve a fixed height suspension flying, and can be effectively reduce the uncertainty factor of human operation, consequently the system can achieve for long duration of time given the high fixed-point suspension stability of flight.
目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
表目錄 V
圖目錄 VI
1. 緒論 1
1.1. 研究動機 1
1.2. 文獻探討 3
1.3. 研究目的 7
1.4. 論文安排 8
2. 系統架構 9
2.1. 遙控器與接收模組 11
2.2. 飛行控制器 12
2.3. 電子變速器 14
2.4. 無刷馬達 16
2.5. 電源 19
2.6. Arduino控制器 20
2.7. 超音波感測模組 26
3. 控制流程 29
3.1 模式選擇 30
3.2 控制PWM輸出 34
4. 目標的偵測與追蹤 37
4.1. 粒子的初始化 39
4.2. 粒子預測 39
4.3. 粒子估測 40
4.4. 粒子更新 45
5. 實驗與結果 46
5.1. 實驗一:定高實驗 47
5.2. 實驗二:定點實驗 49
5.3. 實驗三:定點定高懸停實驗 54
6. 結論 56
參考文獻 57


表目錄

表1.電子變速器可程式化功能: 16
表2.直流無刷馬達與直流有刷馬達比較 17
表3.控制器詳細資料 23
表4.數位 I/O 接腳 24
表5.類比輸入接腳 26
表6. SR-04超音波模組規格 28


圖目錄

圖1.1、實驗用四旋翼平台 2
圖1.2 、SIFT範例 5
圖1.3、 SURF範例 6
圖2.1、系統方塊圖 9
圖2.2、遙控器與接收器模組以及對應通道標示。 11
圖2.3 、APM飛行控制器 13
圖2.4、四旋翼姿態示意圖 14
圖2.5、電子變速器連接示意圖 15
圖2.6、電子變速器 16
圖2.7、1400KV無刷馬達 19
圖2.8、馬達KV值與轉速關係 19
圖2.9、4,200 mAh 11.1伏特鋰電池 20
圖2.10、Arduino uno 控制板 21
圖2.11、Arduino 軟體開發介面 23
圖2.12、Arduino基本語法架構 23
圖2.13、數位 I/O 接腳 24
圖2.15、I²C界面連接示意圖 26
圖2.16、SR-04超音波感測器 27
圖2.17、SR04動作示意圖 27
圖3.1、 Arduino控制流程 30
圖3.2,遙控器ch3油門PWM頻寬範圍 31
圖3.3、Ch 6 位置選擇 32
圖3.4、PWM測量 33
圖3.5、Servo與遙控器PWM對應關係 34
圖3.6、攝影機畫面示意圖 35
圖3.7、輸出力量限制 36
圖4.1、目標偵測與追蹤流程圖 38
圖4.2、目標物的粒子狀態的表示法 39
圖4.4、目標物樣板 42
圖4.5、H-S值方圖特徵 43
圖5.1、實驗環境 46
圖5.2、攝影機的畫面影像 47
圖5.3、50 cm定高實驗 48
圖5.4、實際飛行情形 49
圖5.5、目標與中心點的座標差 50
圖5.6、未起飛時攝影機與粒子狀況 51
圖5.7、粒子追蹤情形 52
圖5.8、定點情況 52
圖5.9自動追蹤情況下四旋翼與目標的距離 53
圖5.10、四旋翼實際飛行情形 54
圖5.11、追蹤模式下 、 情形 54
圖5.13、定高實驗 55

[1]吳東明,謝添進,許智傑, “無人操控航空載具的未來權方面應用發展探討,” 海巡雙月刊, Vol. 39, 2009, pp. 27-35.
[2]Unmanned aerial vehicle, 2014.07.08 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle)。
[3]四旋翼簡介, 2014.05.18 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadcopter)。
[4]J. Tisdale, K. ZuWhan and J. K. Hedrick, “Autonomous UAV path planning and estimation,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, 2009, Vol. 16, No. 2, Issue2, pp. 35-42.
[5]S. Guznov, G. Matthews, G. Funke and A. Dukes, “Use of the RoboFlag Synthetic Task Environment to Investigate Workload and Stress Responses in UAV Operation,” Behavior Research Methods, 2011, Vol. 43, Issue 3, pp. 771-780.
[6]C. Goerzen, Z. Kong and B. Mettler, “A Survey of Motion Planning Algorithms from the Perspective of Autonomous UAV Guidance,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 2010, Vol. 57, Issue 1-4, pp. 65-100.
[7]D. W. Casbeer, R. W. Beard, T. W. McLain, Sai-Ming Li and R. K. Mehra, “Forest Fire Monitoring with Multiple Small UAVs,” Proceedings of American Control Conference, 8-10 June, 2005, Portland, USA.
[8]Amazon unveils Air quadcopter delivery service。2014.07.18 (http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/171879-amazon-unveils-30-minute-prime-air-quadcopter-delivery-service-but-its-completely-impractical)。
[9]First-Person View (radio control), 2014.05.20 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First-person_view_(radio_control))。
[10]Jose Luis Sanchez-Lopez, Jesus Pestana, Paloma de la Puente and Pascua,“Visual Quadrotor Swarm for IMAV 2013 Indoor Competition,” Proceedings of International Micro Air Vehicle Conference and Flight Competition(IMAV), 17-20, Sep, 2013, Toulouse France.
[11]Farid Kendoul and Kenzo Nonami, se France. and Flight Competitionas Autonomous Flight of Micro Air Vehicles,” Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 10-15, Oct, 2009, St. Louis, MO.
[12]Zehra Ceren and Erdinc Altu, tu, Altu, ltu, ltu, ltu, MO.ehicles,” Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation (CIRA), 15-18, Dec, 2009, Daeieon.
[13]Feng Lin, Dong, Ben M., Kai-Yew Lum, Tong H. Lee, “A Robust Real-Time Embedded Vision System on an Unmanned Rotorcraft for Ground Target Following,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2012, Vol. 59, Issue 2, pp. 1038-1049.
[14]Jaehong Lee, Changmin Lee, and DaeEun Kim, “Attitude Control of Quadrotor with On-Board Visual Feature Projection System,” Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 3-7, Nov, 2013, Tokyo.
[15]Chen Xiao-long, Tang Qiang, and Che Jun, “An Indoor Quadrotor Locating and Object-Following Algorithm using Monocular Vision,” Proceedings of World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA), 6-8, July, 2012, Beijing.
[16]Hyon Lim, Sudipta N. Sinha, and Michael F. Cohen, “Real-time Image-based 6-DOF Localization in Large-Scale Environments,” Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 16-21 June, 2012, Providence, RI.
[17]AR-DONE quqdrotor, 2014.05.18 (http://cdn.ardrone2.parrot.com)。
[18]Scale-invariant feature transform, 2014.05.18 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scale-invariant_feature_transform)。
[19]Tomoyuki Mori and Sebastian Scherer, “First results in detecting and avoiding frontal obstacles from a monocular camera for micro unmanned aerial vehicles,” Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 6-10 May, 2013, Karlsruhe.
[20]Trung Nguyen, George K. I. Mann and Raymond G. Gosine, “Vision-Based Qualitative Path-Following Control of Quadrotor Aerial Vehicle with Speeded-Up Robust Features,” Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision(CRV), 6-9 May, 2014, Montreal, QC, Canada.
[21]Speeded Up Robust Features。2014.05.18(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SURF)。
[22]Volker Grabe, Bulthoff, H.H., and Paolo Robuffo Giordano, “Robust optical-flow based self-motion estimation for a quadrotor UAV,” Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 7-12, Oct, 2012, Vilamoura.
[23]Maurice F. Fallon, Hordur Johannsson and John J. Leonard, “Efficient Scene Simulation for Robust Monte Carlo Localization using an RGB-D Camera,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 14-18 May, 2012, Saint Paul, Minnesota.
[24]Template matching, 2014.06.20 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template_matching)。
[25]Color Feature Detection, 2014.06.20 ( http://staff.science.uva.nl/~gevers/pub/CIP06.pdf)。
[26]HSV color space, 2014.06.20 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSL_and_HSV) 。
[27]Brunelli R., and Mich O., “histograms Analysis for Image Retrieval,” Pattern Recognition, 2001, Vol. 34, NO. 8, pp. 1625-1637.
[28]N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” Proceedings of Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition(CVPR), 25-25, June, 2005, San Diego, CA, USA.
[29]Kalman filter。2014.06.20 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalman_filter)。
[30]Carpenter J., Clifford P., and Fearnhead P., “Improved particle filter for nonlinear problems,” IEE Proceedings Radar, Sonar and Navigation, 1999, Vol. 146, No. 1, pp.2-7.
[31]Y.-M. Chan, S.-S. Huang, L.-C. Fu, P.-Y. Hsiao, and M.-F. Lo, “Vehicle detection and tracking under various lighting conditions using a particle filter,” Institution of Engineering and Technology Intelligent Transport Systems, 2012, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-8
[32]JR Americas, 2014.05.20 (http://www.jramericas.com)。
[33]5.8GHz與2.4GHz 比較, 2014.06.20 (http://sogoelite.pixnet.net/blog/post/150991726)。
[34]Ang, K. H. and Chong, G.C.Y. and Li, Y., “PID control system analysis, design, and technology,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 2005, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 559-576
[35]Ardupilot, 2014.07.18 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardupilot)。
[36]DC motor, 2014.07.18 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC_motor)。
[37]kv定義, 2014.07.18 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KV)。
[38]Arduino Software Release Notes, 2014.05.10 ( http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ReleaseNotes)。
[39]Analog Reference, 2014.07.18 (http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/AnalogReference)。
[40]UltrasonicSensor, 2014.07.05 (http://www.robosoftsystems.co.in/wikidocs/index.php?title=Ultrasonic_Sensor(HC-SR04) )。
[41]Sigmoid function, 2014.07.18 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmoid_function)。
[42]Islam M. Z., “Real Time Moving Object Tracking by Particle Filter,” Proceedings of International Symposium on Computer Science and its Applications(CSA), 13-15, Oct, 2008, Hobart, ACT.
[43]Bayes' theorem, 2014.06.08 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayes'_theorem)。
[44]M. Isard and A. Blake, “CONDENSATION: Conditional density propagation for visual tracking,” International Journal of Computer Vision, 1998, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 5–28.
[45]OpenCV, 2014.07.05 (http://sourceforge.net/projects/opencvlibrary/) 。

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊