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研究生:蕭慶智
研究生(外文):Ching-Chih Hsiao
論文名稱:有機農產品驗證標章說服力之研究:以社會判斷理論為觀點
論文名稱(外文):Investigating Persuasiveness of Certification Organic Agricultural Products Label-A Perspective on Social Judgment Theory
指導教授:陳建文陳建文引用關係張美燕張美燕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Wen ChenMei-Yen Chang
口試委員:鄭江宇陳建文張美燕
口試委員(外文):Chiang-Yu ChengChien-Wen ChenMei-Yen Chang
口試日期:2014-05-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:有機農產品有機農產品標章社會判斷理論說服原則
外文關鍵詞:Organic Agricultural ProductsOrganic Agricultural Products LabelSocial Judgment TheoryPersuasion Principles
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近年來國民生活水平提升,對於飲食不再只是訴求溫飽,反而注重食物的本身是否安全、健康、無汙染,但近年來台灣發生食品安全事件令消費者感到焦慮,進而促使有機農產品銷量大幅提升二至三成。2011年全球有機農產品銷售額達到六百二十餘億美元,相較於2002年總額二百二十餘億美金成長170%,2012年我國有機農業年產值約為三十億新台幣,由此可知不論國內或國外,有機市場與經濟規模呈現蓬勃發展趨勢。而在於過去對於有機農產品的研究與調查指出,目前有機農產品標章訊息說明過於簡陋與不清楚,無法提供消費者有機農產品的相關訊息,導致消費者對於有機農產品的知識與認知是不足甚至是錯誤的,進而影響消費者對於有機農產品的購買意願,因此本研究將以Sherif and Hovland (1961)的社會判斷理論(Social Judgment Theory)結合Cialdini(1993)說服原則(Persuasion Principles)來探討有機農產品標章訊息設計,進而改善消費者對有機農產品的態度。

研究結果顯示:本研究收集有效樣本三百六十人中,不論有購買與無購買有機農產品的消費者,高訊息強度(權威性+對比性+稀有性)改善消費者對有機農產品的態度,大於中訊息強度(權威性+對比性)也大於低訊息強度(權威性),因此高訊息強度為最具說服力之有機農產品標章。訊息來源的部分,對於有購買過有機農產品的消費者而言,美國USDA有機農產品標章態度會大於台灣CAS有機農產品標章;對於無購買有機農產品的消費者而言,國內與國外的訊息來源無顯著差異影響。
In recent years, due to the raising national standard of living in Taiwan, the foods demand is no longer just for subsistence but more on safety, healthy, and non-pollution ingredients. Taiwan’s food safety issues occurred in these years lead customers feel anxious, hence, the sales volume of organic agricultural products then dramatically increase 20-30 %. The sales amounts of global organic products reached more than US$ 62 billion in 2011; compared to the amount of US$ 22 billion in year 2002, the growth rate was as 170%. In 2012, Taiwan’s annual production in organic agriculture was around NT$ 3 billion. It is concluded both domestic and international organic agriculture market and economics of scale present a booming tendency. Former research regarding organic agricultural products suggested that the description of currently organic agricultural label exhibited rudimentary and unclear, which not provided useful information to consumer and caused an insufficient or even wrong messages. Moreover, it would affect the willingness of customers in purchasing organic agricultural products. Thus, this study recruits the Social Judgment Theory (Sherif and Hovland, 1961) and Persuasion Principles (Cialdini, 1993) to discuss the designing of organic agricultural label, aims to improve consumers’ attitude towards organic products.

The results of total 360 effective samples, regardless who had ever purchase organic products or not, demonstrate a phenomenon where high-message-intensity (authoritarianism + contrast + scarcity) displays more power in improving customers’ attitude towards organic agricultural products than medium-message-intensity (authoritarianism + contrast) and low-message-intensity (authoritarianism) as well. Therefore, high-message-intensity could be considered as the most persuasive agricultural label for organic products. Regarding message sources, customers who had ever purchase organic products express that attitude toward standards of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is powerful than Taiwan’s Certified Agriculture Standards (CAS); to whom never purchase organic products, there has no significant difference between whether the message is from domestic or other countries.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 vii
第一章緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2研究動機 4
1.3研究目的 9
1.4研究流程 10
第二章 文獻回顧 11
2.1有機農業 11
2.1.1有機農業發展 12
2.2有機農產品 13
2.3有機農產品標章 14
2.4社會判斷理論 17
2.5說服原則 19
第三章 研究方法 21
3.1概念框架 21
3.2研究架構與假設 22
3.3實驗設計 23
3.4資料分析方法 32
3.4.1基礎的敘述統計32
3.4.2 信度分析 32
3.4.3 效度分析 32
3.4.4成對樣本t檢定 33
3.4.5變異數分析 33
第四章 研究結果分析 34
4.1 資料分析方法 34
4.1.1 樣本個人特徵 34
4.2 信、效度分析 36
4.2.1 信度分析 36
4.2.2 效度分析 37
4.3 變異數分析 37
4.4前後期態度差異分析41
第五章 結論與建議 44
5.1 結論 44
5.2 研究貢獻 45
5.2.1 學術貢獻 45
5.2.2 實務貢獻 45
5.3 未來研究建議 46
5.4 研究限制 47
參考文獻 48
附錄:問卷 54
中文部分
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8.金惠雯、陳玠廷,「參與的消費-從部落e購案例看參與式保障系統推行的可行性」,文化研究月報116期,頁3-28,2011。
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11.張煒珍、林彣鴻,「掀開台灣的真實面紗?探討閩南語連續劇《意難忘》
對馬來西亞華人觀眾之台灣印象形塑」,傳播與管理研究,第八卷,第二期,頁111-158,2009。
12.黃璋如,「中德兩國有機農業之發展」,農委會委託研究計畫報告,1997。
13.黃璋如,「國內外有機農產品驗證制度之比較」,臺灣地區有機農業產業發展研討會,2002。
14.黃璋如,「先進國家有機農產品標章與標示之作法與啟示」,農政與農情,頁75-80,2004。
15.黃璋如、黃淑真,「資訊不對稱與國家驗證標章對有機農產品市場之影響」,農產運銷,131,頁66-77,2005。
16.黃璋如、張可欣、林瑀婷,「有機農產加工品之市場機會」,農委會委託研究計畫報告,2009。
17.楊玉婷,「全球有機農業市場概況」,農業生技產業季刊,P10-14,2011。
18.蔣佳霓,「以計畫行為理論探討消費者對 CAS 台灣有機農產品之購買行為」,康寧大學餐飲管理研究所碩士論文,民國100年。
19.董時叡,「自然農法實施者之推廣責任」,MOA自然農法,19,頁10-18,2001。
20.董時叡,「 認識有機農產品之驗證標章」,公訓報導,P37-41,2003。
英文部分:
1.Alessandro, B., “Analyzing Product-Service Systems conceptual design: The effect of color-coded 3D representation,” Design Studies, 34, 2013, pp. 763-793.
2.Bagozzi, R., &; Phillips, L., “Assessing construct validity in organizational research,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 1991, pp. 421-458.
3.Batra, R., &; Stayman, D.M., “The role of mood in advertising effectiveness,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17(2), 1990, pp. 203-214.
4.Berndt, B., “Social judgment theory and the analysis of interpersonal conflict,” Psychological Bulletin, 83(6), 1976, pp. 985-1003.
5.Boström, M., &; Klintman, M., “Eco-standards, product labeling and green consumerism,” New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
6.Cialdini, R.B., “Influence: Science and Practice,” 4thed, Allyn &; Bacon, 2001.
7.Cialdini, R.B., “Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. Morrow,” New York, NY, 1993.
8.Dreezens, E., Martijn, C., Tenbult, P., Kok, G., &; Vries, N.K D, “Food and values: an examination of values underlying attitudes toward genetically modified- andorganically grown food products,” Appetite, 44, 2005, pp. 115-122.
9.Eiser, J.R., “Social Judgment,” Pacific Grove, CA, 1990, pp. 53-76.
10.Evan, K. P., &; Kami, J. S., “Testing the Effects of the Addition of Videos to a Website Promoting Environmental Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Practices: Are Videos Worth It” Journal of Applied Communication Research, 14, 2013, pp. 1-21.
11.Fornell, C., &; Larcker, D. F., “Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable and measurement error,” Journal of Marketing, 18(1), 1981, pp. 39-50.
12.Hair, J. F., Black, B., Babin, B., Anderson, R. E., &; Tatham, R. L., “Multivariate Data Analysis,” 7th ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2012.
13.Hovland, C. I., &; Weiss, W., “The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 15(4), 1951, pp. 635-650.
14.Janssen, M., &; Hamm, U., “Consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay for organic certification logos,” Recommendations for actors in the organic sector, Report of the CERTCOST project, 2011.
15.Kim, D., and Benbasat, I., “Trust-assuring arguments in B2C e-commerce: impact of content, source, and price on trust,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(3), 2009, pp. 175-206.
16.Krosnick, J.A., “Government policy and citizen passion: a study of issue publics in contemporary America,” Political Behavior, 12(1), 1990, pp. 59-92.
17.Kuepper, G., &; Gegner, L., “Organic Crop Production Overview,” 2004.
18.Lee, A., Au, N., &; Law, R., “Presentation Formats of Policy Statements on Hotel Websites and Privacy Concerns A Multimedia Learning Theory Perspective,” Journal of Hospitality &; Tourism Research, 37(4), 2013, pp. 470-489.
19.Liebhardt, W., &; Harwood, R., “Organic farming, In:Technology public policy and the changing structure of American agriculture,” Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States, 2(21), 1985, pp. 49-60.
20.Lynn, M., “Scarcity Effects on Desirability: Mediated by Assumed Expensiveness,” Journal of Economic Psychology, 10(2), 1989, pp. 257-274.
21.Markus, H.R., &; Kitayama, S., “Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation,” Psychological Review, 98, 1991, pp. 224-253.
22.Maslow, A.H., “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychological Review, (50), 1943, pp. 370-396.
23.Miller, K., “Communication Theories: Perspective, Processes, and Contexts,” McGraw Hill, 2002.
24.Norm Borin, Douglas C. Cerf, R. Krishnan, “Consumer effects of environmental impact in product labeling,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28(1), 2011, pp. 76 - 86.
25.Ottman, J.A., “Green Marketing: Opportunity for Innovation,” New York: Book Surge, 1998.
26.Pickett-Baker, J., &; Ozaki, R., “Pro-environmental products: marketing influence on consumer purchase decision”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(5), 2008, pp. 281-293.
27.Rhine, R.J., &; Severance, L.J., “Ego-involvement, discrepancy, source credibility, and attitude change,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16(2), 1970, pp. 175-190.
28.Sachse, S.B., &; Gierl, H., “Can a positive mood counterbalance weak arguments in personal sales conversations,” Journal of Retail and Consumer Services, 16(3), 2009, pp. 190-196.
29.Samiee, S., “Advancing the Country Image Construct- Acommentary Essay,” Journal of Business Research, 63(4), 2010, pp. 442-445.
30.Severin, W. J., “Another look at cue summation,” Audio Visual Communications Review, 15(4), 1969, pp. 233-245.
31.Sherif, M., &; Hovland., “ C. I. Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change,” Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1961.
32.Shu, W., &; Cheng, C. Y., “How to improve consumer attitudes toward using credit cards online: An experimental study” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 11, 2012, pp. 335-345.
33.Toulmin, S.E., “The Use of Argument,” Cambridge University Press, 1958.
34.Uzogara, S.G., “The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: a review,” Biotechnology Advances, 18, 2000, pp. 179-206.
35.Walton, D.N., “Appeal to expert opinion,” Penn State University Press, 1997.
36.Wood, R., &; Bandura,A., “Social cognitive theory of organizational management,”Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 1989, pp. 361-384.
參考網路
1.有機農業全球資訊網,
http://info.organic.org.tw/supergood/front/bin/ptlist.phtml?Category=100981
2.美國農業部網站,
http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateA&;navID=NationalOrganicProgram&;leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&;page=NOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&;acct=AMSPW
3.周澤江指出中國有機消費市場約為11億美元,中國行業研究網,取自於
http://big5.chinairn.com/news/20120517/761181.html
4.印度有機農產品2013年市場規模將達到7億美元,人民日報,取自於
http://opinion.people.com.cn/BIG5/n/2013/1030/c1003-23371381.html
5.2013年歐盟對於有機產業調查報告指出,71%的受訪消費者信任有機農產品,中央通訊社,取自於
http://www.cna.com.tw/Views/Page/Search/hyDetailws.aspx?qid=201309200270&;q=%E8%BF%918%E6%88%90%E6%AD%90%E6%B4%B2%E4%BA%BA+%E9%A1%98%E5%A4%9A%E8%8A%B1%E9%8C%A2%E5%90%83%E6%9C%89%E6%A9%9F
6.2011年全球有機農產品主要市場為美國(290億美元)、其次為德國(91億美元)和法國(52億美元),和訊信息科技有限公司,取自於
http://stock.hexun.com.tw/2013-06-09/155036211_7.html
7. TNS RI模範市場研究顧問公司2010年的調查,近73%的民眾曾經購買過台灣在地生產的有機食品;與仍有18%消費者購買過非政府規範下的有機食品; 消費者購買有機食品的購買種類,取自於
http://www.emailcash.com.tw/newcorp/tns_article147.htm
8.毒澱粉事件,中廣新聞網,取自於
http://tw.news.yahoo.com/%E9%AB%98%E9%9B%84%E9%BB%91%E8%BC%AA%E5%A4%A7%E7%8E%8B%E7%AD%895%E4%BB%B6%E9%BB%91%E8%BC%AA-2%E4%BB%B6%E8%82%89%E5%9C%93%E6%B7%AA%E9%99%B7-031330590.html
9.過期原料泡芙事件,自由時報,取自於
http://tw.news.yahoo.com/%E7%BE%A9%E7%BE%8E%E5%B0%8F%E6%B3%A1%E8%8A%99%E7%94%A8%E9%81%8E%E6%9C%9F%E5%8E%9F%E6%96%99-12%E8%90%AC%E7%AE%B1%E6%97%A9%E5%B7%B2%E4%B8%8B%E8%82%9A-221805024.html
10.香精麵包事件,TVBS,取自於
http://tw.news.yahoo.com/%E9%96%93%E6%8E%A5%E7%8D%B2%E5%88%A9%E4%BB%A3%E8%A8%80%E4%BA%BA-%E5%B0%8Fs%E6%81%90%E6%B6%89-%E5%85%B1%E5%90%8C%E8%A9%90%E6%AC%BA-061900480.html
11.國內食品安全事件頻傳,有機食品銷量增加二到三成,中廣新聞網,取自於
http://tw.news.yahoo.com/%E9%A3%9F%E5%AE%89%E5%8D%B1%E6%A9%9F-%E6%9C%89%E6%A9%9F%E7%94%A2%E5%93%81%E5%A4%AF-%E9%8A%B7%E9%87%8F%E5%A2%9E3%E6%88%90-041442028.html

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