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研究生:李佳鴻
研究生(外文):Jia-Hong Li
論文名稱:藉由多媒體載體傳送秘密的機制
論文名稱(外文):Secret Delivery Mechanisms Through Multimedia Carrier
指導教授:李維斌李維斌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Bin Lee
口試委員:何英治陳同孝楊晴雯陳宗和劉宗杰李榮三
口試委員(外文):Kevin I.-J. HoTung-Shou ChenChing-Wen YangTzung-Her ChenTzong-Jye LiuJung-San Lee
口試日期:2014-05-22
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:驗證鑑別性密碼學秘密傳送隱藏術
外文關鍵詞:AuthenticationCryptographySecret DeliverySteganography
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隨著網際網路與通訊技術的持續發展,影像與影片等多媒體資料已漸漸地被廣泛應用在隨選視訊、視訊會議等各種用途。如今,多媒體資料的應用在教育、商業貿易、娛樂消遣,甚至是軍事防禦等領域,已經與人類日常生活息息相關,密不可分。因此,在公開的網際網路上傳輸秘密時,隨之而來的安全性與隱密性等疑慮與重要性將必須被考量與重視。
為了確保多媒體秘密傳輸的安全性,傳統密碼學與隱藏術是兩種通常會被採用的解決方案。對於傳統密碼學技術而言,雖然未被合法授權的使用者,在沒有相對應的秘密金鑰條件之下,將無法解開已經被編碼加密的秘密傳輸訊息。然而,被編碼加密的秘密傳輸訊息是毫無意義的亂碼資料,容易被心生懷疑者攔截。此外,被加密編碼的秘密傳輸訊息不能遭受失真與破壞,否則將無法解密,進而還原成原始的秘密訊息。
相反地,對於隱藏術而言,秘密訊息是被隱蔽在一個有意義的偽裝載體之中。因此,未被授權的使用者將無法察覺此秘密訊息正在被傳送。另一方面,人類眼睛對於影像或影片等多媒體資料,其某種程度的失真性破壞是可以接受且可以忽略的。因此,在秘密傳送的應用領域當中,多媒體資料不只是一種合適的秘密傳輸媒介,更是非常恰當的偽裝載體。
以多媒體資料為秘密傳送的媒介,其品質與可辨性為基本要求。除此之外,必須有其他滿足秘密傳輸的基本條件。因此,一個結合傳統密碼學與隱藏術的巧妙概念油然而生。基於此概念,傳統密碼學固有的重要特性:機密性、驗證鑑別性、完整性、隱私性等條件將被保證。同時,隱藏術將提供視覺的隱蔽性,以及更多的秘密隱藏量。
我們相信,巧妙地結合傳統密碼學以及隱藏術等技術,可以讓秘密傳送的保護性更加安全與可靠。因此,本論文提出整合密碼學與隱藏術,且藉由多媒體載體來傳送秘密訊息的機制。
With the continuing development of network communications, multimedia data, e.g., images, videos, etc, have been used more and more widely, in applications such as video-on-demand, video conference, etc. Nowadays, this type of media is closely related to many aspects of human daily life including education, commerce, entertainment and defense. Hence, privacy or security maintenance needs to be considered before secret transmission or distribution over Internet.
Where multimedia applications are concerned, reliable security is always needed for protecting digital images and videos. In order to deal with this technical challenges, traditional cryptographic and steganographic techniques are two common proposed candidates for ensuring the security of secret data delivery.
With cryptographic techniques, such as data encryption, in theory an unauthorized user has no access to decrypt and read the delivered secret message because a related key is necessary. In such a way, it could also be easily observed by outsiders that a secret message has been encoded and will raise suspicion and curiosity, inviting potential hackers. Simultaneously, any bit distortion is not allowed while decrypting the secret information, otherwise the original secrete message cannot be losslessly reconstructed.
On the contrary, with steganographic techniques, secret message itself is concealed through a meaningful camouflage, and thus undetectable to an unauthorized user so that there is no suspicion that a secret message is being delivered. On the other hand, an image or a video film losing insignificant accuracy is still acceptable since human visual system is not so sensitive to certain little distortion which can be ignored. Therefore, multimedia data is not only a suitable secret media but also an appropriate carrier for secret delivery application.
To represent secret data as multimedia format, the basic fundamentals and requirements are the safeguard of quality and minimal perceptibility. More than that, there should also be more essential properties to fulfill and satisfy secure secret delivery. Therefore, an ingenious idea is conceived to integrate cryptography and steganography into a novel and skillful combinative mechanism. Basing on this idea, the cryptographic techniques is applied to ensure native and significant characteristics including confidentiality, authentication, integrity and privacy. Simultaneously, the steganographic techniques would provide the requirements of perceptual transparency to reduce suspicion, and hiding capacity to conceal more secret information.
We believe that the security and reliability of secret delivery can benefit from a skillful combination of cryptography and steganography. For that reason, the ingenious integrated mechanisms for a secure secret delivery through multimedia carrier are provided in this dissertation.
Acknowledgements i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Figures ix
List of Tables xii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 2
1.2 Fundamentals of Secret Delivery 3
1.3 Video Application 8
1.4 Contributions 9
1.4.1 Secure Image Hiding with Authentication 9
1.4.2 Adaptive Color Secret Image Sharing 10
1.4.3 Secure Image Delivery Using Poisson Editing 11
1.4.4 Quality Adaptable Video Content Protection 11
1.5 Organization of the Dissertation 12
Chapter 2 Preliminaries 13
2.1 Review of Vector Quantization 13
2.2 Fundamentals of Bayer Color Filter Array 14
2.3 Review of the (r, n) Threshold Scheme 16
2.4 SNR Scalable Video Coding 17
Chapter 3 Secret Delivery Based on Image Hiding with Authentication 20
3.1 The Proposed Scheme 22
3.2 Security Analysis 26
3.3 Further Discussions 28
3.4 Experimental Results 29
3.5 Concluding Remarks 33
Chapter 4 Adaptive Color Image Delivery Using Secret Sharing 40
4.1 The Proposed Scheme 42
4.1.1 Phase for Color Secret Image Sharing 42
4.1.2 Phase for Color Secret Image Reveal 45
4.2 Feasibility of the Proposed Scheme 47
4.2.1 Adaptable Mechanism –Evaluate the Impact of the Adaptable 47
4.2.2 Transparency – The Qualities for the Stego-Images 49
4.2.3 Hiding Capacity – The Maximum Embedding Secret Size 50
4.2.4 Identity - The Quality for the Revealed Secret Image 50
4.3 Security of the Proposed Scheme 50
4.3.1 Authentication - Evaluation of the Authentication Ability 50
4.3.2 Validation of the (r, n) Threshold Scheme 51
4.4 Concluding Remarks 51
Chapter 5 Secure Image Delivery Using Poisson Editing 62
5.1 Strategy of Secure Image Delivery Scheme 63
5.2 Image Region Concealment 65
5.3 Security Analysis 67
5.4 Experimental Results 68
5.5 Concluding Remarks 69
Chapter 6 Video Delivery with Quality Adaptability and Content Protection 73
6.1 Review of related works 74
6.2 Adjustable Multilayer Video Content Protection Scheme 76
6.3 Discussions 78
6.3.1 The Dynamically Adjustable Property of AQM 78
6.3.2 The Effect of AQM 79
6.3.3 Protected Layer 79
6.3.4 Quality of Regenerated Video 80
6.4 Concluding Remarks 80
Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Works 87
7.1 Conclusions 87
7.2 Future Works 89
References 91
Vita 98
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