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研究生:楊敏宏
研究生(外文):Min-hung Yang
論文名稱:環圈式固床工應用於橋墩保護工之研究
論文名稱(外文):Application of Ring Consolidation Works to Bridge Pier Protection
指導教授:王傳益
指導教授(外文):Chuan-yi Wang
口試委員:盧昭堯許盈松王傳益
口試委員(外文):Jau-yau LuYin-sung HsuChuan-yi Wang
口試日期:2014-07-04
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:水利工程與資源保育學系
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:沖刷減緩率鋸齒式環圈固床工複迴歸
外文關鍵詞:the pier scour depth reduction ratesawtooth-type ring consolidation worksMultiple regression
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台灣近年來因氣候急速變遷,加上降雨集中於夏季,造成豐枯期流量懸殊,其中西部河川多屬下降型河川,泥砂推移力強,河床劇烈變動,在輸砂極為不平衡情況下,橋墩沖刷加劇,經常造成橋墩因沖刷下切裸露而崩壞。因此,本研究基於橋墩安全,研發新型固床工-透水性環圈式固床工,透過改變環圈式固床工設置高度、固床工設置距離等,再與傳統式固床工(不透水)以相同配置模式下進行比較分析。此外,以最佳配置設計為鋸齒式環圈固床工,其後改變鋸齒間寬度進行分析研究。藉由相關沖刷防治試驗來瞭解其沖刷特性,並提出較理想之固床工配置型態,以供相關工程單位之設計參考。
研究結果顯示,當設置固床工於橋墩下游處時,因固床工橫截水流抬升水位,降低流速使水流沖擊橋墩能量減弱,且能抑制橋墩周圍沖刷坑發展,進而減低向下射流造成橋墩墩前沖刷深度。不同配置固床工之橋墩最大沖刷深度均發生在橋墩前緣,整體來說,設置固床工之橋墩墩前最大沖刷深度較未設置固床工時來的小。綜合考量橋墩與固床工之安全性,本研究較佳配置型式為鋸齒式環圈固床工(L/b=1, h/b=0.5, W/b=0.8),能有效抑制橋墩周圍沖刷坑發展,其橋墩沖刷減緩率約57.3%,較傳統式固床工減緩下游沖刷坑體積約49.4%。此外,依試驗數據,利用複迴歸方法獲致經驗公式,並經驗證得判定係數 ,透過該公式可預測出橋墩沖刷深度。
Recently, the extreme climate types occur frequently under the effect of climate change. In addition, the annual rainfall concentrates in the summer in Taiwan. Bed elevations of many rivers in west Taiwan lower down seriously, due to unbalanced sediment transport. It causes the scouring of the river bed around the piers, and results in the exposure of the pier foundation and impacts the safety of bridge.
Therefore, this study develops a new type of protection works, water-permeable ring consolidation works, to enhance the security of bridge foundations. Various parameters including the height of consolidation works and distance between the consolidation works and bridge pier are considered. This study also compares with traditional consolidation works of water-impermeable protection works. Furthermore, the optimal configuration is designed to sawtooth-type ring consolidation works. Based on the experiment, we can understand the scour characteristics and propose optimal allocations of the protection works. It can be served as a reference of design for relevant engineers in the future.
The results show that set the consolidation works in downstream of the piers can uplift the water depth and decrease the energy of flow impacting bridge. The different configurations of consolidation works can reduce the maximum scour depth in front of the piers. When the sawtooth-type ring consolidation works sets at a distance of 1 time to the pier diameter, a height of half time to the pier diameter, a width of saw tooth of 0.8 time to the pier diameter, it is the optimal set type among the experimental conditions conducted in this study. The optimal allocations can reduce 57.3% of the pier scour depth reduction rate and 49.4% of scour holes volume reduction rate of consolidation works downsteam. According to experimental data, we can obtain an experience formula by using multiple regression. The R-squared value of function is 0.877. The scour depth of pier can be predicted by this formula.
謝誌----------------------------------------------------------------------I
摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------II
ABSTRACT----------------------------------------------------------III
目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------V
表目錄-----------------------------------------------------------------IX
圖目錄------------------------------------------------------------------X
照片目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------XIII
符號表---------------------------------------------------------------XIV
第壹章 前言----------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 研究動機-----------------------------------------------------------------2
1.2 研究目的-----------------------------------------------------------------2
1.3 內容架構-----------------------------------------------------------------3
第貳章 文獻回顧-----------------------------------------------------------4
2.1 沖刷之分類--------------------------------------------------------------4
2.2 橋墩局部沖刷機制-----------------------------------------------------5
2.3 橋墩局部沖刷特性-----------------------------------------------------6
2.4 橋墩沖刷因子-----------------------------------------------------------7
2.4.1 橋墩沖刷因子之分類---------------------------------------------7
2.4.2 橋墩沖刷因子之探討---------------------------------------------7
2.5 國內外橋基保護工法-------------------------------------------------13
2.6 固床工-------------------------------------------------------------------14
2.7 固床工種類-------------------------------------------------------------18
2.7.1 混凝土砌塊石固床工--------------------------------------------18
2.7.2 拱型砌塊石固床工-----------------------------------------------19
2.7.3 階梯式固床工-----------------------------------------------------19
2.7.4 傳統式固床工-----------------------------------------------------20
2.8 連續性結構物----------------------------------------------------------21
2.9 透水性結構物流場----------------------------------------------------21
2.10 環圈應用於橋墩防治工法之相關研究--------------------------22
第叁章 理論分析----------------------------------------------------------24
3.1 圓柱型橋墩周圍水流之流況----------------------------------------24
3.2 橋墩周圍局部沖刷之過程-------------------------------------------26
3.3 沿壁沖射流理論-------------------------------------------------------28
3.4 透水性環圈固床工----------------------------------------------------30
3.4.1 環圈式固床工水力與結構特性--------------------------------32
3.4.2 影響參數-----------------------------------------------------------33
3.5 因次分析----------------------------------------------------------------33
第肆章 水工試驗----------------------------------------------------------36
4.1 試驗設備與布置-------------------------------------------------------36
4.1.1 試驗渠槽-----------------------------------------------------------36
4.1.2 試驗橋墩-----------------------------------------------------------37
4.1.3 試驗模型-----------------------------------------------------------37
4.1.4 試驗布置-----------------------------------------------------------40
4.1.5 試驗儀器-----------------------------------------------------------40
4.2 試驗規劃----------------------------------------------------------------41
4.2.1 試驗河床質--------------------------------------------------------41
4.2.2 試驗流量-----------------------------------------------------------42
4.2.3 相對水流強度-----------------------------------------------------43
4.2.4 完全發展段--------------------------------------------------------43
4.2.5 試驗時間選定-----------------------------------------------------44
4.2.6 固床工與橋墩距離選定-----------------------------------------45
4.3 試驗內容----------------------------------------------------------------46
4.4 試驗步驟----------------------------------------------------------------48
4.4.1 試驗橋墩與固床工安置與底床質鋪設-----------------------48
4.4.2 沖刷試驗放水控制-----------------------------------------------48
4.4.3 沖刷深度與河床剖面量測--------------------------------------48
4.4.4 試驗操作流程-----------------------------------------------------48
第伍章 結果分析與討論-----------------------------------------------51
5.1 傳統式固床工----------------------------------------------------------51
5.1.1 傳統式固床工於不同配置時橋墩沖刷歷程-----------------51
5.1.2 傳統式固床工於橋墩周圍沖刷之影響-----------------------53
5.1.3 傳統式固床工下游沖刷之影響--------------------------------59
5.1.4 傳統式固床工於固床工上下游沖刷之影響-----------------64
5.2 環圈式固床工----------------------------------------------------------68
5.2.1 環圈式固床工於不同配置時之橋墩沖刷歷程-------------68
5.2.2 環圈式固床工於橋墩周圍沖刷之影響----------------------69
5.2.3 環圈式固床工下游沖刷之影響--------------------------------74
5.2.4 環圈式固床工於固床工上下游沖刷之影響-----------------78
5.3 鋸齒式環圈固床工----------------------------------------------------82
5.3.1 鋸齒式環圈固床工於不同配置時之橋墩沖刷歷程--------82
5.3.2 鋸齒式環圈固床工於橋墩周圍沖刷之影響-----------------83
5.3.3 鋸齒式環圈固床工下游沖刷之影響--------------------------87
5.3.4 鋸齒式環圈固床工於固床工上下游沖刷之影響-----------91
5.4 固床工綜合比較-------------------------------------------------------95
5.4.1 固床工種類於橋墩沖刷歷程之影響--------------------------95
5.4.2 固床工種類於固床工上下游沖刷坑之影響-----------------96
5.4.3 綜合分析---------------------------------------------------------99
5.4.4 迴歸分析---------------------------------------------------------103
第陸章 結論與建議-----------------------------------------------------105
6.1 結論--------------------------------------------------------------------105
6.2 建議--------------------------------------------------------------------106
參考文獻 ----------------------------------------------------------------------108
附錄一-------------------------------------------------------------------------113
附錄二-------------------------------------------------------------------------115
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