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研究生(外文):Po-Pin Lin
論文名稱(外文):Attentional Capture is Affected by Upright or Inverted V-shape.
指導教授(外文):Yang-Ming Huang
口試委員(外文):Yi-Shiuan ChiuCheng-Ta Yang
外文關鍵詞:V-shpaeEmotionAttentionAttentional Capture
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過去的研究認為,注意力的機制會受到知覺或情緒上的突顯性影響,進而影響到作業反應。其中V型被認為具有威脅性的意涵,可以快速捕捉實驗參與者的注意力(Larson, Aronoff, Sarinopoulos, & Zhu, 2008; Larson, Aronoff, & Stearns, 2007)。所以本研究中想探討V型目標在情緒卡通人臉背景中,是如何影響注意力攫取的效果。背景的卡通人臉設計成嘴巴具有V的外型,快樂臉孔是正立V型、悲傷臉中是倒立V型,目標項目(正立與倒立V)與干擾項目會放在情緒臉孔的嘴巴部位。在實驗一至三,實驗參與者必須判斷目標項目是正立或倒立V;實驗一背景皆使用正立的卡通人臉,實驗二中背景使用的是倒立的卡通人臉,實驗三則是採用正立與倒立的背景卡通人臉。即使V型背景與作業無關,背景與目標的一致性與否,都會影響目標的判斷,但V與倒V背景的影響,僅在少數的單純主要效果尚看到差異,實驗參與者在有倒立V(正立悲傷臉或倒立快樂臉)背景情境的反應會慢於正立V(正立快樂臉或倒立悲傷臉)情境;而且,影響反應的原因是來自於卡通人臉中嘴巴部位的形狀。實驗四中則要求參與者判斷目標與背景的V型方向是否一致,在此情境下,背景的處理與作業相關。在這樣的操弄下,V與倒V背景對於作業的影響有顯著的差異,實驗參與者在有倒V時會比較慢。綜合四個實驗的結果,顯示V型對注意力的影響,相當的複雜,未來研究仍須釐清,多個V型刺激同時存在時,V型會如何對注意力造成影響。
Previous studies indicated attentional mechanism is influenced by perceptual or emotional saliency, thereby affecting the response. It considered that V-shape is perceived as threatening, which is capturing attention in a short time (Larson, Aronoff, Sarinopoulos, & Zhu, 2008; Larson, Aronoff, & Stearns, 2007). In the study, the effect of attentional capture by V-shape in the background of emotional facial expression was examined. The mouth region of face background is devised of V-shape, the mouth is upright V-shape in happy, and the inverted V-shape mouth is in sad. Target (upright and inverted V-shape) is placed on top of the mouth. In experiment 1 to 3, subjects asked target which is upright V-shape or inverted V-shape; the background is upright facial expression in experiment 1, the background of inverted face the experiment 2 used, and both in experiment 3. The results revealed that background influences task performance even when it is irrelevant to task. However, there is eminent simple main effect in specific situation: the response of inverted V-shape background (upright sad or inverted happy) is slower than upright V-shape background (upright happy or inverted sad); in addition, the effect is caused by V-shape of background, not emotional feature. In experiment 4, subjects were asked to determine that target and the V-shape of background are of congruent orientation or not, the processing of background is relevant to task in this experiment. The results showed that the subjects are more attracted by backgrounds than targets, and the emotional feature of background are processed. To sum up, when two V-shapes are presented simultaneously, the way how V-shape affect attentional mechanism is very complex. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
摘要 1
圖目錄 4
表目錄 5
緒論 6
情緒對注意力的影響 7
刺激屬性對注意力的影響 7
情緒刺激受限於注意力資源於否 8
情緒對注意力選擇機制的影響 9
知覺屬性或是情緒的效果 12
情緒突顯性是影響注意力的原因 12
知覺突顯性是影響注意力的原因 13
知覺屬性也會有情緒性 14
研究目的 17
實驗一 22
實驗二 31
實驗三 38
實驗四 46
綜合討論 57
參考文獻 66
附錄 73

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