(3.215.180.226) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/06 16:43
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:鄭渝勳
研究生(外文):Cheng, Yu-Shun
論文名稱:光動力處理抑制南美白蝦病毒性疾病之可行性研究
論文名稱(外文):The Feasibility Study of The Virus Inhibition for Litopenaeus Vannamei With Photodynamic Treatment
指導教授:李思賢李思賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li, Si-Shen
口試委員:呂誌翼林瑞騰
口試委員(外文):Leu, Jyh-YihLin, Jui-Teng
口試日期:2015-04-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:生命科學系碩士班
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:南美白對蝦白點病病毒光動力處理
外文關鍵詞:Litopenaeus vannameiwhite spot syndrome virusphotodynamic treatment
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:83
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
白點病病毒為嚴重影響對蝦養殖之病原體,目前除隔離病源與提升蝦體免疫能力外,對於已感染WSSV之南美白蝦至今尚無有效的治療方式,光動力處理則是一種已在牙科及腫瘤醫學上廣泛應用,具有抑制甚至殺滅病原體或腫瘤的醫療方式。本研究目的即在於運用光動力處理法來抑制甚至治療對蝦的白點病病毒感染。實驗中所需WSSV病毒則是以肌肉注射感染克氏原螯蝦後72小時後,取其組織粗萃液製備。南美白蝦之感染則是同樣以肌肉注射方式將相當於1.5倍LD50之WSSV送入南美白蝦,結果發現感染七天後之累積死亡率為62%,且其體液與附肢經PCR檢測後其WSSV陽性率可達100%。而被感染之南美白蝦若能在感染後的6小時內以1mM的亞甲基藍(MB)浸泡3hrs,再以波長為660nm, 功率為525 mW/cm2之LED於0.4cm距離內進行3分鐘之光動力處理(PDT), 其七天存活率能比未處理組上升17%。而若以注射方式將MB於感染同時送入南美白蝦體內,並以相同的光源照射3分鐘,其生存率能較未經PDT處理者提升達58%。此一實驗結果顯示光動力處理具有抑制甚至殺滅南美白蝦體內WSSV病毒之應用潛力。
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a serious pathogen of shrimp farming. For prevention, the farmer only depends on isolation and strengthens the immunity of shrimp. There is presently no remedy for shrimp’s white spot syndrome. Photodynamic treatment is a useful therapy for dental and tumor. It can conquer or kill widespread pathogens. The aim of this study is developing the aquacultural Photodynamic treating system to inhibit the activity of WSSV which was inside the shrimp. WSSV in this research was produced by Procambarus Clarkia which was infected by muscular-injection after 72h and extracted from muscle and gill. After titration, 1.5 fold LD50 of WSSV was injected into Penaeus vannamei with intramuscular injection, and sixty-two percentage of infected P. vannamei was dead in seven days. After PCR analyzed for WSSV’s VP22 gene fragment, all of the lethal shrimps had the positive signal. In order to inactive the WSSV in vivo. The infected shrimps were soaked with 1mM of methylene blue (MB) after infection and illuminated with 660nm, 525 mW / cm2 of LED for three minutes. The survival rate was increased to 17%. If the MB is injected into the infected shrimp and followed with same illumination conditions, the survival rate were up to 58% to the untreated group. These results show that the new developed aquacultural photodynamic treatment has potential to kill or inhibit WSSV in vivo.
目錄
致謝 ----------------------------------------- i
中文摘要 ------------------------------------- ii
英文摘要 ------------------------------------- iii
目錄 ----------------------------------------- iv
圖目錄 --------------------------------------- v
表目錄 --------------------------------------- vii
附錄目錄 ------------------------------------- viii
前言 ----------------------------------------- 1
材料¬¬ ---------------------------------------- 13
方法 ---------------------------------------- 18
結果 ----------------------------------------- 21
討論 ----------------------------------------- 27
參考資料 ------------------------------------- 31
圖 ------------------------------------------- 47
表 -------------------------------------------- 69
附錄 ----------------------------------------- 73


圖 目 錄
Figure 1 : 實驗用南美白蝦-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 47
Figure 2 : 感染WSSV後南美白蝦身上所產生的白點現象-------------------------------- 48
Figure 3 : 實驗用克氏原螯蝦----------------------------------------------------------------------- 49
Figure 4 : 克氏原螯蝦施打病毒的位置---------------------------------------------------------- 50
Figure 5 : 病毒萃取過程中上清液與沉積物病毒量比較----------------------------------- 50
Figure 6 : 實驗所用光動力機器-------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
Figure 7 : 實驗所用之光動力機器與放置南美白蝦的透明塑膠盒---------------------- 51
Figure 8 : 實驗所用之光動力機器實際操作情形--------------------------------------------- 52
Figure 9 : 南美白蝦施打病毒的位置---------------------------------------------------------- 53
Figure 10 : 南美白蝦靜置培養在已打洞之塑膠容器內---------------------------------- 53
Figure 11 : 南美白蝦實驗用之水缸------------------------------------------------------------ 54
Figure 12 : 將南美白蝦浸泡於亞甲基藍中的過程---------------------------------------- 54
Figure 13 : 光動力處理的實際情形------------------------------------------------------------- 55
Figure 14 : 注射亞甲基藍於南美白蝦背部與腹部的實際情形------------------------- 56
Figure 15 : 死亡的南美白蝦進行頭胸節抽血實際情形-------------------------------- 57
Figure 16 : 取下第一腹節上泳足的實際情形---------------------------------------------- 57
Figure 17 : PCR參數設定----------------------------------------------------------------------- 58
Figure 18 : 注射不同稀釋倍率病毒的南美白蝦存活率統計圖---------------------- 58
Figure 19 : 浸泡不同濃度亞甲基藍的南美白蝦存活率統計圖---------------------- 59
Figure 20 : 南美白蝦浸泡不同濃度亞甲基藍後的身體顏色-------------------------- 59
Figure 21 : 不同光照時間對於南美白蝦的影響------------------------------------------ 60
Figure 22 : 光動力處理對於南美白蝦的影響---------------------------------------------- 60
Figure 23 : 感染2倍LD50病毒6小時後經過光動力處理(浸泡)的生存率變化- 61
Figure 24 : 感染2倍LD50病毒6小時後經過光動力處理(浸泡)的生存率變化----- 61
Figure 25 : 感染1.5倍LD50病毒6小時後經過光動力處理(浸泡)的生存率變化-- 62
Figure 26 : 感染1.5倍LD50病毒24小時後經過光動力處理(注射)的生存率變化-62
Figure 27 : 感染1.5倍LD50病毒後立即經過光動力處理(注射)的生存率變化----- 63
Figure 28 : 南美白蝦之死亡屍體血液進行PCR檢測WSSV的結果--------------------- 64
Figure 29 : 南美白蝦之死亡屍體血液進行PCR檢測WSSV的結果-------------------- 65
Figure 30 : 南美白蝦之死亡屍體血液進行PCR檢測WSSV的結果-------------------- 66
Figure 31 : 南美白蝦之死亡屍體血液進行PCR檢測WSSV的結果-------------------- 67
Figure 32 : 南美白蝦之死亡屍體血液進行PCR檢測WSSV的結果-------------------- 68


表 目 錄
Table 1 : VP22 primer之序列---------------------------------------------------------------------- 69
Table 2 : Lv-ND2 primer之序列-------------------------------------------------------------------- 69
Table 3 : 各組病毒的注射濃度與南美白蝦隻數--------------------------------------------- 69
Table 4 : 各組亞甲基藍的注射濃度與南美白蝦隻數-------------------------------------- 70
Table 5 : 各組光照時間與南美白蝦隻數----------------------------------------------------- 70
Table 6 : 光動力處理的組別與南美白蝦隻數---------------------------------------------- 71
Table 7 : PCR WSSV配方--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72
Table 8 : PCR Lv-ND2配方-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72

Allison RR, Downie GH, Cuenca R, Hu XH, Childs CJ, Sibata CH. (2004) Photosensitizers in clinical PDT. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther.1(1):27-42.

Babilas P, Schreml S, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM. (2010) Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: state-of-the-art. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed.26 (3): 118-132.

Bateman KS, Tew I, French C, Hicks RJ, Martin P, Munro J, Stentiford GD. (2012) Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions. J Invertebr Pathol.110(3):340-351.

Bondad-Reantaso MG, Subasinghe RP, Josupeit H, Cai J,Zhou X. (2012) The role of crustacean fisheries and aquaculture in global food security: past, present and future. J Invertebr Pathol.110: 158-165.

Boyd CE. (1989) Water quality management and aeration in shrimp farming. Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Departmental Series No. 2, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

Campadelli-Fiume G, Amasio M, Avitabile E, Cerretani A, Forghieri C, et al. (2007) The multipartite system that mediates entry of herpes simplex virus into the cell. Rev Med Virol.17: 313-326.

Chang YS, Lo CF, Peng SE, Liu KF, Wang CH, Kou GH. (2002) White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) PCR-positive Artemia cysts yield PCR-negative nauplii that fail to transmit WSSV when fed to shrimp postlarvae. Dis. Aquat. Organ.49:1-10.

Chen LL, Wang HC, Huang CJ, Peng SE, Chen YG, Lin SJ, Chen WY, Dai CF, Yu HT, Wang CH, Lo CF, Kou GH. (2002) Transcriptional analysis of the DNA polymerase gene of shrimp white spot syndrome virus. J Virol.301:136-147.

Chen KY, Hsu TC, Huang, PY, Kang ST, Lo CF, Huang, WP, Chen LL. (2009) Penaeus monodon chitin binding protein (PmCBP) is involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol.27(3):460-465.

Cheng L , Lin WH, Wang PC, Tsai MA, Hsu JP, Chen SC. (2013) White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan. Fish Diseases.36: 977-985

Chou HY, Huang CY, Wang CH, Chiang HC, Lo CF. (1995) Pathogenicity of a baculovirus infection causing white spot syndrome in cultured penaeid shrimp in Taiwan. Dis Aquat Org.23:165-173.

Chang PS, Lo CF, Wang YC, Kou GH. (1996) Identification of white spot syndrome associated baculovirus (WSBV) target organs in the shrimp Penaeus monodon by in situ hybridization. Dis Aquat Org.27:131-139.

Chen IT, Aoki T, Huang YT, Hirono I, Chen TC, Huang JY, Chang GD, Lo CF, Wang HC. (2011) White Spot Syndrome Virus Induces Metabolic Changes Resembling the Warburg Effect in Shrimp Hemocytes in the Early Stage of Infection. J Virol.85(24):12919-12928.

Choudhary S, Nouri K, Elsaie ML. (2009) Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: a review.Lasers Med Sci.24 (6): 971-980.

Chou HY, Huang CY, Wang CH, Chiang HC, Lo CF. (1995) Pathogenicity of a baculovirus infection causing white spot syndrome in cultured penaeid shrimp in Taiwan. Dis Aquat Org.23:165-173. ,

Durand S, Lightner DV, Redman RM, Bonami JR. (1997) Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of White Spot Syndrome Baculovirus (WSSV). Dis. Aquat. Org.29:205-211.

FAO. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012.Rome, FAO.

FAO year book 2008. Available: (http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1890t/ i1890t.pdf). Accessed 2011 July 8.

Flegel TW. (1997) Major viral disease of the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand. World J Microbiol Biotechnol.13:433-442.

Flegel TW. (2006) Detection of major penaeid shrimp viruses in Asia, a historical perspective with emphasis on Thailand. Aquaculture.258: 1-33.

Flegel TW. (2012) Historic emergence, impact and current status of shrimp pathogens in Asia. J Invertebr Pathol.110: 166 -173.

Gross PS, Bartlett TC, Browdy CL, Chapman RW, Warr GW. (2001) Immune gene discovery by expressed sequence tag analysis of hemocytes and hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and the Atlantic White Shrimp, L. setiferus. Dev Comp Immunol.25: 565-577.

Guoxing Z, Yalin S, Kai Z, Zhi C. (1997) Bacilliform virus infection in cultured Chinese shrimp, Penaeus orientalis, in China. Biotechnol.5:113-118.

Huang J, Yu J, Song XL, Kong J, Yang CH. (1995) Studies on fine structure, nucleic acid, polypeptide and serology of hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis baculovirus of penaeid shrimp. Fish Res.16: 11-23.

Huang CH, Zhang LR, Zhang JH, Xiao LH. Wu QJ, Chen DH, Li JKK. (2001) Purification and characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) produced in an alternate host: crayfish, Cambarus clarki. Virus Res. 76:115-125.

Huang R, Xie Y, Zhang J, Shi Z. (2005) A novel envelope protein involved in white spot syndrome virus infection. J Gen Virol. 86: 1357-1361.

Huang CH, Zhang LR, Zhang JH, Xiao LH, Wu QJ, Chen DH, Li JKK. (2001) Purification and characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) produced in an alternate host: crayfish, Cambarus clarkia. Virus Res. 76:115-125.

Inouye K, Miwa S, Oseko N, Nakano H, Kimura T, Momoyama K, Hiraoka M. (1994) Mass mortalities of cultured kuruma shrimp Penaeus japonicus in Japan in: electron microscopic evidence of the causative virus. Fish Pathol.29(2):149-158.

John-son MW, Everest FA, Young RW. (1947) The role of snapping shrimp (Crangon and Synalpheus) in the production of underwater noise in the sea. Biol Bull. 93: 122-138.

Jha RK, Xu ZR, Shen J, Bai SJ, Sun JY, Li WF. (2006) The efficacy of recombinant vaccines against white spot syndrome virus in Procambarus clarki. Immunol Lett.105: 68-76.

Kureshy N, Davis DA. (2002) Protein requirement for maintenance and maximum weight gain for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture.204,125-143.

Kang HY, Yang PY, Dominy WG, Lee CS (2010) Bioprocessing papaya processing waste for potential aquaculture feed supplement -Economic and nutrient analysis with shrimp feeding trial. Bioresour Technol, Gunawardena M, Rowan JS. (2005) Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka. Environ Manage.36:535-550.

Kim DK, Jang IK, Ser HC, Shin SO, Yang SY, Kim JW. (2004) Shrimp protected from WSSV disease by treatment with egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against a truncated fusion protein derived from WSSV. Aquaculture. 237: 21-30.

Kim CS, Kosuke Z, Nam YK, Kim SK, Kim KH. (2007) Protection of shrimp (Penaeus chinensis) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge by doublestranded RNA. Fish Shellfish Immunol 23: 242-246.

Kharkwal GB, Sharma SK, Huang YY, Dai T, Hamblin MR. (2011) Photodynamic therapy for infections: clinical applications. Laser Surg Med.43:755-67.

Liao IC. (1989). Taiwanese shrimp culture: A molting industry. In: K. Chauvun, P. Menesses, W. Chauvin and A. Cuccia, eds., Proc. Shrimp World IV (The Fourth Shrimp World Marketing Conference), Shrimp World Incorporated, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., p55-83.

Lunz GR Jr. (1935) Notes on the Common Shrimp. Science 81: 436.

Louis L, Nguyen HT, Amnuay S, Suparb P, Urasa B,Le KT. (2002) Industrial transformation and shrimp aquaculture in Thailand and Vietnam: pathways to ecological, social, and economic sustainability? Ambio. 31: 311-323.

Liu CH, Yeh ST, Cheng SY, Chen JC. (2004) The immune response of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to Vibrio infection in relation with the moult cycle. Fish Shellfish Immunol.16: 151-161.

Lightner DV. (2011) Virus diseases of farmed shrimp in the Western Hemisphere (the Americas): a review. J Invertebr Pathol.106: 110-130.

Lightner DV, Redman RM. (2007) Opportunities for training in shrimp diseases. Dev Biol (Basel).129: 137-146.

Lightner, DV. (1996) A Handbook of Pathology and Diagnostic Procedures for Disease of Cultured Penaeid Shrimp. Section 3: Viruses, World Aquaculture Society. Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.,

Li Z, Lin Q, Chen J, Wu JL, Lim TK, Loh SS, Tang X, Hew CL. (2007) Shotgun identification of structural proteome of shrimp white spot syndrome virus and iTRAQ differentiation of envelope and nucleocapsid subproteomes. Mol Cell Proteomics.6(9):1609-20.

Lu CP, Zhu S, Guo FS, Wu SY. (1997) Electron microscopic observation on a non-occluded baculolike virus in shrimps. Arch. Virol.142:2073-2078.

Leu JH, Tsai JM, Wang HC, Wang AH, Wang CH, Kou GH, Lo CF. (2005) The unique stacked rings in the nucleocapsid of the white spot syndrome virus virion are formed by the major structural protein VP664, the largest viral structural protein ever found. J Virol.79: 140-149.

Li HX, Meng XL, Xu JP, Lu W, Wang J. (2005) Protection of crayfish, Cambarus clarkii, from white spot syndrome virus by polyclonal antibodies against a viral envelope fusion protein. J Fish Dis.28: 285-291.

Menz A, Blake BF. (1980) Experiments on the growth of Penaeus vannamei Boone. Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.48:99-111.

Maniatsi S, Baxevanis AD, Kappas I, Deligiannidis P, Triantafyllidis A, et al.(2011) Is polyploidy a persevering accident or an adaptive evolutionary pattern? The case of the brine shrimp Artemia. Mol Phylogenet Evol.58: 353-364.

Mayo MA. (2002) A summary of taxonomic changes recently approved by ICTV. Arch Virol.147:1655-1663.

Mettenleiter TC (2004) Budding events in herpesvirus morphogenesis. Virus Res 106: 167-180.

Mettenleiter TC, Klupp BG, Granzow H (2006) Herpesvirus assembly: a tale of two membranes. Curr Opin Microbiol.9: 423-429.

Moser JR, Álvarez DAG, Cano FM, Garcia TE, Molina DEC, Garciab TE, Molina DEC, Clark GP, Marques MRF, Barajas FJM, López JH. (2012) Water temperature influences viral load and detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Litopenaeus vannamei and wild crustaceans. Aquaculture 326-329: 9-14.

Marks H, van Duijse JJA, Zuidema D, van Hulten MCW, Vlak JM. (2005) Fitness and virulence of an ancestral white spot syndrome virus isolate from shrimp. Virus Res.110: 9-20.

Maisch T. (2009) A new strategy to destroy antibiotic resistant microorganisms: antimicrobial photodynamic treatment. mini reviews Med Chem.9 :974-83.

Mellish KJ1, Cox RD, Vernon DI, Griffiths J, Brown SB.(2002). In Vitro Photodynamic Activity of a Series of Methylene Blue Analogues. Photochem Photobiol.75 (4): 392-7.

Mutoh M, Ueda H, Nakamura Y, Hirayama K, Atobe M, Kobayashi D, MorimotoY. (2003) Characterization of transdermal solute transport induced by low-frequency ultrasound in the hairless rat skin. J. Control. Release.92”137-146.

NTOU-Aquatic Animal Center-水生動物實驗中心
Nunan LM, Lightner DV. (2011) Optimized PCR assay for detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). J Virol Methods.171(1):318-321.

Nunan, LM, Lightner DV. (1997) Development of a nonradioactive gene probe by PCR for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). J. Virol. Methods.63:193-201.

Nakano H, Koube H, Umezawa S, Momoyama K, Hiraoka M, Inouye K, Oseko N. (1994) Mass mortalities of cultured kuruma shrimp, in Japan in 1993: epizootiological survey and infection trials. Fish Pathol.29:135-139.

Namikoshi A, Wu JL, Yamashita T, Nishizawa T, Nishioka T, Arimotoc M, Muroga K. (2004) Vaccination trials with Penaeus japonicus to induce resistance to white spot syndrome virus. Aquaculture.229: 25-35.

Ning JF, Zhu W, Xu JP, Zheng CY, Meng XL. (2009) Oral delivery of DNA vaccine encoding VP28 agains white spot syndrome virus in crayfish by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium. Vaccine.27: 1127-1135.

Polat BE, Blankschtein D, Langer R. (2010) Low-frequency sonophoresis: application to the transdermal delivery of macromolecules and hydrophilic drugs. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv.7:1415-1432.

Rajca´ni J. (2003) Molecular mechanisms of virus spread and virion components as tools of virulence. A review. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 50: 407-431.

Rout N, Kumar S, Jaganmohan S, Murugan V. (2007) DNA vaccines encoding viral envelope proteins confer protective immunity against WSSV in black tiger shrimp. Vaccine.25: 2778-86.

Rajeshkumar S, Venkatesan C, Sarathi M, Sarathbabu V, Thomas J, Anver Basha K, Sahul Hameed AS. (2009) Oral delivery of DNA construct using chitosan nanoparticles to protect the shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Fish Shellfish Immunol.26: 429-437.

Robalino J, Almeida JS, McKillen D, Colglazier J, Trent HF, Chen YA, Peck ME, Browdy CL, Chapman RW, Warr GW, Gross PS. (2007) Insights into the immune transcriptome of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: tissuespecific expression profiles and transcriptomic responses to immune challenge. Physiol Genomics. 29: 44-56.

Stentiford GD, Neil DM, Peeler EJ, Shields JD, Small HJ, Flegel TW, Vlak JM, Jones B, Morado F, Moss S, Lotz J, Bartholomay L, Behringer DC, Hauton C, Lightner DV. (2012) Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors. J Invertebr Pathol. 110: 141-157.

Smith PT (2000) Diseases of the eye of farmed shrimp Penaeus monodon. Dis Aquat Organ. 43: 159-173.

Sánchez-Paz A (2010) White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern. Vet Res, 41:43.

Sarathi M, Martin C, Simon C, Sahul Hameed AS. (2008) Oral Administration of Bacterially Expressed VP28 dsRNA to Protect Penaeus monodon from White Spot Syndrome Virus. Mar Biotechnol. 10: 242-249.

Takahashi Y, Itami T, Kondo M, Maeda M, Fujii R, Tomonaga S, Supamattaya K, Boonyaratpalin S. (1994) Electron microscopic evidence of bacilliform virus infection in kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus). Fish Pathol. 29: 121-125.

Tsai MF, Lo CF, van Hulten MC, Tzeng HF, Chou CM, Huang CJ, Wang CH, Lin JY, Vlak JM, Kou GH. (2000) Transcriptional analysis of the ribonucleotide reductase genes of shrimp white spot syndrome virus. Virology. 277:92-9.

Tianhong D,Beth BF, Jeffrey JC, Renato AP, Christos A, Tyler GStD, Martha SR, Eleftherios M, Michael RH ,George PT.(2012) Concepts and principles of photodynamic therapy as an alternative antifungal discovery platform. Microbiol. 10:3389.

Tsai JM, Wang HC, Leu JH, Wang AHJ, Zhuang Y, Walker PJ, Kou GH, Lo CF. (2006) Identification of the nucleocapsid, tegument, and envelope proteins of the shrimp white spot syndrome virus virion. J Virol. 80: 3021-3029.

Tsai YL, Lin YC, Chou PH, Teng PH, Lee PY. (2012) Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus by polymerase chain reaction performed under insulated isothermal conditions. J Virol Methods. 181(1):134-137.

Van Hulten MCW, Witteveldt J, Peters S, Kloosterboer N, Tarchini R, Fiers M, Sandbrink H, Lankhorst RK, Vlak JM. (2001) The white spot syndrome virus DNA genome sequence. Virology.286:7-22.

Van Hulten, M. C., Witteveldt, J., Snippe, M., and Vlak, J. M.(2001) White spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP28 is involved in the systemic infection of shrimp. Virology. 285:228-233.

Vlak JM, Bonami JR, Flegel TW, Kou GH, Lightner DV, Lo CF, Loh PC, Walker PW. (2004) Nimaviridae. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA (eds) 8th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 187-192.

Van Etten J. (2009)Lesser known large dsDNA viruses. Preface. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 328: v-vii.

Van Hulten MC, Westenberg M, Goodall SD, Vlak JM. (2000) Identification of two major virion protein genes of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp. Virology. 266: 227-236.

Van Hulten MC, Reijns M, Vermeesch AM, Zandbergen F, Vlak JM. (2002) Identification of VP19 and VP15 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and glycosylation status of the WSSV major structural proteins. J Gen Virol. 83: 257-265.

Van Hulten MC1, Witteveldt J, Snippe M, Vlak JM. (2001) White spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP28 is involved in the systemic infection of shrimp. Virology. 285: 228.

Venegas CA, Nonaka L, Mushiake K, Nishizawa T, Muroga K. (2000) Quasi-immune response of Penaeus japonicus to penaeid rodshaped DNA virus (PRDV). Dis Aquat Organ. 42: 83-9.

Wang CH, Lo CF, Leu JH, Chou CM, Yeh PY, Chou HY, Tung MC, Chang CF, Su MS, Kou GH. (1995) Purification and genomic analysis of baculovirus associated with white spot syndrome (WSBV) of Penaeus monodon. Dis. Aquat. Org. 23,239-242.

Withyachumnarnkul B, Boonsaeng V, Chomsoong R, Flegel TW, Muangsin S, et al. (2003) Seasonal variation in white spot syndrome virus-positive samples in broodstock and post-larvae of Penaeus monodon in Thailand. Dis Aquat Organ. 53: 167-171.

Wu JL, Nishioka T, Mori K, Nishizawa T, Muroga K. (2002) A time-course study on the resistance of Penaeus japonicus induced by artificial infection with white spot syndrome virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 13: 391-403.

Witteveldt J, Vlak JM, van Hulten MC. (2004) Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus using a WSSV subunit vaccine. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 16: 571-579.

Witteveldt J, Cifuentes CC, Vlak JM, van Hulten MC. (2004) Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus by oral vaccination. J Virol. 78: 2057-2061.

Wilson, Brian C; Michael S Patterson (2008). The physics, biophysics, and technology of photodynamic therapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 53 (9): 61-109.

Wilson JD, Bigelow CE, Calkins DJ, Foster TH. (2005) Light Scattering from Intact Cells Reports Oxidative-Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Swelling. Biophysical Journal (Biophysical Society). 88 (4): 2929-38.

Wei KQ, Xu ZR. (2005) Effect of white spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP28 expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae on disease resistance in Procambarus clarkii. Shi Yan Sheng WuXue Bao. 38: 190-198.

Xie X, Yang F. (2006) White spot syndrome virus VP24 interacts with VP28 andis involved in virus infection. J Gen Virol. 87: 1903-1908.

Yang F, He J, Lin X, Li Q, Pan D, Zhang X, Xu X. (2001) Complete genome sequence of the shrimp white spot bacilliform virus. J Virol. 75:11811-20.

Yi G1, Wang Z, Qi Y, Yao L, Qian J, Hu L. (2004) Vp28 of shrimp white spot syndrome virus is involved in the attachment and penetration into shrimp cells. J Biochem Mol Biol. 37: 726.

Zhang, L.R., Zhang, J.H., Chen, D.H., Xiao, L.C. (1994) Assembly of the rod-shape virus of Penaeus orientalis Kishinoye in vivo. J. Chinese Electron Microscopy Soc. 13:354-363.

Zhang X, Xu X, Hew CL. (2001) The structure and function of a gene encoding a basic peptide from prawn white spot syndrome virus. Virus Res. 79: 137-144.

科學發展期刊2010年7月,451期

黃家慶、馬文俊,養魚世界雜誌2003年7月號

台灣水產電子報

南美白蝦病害防治實用技術,中國農業網:2009-10-15中國百科網

王德華. 光動力療法. 科學發展. 2006, 403: 28-33

楊明曄、胡安仁、陳良宇,致病微生物失活之光動力療法,MC-Transaction on Biotechnology, 2013, Vol. 5, No. 1, e4

陳進庭, 林郁欣. 光動力醫學的原理及其應用發展,光電科技協進會 特別報導

張中興. 光動力治療在皮膚疾病的應用, ,台灣醫學-光照美容與集病的治療

丁新民,徐勤枝,顧瑛,等.光動力學治療腫瘤的簡史和現狀.中國腫瘤,2003,12(3):151-155.

艾凌艷; 張久云; 侯淑蓮; 劉紅; 孔潤蓮, 光動力學療法的臨床應用. Chinese Journal of Coal Industry Medicine 2011, 14

成功大學附設醫院皮膚科衛教單:光動力療法在早期或表淺性皮膚癌之新療法

科學月刊116期(1979.08):醫用超聲波136期(1981.04):超聲波及其工程運用

大鈞診所醫學美容中心-超音波導入介紹

許博雄,田聰教授,2002超聲波介紹與應用

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔