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研究生:羅月美
研究生(外文):Yip-Mei Loh
論文名稱:論柏拉圖從神話到知識論的發展
論文名稱(外文):On Plato's Development from Muthos to Epistemology
指導教授:黎建球黎建球引用關係
指導教授(外文):Bernard Li
口試委員:尤煌傑黃藿俞懿嫻張柯圳黎建球
口試日期:2014-05-16
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:哲學系
學門:人文學門
學類:哲學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:253
中文關鍵詞:神話眾神靈魂知識回憶
外文關鍵詞:muthosgodssoulepistēmēanamnesis
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博士生姓名:羅月美
系所名稱:哲學研究所 博士班
指導教授:黎建球 博士
論文題目:論柏拉圖從神話到知識論的發展
關鍵詞:神話、眾神、靈魂、知識、回憶
論文總頁書:253頁
摘要正文:

此篇論文以柏拉圖的神話為開始,憑藉著他的「形似的演說」(eikōs logos)的理論以及靈魂之理論進入到知識論的探討。其理由是柏拉圖作為一位述說神話者之角色長期以來一直被忽略,以及他的神話的「辯證法之揚棄」 (Aufheben of dialectics)沒有被嚴肅地對待,或者甚至被忽視。因此之故,此篇論文的目的是在他的哲學的架構上凸顯其神話的重要性以及重估其關鍵性的角色,這角色在他的知識論的學說裡扮演著如此重要的功能。簡言之,如果我們想要仔細地理解他的觀點(doxa, view)以及意見(doxa, opinion)與知識/科學(epistēmē)的學說,而沒有了解他的神話在其中所扮演的角色的話,我們極可能被誤導或者誤解他的真正的哲學思想,因為他的神話──創始於驚訝(Thaumas)的動機──是他的哲學的根基。或者我們可以說,柏拉圖的角色在西方的哲學上是一位驚訝的愛人:一位走在追尋的道路上以及追求真理的人。
在柏拉圖的全集裡他的神話可以被切割為兩個類型:蘇格拉底的神話以及非蘇格拉底的神話。在它們之間最著名的比較是出現在《普羅達哥拉斯》(Protagoras) 與《政治家》(Politikos)裡。在這兩篇對話錄裡展現出蘇格拉底或者柏拉圖與普羅達哥拉斯和智者之間之不同的價值觀。他們之間不僅僅是存有(to on)與非存有(to mē on)之概念的爭戰,也是辯證法不同於爭辯(eristic)的爭戰。鑑於這點,這是無可避免的,即,在雅典的公民之中智者的角色被捲入到這個討論裡,以此呈現柏拉圖憂心於他的文化的危機以及重建他的城邦的核心價值之意圖。
更甚者,本論文區別出這三者:精靈、眾神與神,以便理解他的靈魂的觀念。柏拉圖透過他的「形似的演說」來展露他的靈魂的觀念,以及以他的靈魂的觀念透過回憶的理論為他知識論之建構的分析鋪路,因為他的「形似的演說」是永恆之說明與相之陳述。從柏拉圖的觀點來看,唯有眾神以及少數的人是能夠擁有知識本身,大多數的人僅僅能夠擁有或者「真正的觀點」(true views, doxai)或者「意見」(opinions, doxai)。這展現出doxai的概念是一種「宛如的結構」 (as-structure),這個結構擁有兩層次。一者是「某事物宛如某事物被陳述為」,這結構被稱為「存有或者判斷的宛如結構」,我們稱這宛如結構為「觀點」。另一者是「某事物宛如某事物顯得」,這層結構稱之為「顯得的宛如結構」,此結構被稱為「意見」。這兩層次將展露在此篇論文的陳述裡,透過這樣的陳述真正的觀點(true views, doxa)與意見(opinions, doxa)以及知識(epistēmē)之間的差異與關係可以被發掘。

Ph. D Student: Yip-mei Loh
Department: Philosophy
Supervisor: Professor Bernard Li
Thesis: On Plato’s Development from Muthos to Epistemology
Key words: muthos, gods, soul, epistēmē, anamnesis
Total pages: 253 pages
Content of this Abstract:

This thesis begins with Plato’s muthos through his theory of eikōs logos and the soul to an investigation into his epistemology on the grounds that his role as a muthologos has been neglected and that the Aufheben of dialectics in his muthoi has not been taken seriously, or even has been overlooked. Hence the purpose is to attach due significance to his muthos in his philosophical framework and to revalue its critical roles which have played such important functions in his doctrine of epistemology. In brief, if we want to closely scrutinize his doctrines of doxa and epistēmē without understanding the roles of his muthoi, it is probable that we may be misled or misunderstand his real philosophical thoughts, since his muthoi, which are invented by motivation of Thaumas, are his philosophical groundwork. Or we can say that Plato’s role in western philosophy is as the lover of Thaumas, who was walking on the path of searching and pursuing truth.
In the Platonic corpus his muthoi can be divided into two types: Socratic and non-Socratic. The most famous comparison between them occurs in the Protagoras and the Politikos. In these two dialogues muthoi manifest the different values between Socrates/Plato and Protagoras/the sophists. The dispute between them is not only the concept of ‘to on’ and ‘to mē on’, but also of differing dialectics from eristic. In view of this, it is unavoidable that the sophists’ role among the citizens of Athens is involved in the discussion, so as to exhibit Plato’s worrying about the crisis of his culture and his intention of reconstructing the core values of his polis.
Furthermore, this thesis makes a distinction between daimones, gods and god, with a view to understanding his idea of the soul, which Plato presents by means of his eikōs logos; and which paves the way for analyzing his construction of epistemology through the theory of recollection, since his eikōs logos is the account of eternity and the manifestation of ideas. From Plato’s point of view, only the gods and a few people are able to possess knowledge itself, the majority of people can only possess either true views (doxai) or opinions (doxai). This means that the concept of doxai as the as-structure has two scales. One is ‘something is stated as something’, which we call the ‘as-structure of being/judging’. This ‘as-structure’ is branded as ‘view’. The other is ‘something appears as something’, which is named the ‘as-structure of seeming’, and which is labelled as ‘opinion’. Both of them are manifested in this thesis; and through which the difference and the relationship between doxa and epistēmē is brought to light.

Contents

Abstract(English) i
(Chinese) iii
Acknowledgment vii
Preface 1
Introduction 4
The aim of the thesis 11
I. Plato’s muthos 13
I.1. The connotation of ‘muthos’ and ‘logos’ 15
I.2. Plato’s muthos in his philosophical meaning 24
I.2.1. Comparisons between the muthos of Plato’s Protagoras and
Plolitikos 26
I.2.2. Further discussion of the muthos in Plato’s Politikos 34
I.3. Plato’s criticism of the muthos of movements as the principle of the cosmos in the Theaetetus 41
I.4. Socrates as Artemis 59
II. The eikōs logos 66
II. 1. The adjective term eikōs 68
II. 2. The Greek noun eikōn (picture/image) 74
III. Plato’s theory of the psyche 84
III. 1. The idea of the soul 85
III.1.1. God, gods and daimones 88
III.1.2. Plato’s Palinode 106
III.2 The composition of the universe 120
III.2.1. The body 122
III.2.2. Chora (chōra) 134
III.2.3. Time (chronos) 143
III.2.4. The parts of time (merē chronou) 147
III.2.5. The ideas of time (eidē chronou) 151
III.2.6. Motion (kinēsis) 156
IV. Plato’s epistemology 166
IV.1. The theory of anamnesis 169
IV.1.1. Memory, recollection, perception and forgetfulness 170
IV. 1.2. Anamnesis and ideas 187
IV. 1.3. Perception, recollection and knowledge 192
IV.2. Doxa and epistēmē 198
IV.2.1. The model of the wax tablet 205
IV.2.2. The model of the aviary 209
IV.2.3. Is knowledge true opinion (alēthēs doxa)? 215
IV.2.4. Socrates’ dream 219
IV.2.5. Plato’s episteme 233
Conclusion 239
Works cited 247

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