(3.238.7.202) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/03 22:24
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:詹馥蔚
研究生(外文):JHAN FU WEI
論文名稱:以動物及細胞模式探討常見中草藥對於脂質代謝及LDL氧化的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Chinese traditonal herbs on lipid metabolism and LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro
指導教授:莊正宏莊正宏引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:營養醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:三酸甘油酯低密度脂蛋白膽固醇活性氧山楂陳皮荷葉
外文關鍵詞:TriglycerideLow-density lipoprotein cholesterolReactive oxygen speciesCrataegi fructusCitri reticulatae pericarpiumNelumbinis folium
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:150
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:1
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
中文摘要
研究證實中草藥中含有改善血脂異常及抑制LDL氧化的有效成分,例如:川芎嗪(Ligustrazine)、丹參酮IIA (Tanshinone IIA)、白藜蘆醇(Resveratrol)、薑黃素(Curcumin)、葛根素(Puerarin)、人參皂苷(Ginsenosides)等,因此,在本實驗中,我們以敘利亞倉鼠(Syrian Hamster)做為研究模式,探討民間較常見的中藥及草藥對於調節血脂的功效,同時我們也以細胞模式(EA. hy926細胞株)探討其抗氧化的機制。
在動物模式部分將敘利亞倉鼠隨機分為9組,分別為對照組(Control)、高脂飲食組(High lipid diet, HLD)、山楂組(Crataegi fructus, CF; 500 mg/kg)、荷葉組(Nelumbinis folium, NF; 500 mg/kg)、蒲公英組(Dandelion, D; 500 mg/kg)、人參組(Ginseng radix, GR; 1000 mg/kg)、陳皮組(Citri reticulatae pericarpium, CRP; 500 mg/kg)、丹蔘+芝麻組(HLC; 200 mg/kg)、茶皂素組(Thea saponin, TS; 500 mg/kg)進行為期6個月實驗,並於實驗期間進行以下分析:血清中總三酸甘油酯(Total triglycerides, TG)、總膽固醇(Total cholesterol, TC)、高密度脂蛋白膽固醇(High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白膽固醇(Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C)、延緩低密度脂蛋白(Low-density lipoprotein, LDL)氧化、肝臟中總膽固醇及三酸甘油酯濃度。結果發現,山楂、人參、陳皮、茶皂素處理組可顯著抑制血清中TG濃度的上升,下降幅度分別達16.7%、20.3%、16.7%、27.3%。在LDL氧化部分,山楂、荷葉及陳皮均具有延緩LDL氧化的能力,其中又以山楂組延緩LDL氧化的能力最好,其次為陳皮及荷葉,可延緩LDL氧化時間分別為56、36.9及34.2分鐘。在細胞實驗的結果發現,山楂、荷葉、陳皮處理組皆能顯著抑制活性氧(Reactive oxygen species, ROS)的產生,亦能有效抑制丙二醛(Malondialdehyde, MDA)的生成以及降低DNA的損傷。進一步實驗結果發現山楂、荷葉及陳皮高劑量組皆能顯著提高觸酶(Catalase)以及超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide dismutase, SOD)的活性。
綜合體內外模式的研究結果,發現山楂、人參、陳皮以及茶皂素具有降低血清中TG的能力。而山楂、荷葉以及陳皮能增加大鼠血中LDL氧化的遲滯期(Lag time),在細胞模式中,也發現具有降低ROS的效果,推測可能是透過提高Catalase和SOD抗氧化酵素活性,進而降低ox-LDL所造成血管內皮細胞的脂質過氧化作用以及DNA傷害。然而,山楂、人參、陳皮及茶皂素可降低血清中TG以及山楂、荷葉及陳皮可抑制LDL氧化的活性成分需再進一步研究。
關鍵詞:三酸甘油酯、低密度脂蛋白膽固醇、活性氧、山楂、陳皮、荷葉

Abstract
Studies have shown that the Chinese traditonal herbs contain effective components that improve abnormal blood lipid and inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), such as tanshinone IIA, resveratrol, curcumin, puerarin, and ginsenosides. In this study, we used male Syrian hamsters as animal model to study the effect of common Chinese traditional herbs on hyperlipidemia induced by high a lipid diet. Meanwhile, we further used EA. hy926 cells as a cell model to confirm the antioxidant property of common Chinese traditional herbs and the effect on ox-LDL-induced oxidative damage.
The animals were randomly assigned to the following nine groups (n= 4-6/group): control group, high-lipid diet group (HLD), Crataegi fructus group (CF; 500 mg/kg body weight), Nelumbinis folium group (NF; 500 mg/kg body weight), Dandelion group (D; 500 mg/kg body weight), Ginseng radix group (GR; 1000 mg/kg body weight), Citri reticulatae pericarpium group (CRP; 500 mg/kg body weight), Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge + Sesamum indicum group (HLC; 200 mg/kg body weight), and Thea saponin group (TS; 500 mg/kg body weight). The results show that CF, GR, CRP, and TS significantly decreased serum concentrations of TG induced by high-lipid diet by 16.7%, 20.3%, 16.7%, and 27.3% respectively. In addition, CF, CRP, and NF markedly increased the lag time of LDL oxidation induced by high-lipid diet by 56, 37 and 34 minutes, respectively. The results obtained from EA. hy926 cells show that CF, CRP, and NF significantly decreased the level of intracellular ROS, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Furthermore, CF, NF, and CRP high dose groups significantly increased the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD).
Overall, this study found that CF, GR, CRP, and TS significantly decreased serum TG level of Syrian hamsters (P<0.05). Moreover, CF, CRP, and NF significantly inhibited LDL oxidation in serum of Syrian hamsters. In vitro, we found that the CF, CRP, and NF inhibited lipid peroxidation and DNA damage caused by ox-LDL in EA. hy926 cells and that these effects are likely associated with decreased level of intracellular ROS and increased activity of SOD and catalase. However, the active ingredients of CF, GR, CRP, TS or NF still need further investigations.
Keywords: Triglyceride、Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol、Reactive oxygen species、Crataegi fructus、Nelumbinis folium、Citri reticulatae pericarpium

目錄
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………. I
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………. III
表目次……………………………………………………………………. X
圖目次……………………………………………………………………. XI
縮寫表……………………………………………………………………. XIII
實驗架構…………………………………………………………………. XV
第一章文獻回顧
血脂的組成與特性……………………………………………………… 1
三酸甘油酯……………………………………………………………… 1
膽固醇…………………………………………..……………………….. 2
脂蛋白……………………………………………………………………. 2
氧化低密度脂蛋白與動脈粥狀硬化…………………………………... 4
自由基與活性氧………………………………………………………… 5
抗氧化防禦系統………………………………………………………… 6
酵素性抗氧化防禦系統………………………………………………… 7
超氧化物歧化酶………………………………………………………… 7
觸酶………….…………………………………………………………… 8
麩胱甘肽過氧化酶……………………………………………………… 9
非酵素性抗氧化防禦系統……………………………………………… 9
麩胱甘肽…………………………………………………………………. 10
山楂………………………………………………………………………. 10
蒲公英……………………………………………………………………. 11
荷葉………………………………………………………………………. 12
人參………………………………………………………………………. 13
陳皮………………………………………………………………………. 14
惠立青……………………………………………………………………. 14
茶皂素……………………………………………………………………. 15
第二章中草藥對於高脂飲食誘發倉鼠高脂血症的影響
前言………………………………………………………………………. 18
材料方法
動物實驗架構…………………………………………………………… 20
實驗動物……………………………….………………………………… 21
實驗樣品…………………………………………………………….…… 21
飼料配方………………………………………………………….……… 23
倉鼠血清製備…………………………………………………………… 24
血清三酸甘油酯含量分析……………………………………………… 24
血清總膽固醇酯含量分析……………………………………………… 24
血清高密度脂蛋白膽固醇含量分析…………………………………... 25
血清低密度脂蛋白膽固醇含量分析…………………………………... 25

肝臟三酸甘油酯及總膽固醇含量分析………………………………... 26
LDL脂蛋白氧化耐受性試驗…………………………………………... 26
肝臟組織切片分析……………………………………………………… 28
統計分析…………………………………………………………………. 28
結果
各處理組之倉鼠體重、臟器重量、攝食量及飲水量的變化…………. 29
七種中草藥對於倉鼠血清三酸甘油酯濃度的影響…………..……… 30
七種中草藥對於倉鼠血清總膽固醇濃度的影響…………………….. 30
七種中草藥對於倉鼠血清低密度脂蛋白膽固醇及高密度脂蛋白膽固醇濃度的影響………………………………………………………… 30
七種中草藥對於倉鼠肝臟總膽固醇和三酸甘油酯濃度的影響……. 31
肝臟組織切片分析……………………………………………………… 31
中草藥對於倉鼠血清低密度脂蛋白氧化的影響…………………….. 32
討論………………………………………………………………………. 33
第三章山楂、荷葉、陳皮對於LDL氧化誘發血管內皮細胞-EA. hy926氧化傷害的影響及其可能機制
前言…………………………………………………………………….… 37
材料方法
細胞實驗架構…………………………………………………………… 39
細胞株來源及培養條件………………………………………………… 40
樣品製備…………………………………………………………………. 40
氧化低密度脂蛋白製備………………………………………………… 40
TBARs脂質過氧化測定……………………………………...………… 41
彗星影像分析…………………………………………………………… 42
活性氧(Reactive oxygen species, ROS)清除能力測定…………..…… 43
觸酶(Catalase)活性測定………………………………………………... 44
超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide dismutase, SOD)活性測定…………….. 44
穀胱甘肽(Glutathione, GSH)活性測定………………………………... 44
統計分析…………………………………………………………………. 45
結果
山楂、荷葉、陳皮對於人類其靜脈內皮細胞EA. hy926細胞脂質過氧化物之影響…………………………………………………………… 45
山楂、荷葉、陳皮對於人類臍靜脈內皮細胞EA. hy926細胞DNA之影響………………………………………………………….………… 46
山楂、荷葉、陳皮對於人類臍靜脈內皮細胞EA. hy926細胞活性氧清除能力之影響………………………………………………………… 46
山楂、荷葉、陳皮對於人類臍靜脈內皮細胞EA. hy926細胞Catalase之影響……………………………………………….……………………
47
山楂、荷葉、陳皮對於人類臍靜脈內皮細胞EA. hy926細胞SOD之影響……………………………………………….…………………… 47
山楂、荷葉、陳皮對於人類臍靜脈內皮細胞EA. hy926細胞GSH之影響……………………………….…………………………………… 47
討論………………………………………………………………….…… 48
總結論………………………………………………………………….… 50
圖表………………………………………………………………………. 51
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………. 72

參考文獻
衛生福利部。民國102年國人十大死因分析。
謝文聰、童承福、郭昭麟。2008。輕鬆認識中藥。中國醫藥大學。
Amarenco P, Labreuche J, Touboul PJ. 2008. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and risk of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: A systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 196: 489-496.
Aprioku JS. 2013. Pharmacology of free radicals and the impact of reactive oxygen species on the testis. J Reprod Infertil. 14: 158-172.
Arora RC, Agarwal N, Arora S, Pandey A. 1992. Dietary cholesterol induced changes in serum lipoproteins in healthy females. Mater Med Pol. 24: 17-19.
Aviram M, Fuhrman B. 1998. Polyphenolic flavonoids inhibit macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL and attenuate atherogenesis. Atherosclerosis. 137: S45-S50.
Ball K, Turner R. 1974. Smoking and the heart. The basis for action. Lancet. 2: 822-826.
Behrend L, Henderson G, Zwacka RM. 2003. Reactive oxygen species in oncogenic transformation. Biochem Soc Trans. 31: 1441-1444.
Bennet MR. 1999. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular remodeling and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Cardiovascular Res. 41: 361-368.
Bok SH, Lee SH, Park YB, Bae KH, Son KH, Jeong TS, et al. 1999. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol and hepatic activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and acyl CoA: cholesterol transferase are lower in rats fed citrus peel extract or a mixture of citrus bio-flavonoids. J Nutr. 129: 1182-1185.
Boyd NF, Cousins M, Beaton M, Kriukov V, Lockwood G, Tritchler D. 1990. Quantitative changes in dietary fat intake and serum cholesterol in women: results from a randomized, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 52: 470-476.
Briskin DP. 2000. Medicinal plants and phytomedicines. Linking plant biochemistry and physiology to human health. Plant Physiol. 124: 507-514.
Buttke TM, Sandstrom PA. 1994. Oxidative stress as a mediator of apoptosis. Immunol Today. 15: 7-10.
Carlson SE, Goldfarb S. 1977. A sensitive enzymatic method for determination of free and esterified tissue cholesterol. Clin Chim Acta. 79: 575-582.
Chen CY, Li H, Yuan YN, Dai HQ, Yang B. 2013. Antioxidant activity and components of a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of Crataegus pinnatifida and Salvia miltiorrhiza. BMC Complement Altern Med. 13: 99.
Chen JD, Wu YZ, Tao ZL, Chen ZM, Liu XP. 1995. Hawthorn (shan zha) drink and its lowering effect on blood lipid levels in humans and rats. World Rev Nutr Diet. 77: 147-154.
Choi UK, Lee OH, Yim JH, Cho CW, Rhee YK, Lim SI, et al. 2010. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root and leaf on cholesterol-fed rabbits. Int J Mol Sci. 11: 67-78.
Colles SM, Irwin KC, Chisolm GM. 1996. Roles of multiple oxidized lipids in cellular injury. J Lipid Res. 37: 2018-2028.
Cynshi O, Stocker R. 2005. Inhibition of lipoprotein lipid oxidation. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 170: 563-590.
Davies KJA. 1986. Intracellular proteolytic systems may function as secondary antioxidant defenses: a hypothesis. J Free Radic Med. 2: 155-173.
Deng HL, Zhang JT. 1991. Anti-lipid peroxilative effect of ginsenoside Rb1and Rg1. Chin Med J (Engl). 104: 395-398.
Du H, You JS, Zhao X, Park JY, Kim SH, Chang KJ. 2010. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet. J Biomed Sci. 17 Suppl 1: S42.
Eguchi K, Akiyama T, Kiriu T, Minamiyama Y, Okada S. 1999. Apoptosis and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels in renal tissue after an injection of ferric nitrilotriacetate, a renal carcinogen, in male Wistar rats maintained on vitamin E-deficient, -normal or -supplemented diets. Pathophysiology. 6: 149-156.
Fernández-Higuero JA, Salvador AM, Martín C, Milicua JC, Arrondo JL. 2014. Human LDL Structural Diversity Studied by IR Spectroscopy. PLoS One. 9: e92426.
Fisher EA, Feig JE, Hewing B, Hazen SL, Smith JD. 2012. High-density lipoprotein function, dysfunction, and reverse cholesterol transport. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 32: 2813-2820.
Folch J, Lees M, Sloane Stanley GH. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 226: 497-509.
Frei B. 1994. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant vitamins: mechanisms of action. Am J Med. 97: 5-13.
Gago-Dominguez M, Castelao JE. 2006. Lipid peroxidation and renal cell carcinoma: furthe supportive evidence and new mechanistic insights. Free Radic Biol Med. 404: 721-733.
Genest JG Jr. 2000. Dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease. Can J Cardiol. 16 Suppl A: 3A-4A.
Gey KF, Moser UK, Jordan P, Stähelin HB, Eichholzer M, Lüdin E. 1993. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease at suboptimal plasma concentrations of essential antioxidants: an epidemiological update with special attention to carotene and vitamin C. Am J Clin Nutr. 57: 787S-797S.
Goldberg AC, Schonfeld G. 1985. Effects of diet on lipoprotein metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 5: 195-212.
Goodman ZD, Ishak KG. 2006. Hepatobiliary system and pancreas. In Surgical Pathology and Cytopathology (S. G. Silverberg, ed.). 2: 1465-1526.
Greaves P. 2007. Liver and pancreas. In Histopathology of Preclinical Toxicity Studies. 3rd edition: 457-514.
Guo XF, Ruan LH, Tan T. 2009. Effect of theasaponins on the foaming capacity of soy protein. Journal of Henan University of Technology (Natural Science Edition). 30: 12-14.
Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. 1984. Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radical, transition metals, and disease. The Biochemical Journal. 219: 1-14.
Halliwell B. 2012. Free radicals and antioxidants: updating a personal view. Nutr Rev. 70: 257-265.
Hayashi K, Sagesaka YM, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y. 2000. Inactivation of human type A and B influenza viruses by tea-sead saponins. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 64: 184-186.
Hsieh CC, Yen MH, Yen CH, Lau YT. 2001. Oxidized low density lipoprotein induces apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res. 49: 135-145.
Hu C, Kitts DD. 2003. Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 51: 301-310.
Huang YS. 1989. [Effect of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 on lipid peroxidation of rat in vitro]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 11: 460-462.
Ibrahim DA. 2009. Study of the Effect of Panax Ginseng versus Gliclazide on Hyperglycaemia Induced by Dexamethasone in Experimental Animals. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 9: 63-9.
Imamoglu N, Yerer MB, Donmez-Altuntas H, Saraymen R. 2008. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane of stainless-steel welders exposed to welding fumes and gases. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 211: 63-68.
Jeon HJ, Kang HJ, Jung HJ, Kang YS, Lim CJ, Kim YM, et al. 2008. Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale. J Ethnopharmacol. 115: 82-88.
Ji YB, Akerboom TPM, Sies H, Thomas JA. 1999. S-nitrosylation and S-glutathiolation of protein sulfhydryls by S-nitroso glutathione. Arch Biochem Biophys. 362: 67-78.
Jialal I, Devaraj S. 1996. Low-density lipoprotein oxidation, antioxidants, and atheroscelerosis: a clinical biochemistry perspective. Clin Chem. 4: 498-506.
Jinchun Z, Jie C. 2011. The effects of Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue in mice. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 8: 128-133.
Jung UJ, Lee MK, Park YB, Kang MA, Choi MS. 2006. Effect of citrus flavonoids on lipid metabolism and glucose-regulating enzyme mRNA levels in type-2 diabetic mice. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 38: 1134-1145.
Kakadiya J, Mulani H, Shah N. 2010. Protective effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular complication in experimentally induced myocardial infarction indiabetes in rats. J Basic Clin Pharm. 1: 85-91.
Karthikeyan G, Teo KK, Islam S, McQueen MJ, Pais P, Wang X, et al. 2009. Lipid profile, plasma apolipoproteins, and risk of a first myocardial infarction among Asians: An analysis from the INTERHEART Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 53: 244-253.
Kiefer D, Pantuso T. 2003. Panax ginseng. Am Fam Physician. 68: 1539-1542.
Kim SH, Park KS. 2003. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on lipid metabolism in humans. Pharmacol Res. 48: 511-513.
Kohen R, Nyska A. 2002. Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions, and methods for their quantification. Toxicol Pathol. 30: 620-650.
Kuo DH, Yeh CH, Shieh PC, Cheng KC, Chen FA, Cheng JT. 2009. Effect of shanzha, a Chinese herbal product, on obesity and dyslipidemia in hamsters receiving high-fat diet. J Ethnopharmacol. 124: 544-550.
Labreuche J, Touboul PJ, Amarenco P. 2009. Plasma triglyceride levels and risk of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: A systematic review of the epidemiological studies. Atherosclerosis. 203: 331-345.
Landis GN, Tower J. 2005. Superoxide dismutase evolution and life span regulation. Mech Ageing Dev. 126: 365-379.
Levonen AL, Vähäkangas E, Koponen JK, Ylä-Herttuala S. 2008. Antioxidant gene therapy for cardiovascular disease: current status and future perspectives. Circulation. 117: 2142-2150.
Li H, Horke S, Förstermann U. 2013. Oxidative stress in vascular disease and its pharmacological prevention. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 34: 313-319.
Lin HY, Kuo YH, Lin YL, Chiang W. 2009. Antioxidative effect and active components from leaves of Lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera ). J Agric Food Chem. 57: 6623-6629.
Lin Y, Vermeer MA, Trautwein EA. 2011. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011: 801272.
Liochev SI, Fridovich I. 1994. The role of O2•- in the production of OH•: in vitro and in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med. 16: 29-33.
Lykkesfeldt J. 2007. Malondialdehyde as biomarker of oxidative damage to lipids caused by smoking. Clin Chim Acta. 380: 50-58.
Mahalle N, Garg MK, Naik SS, Kulkarni MV. 2014. Study of pattern of dyslipidemia and its correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with proven coronary artery disease. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 18: 48-55.
Matés JM, Pérez-Gómez C, Núñez de Castro I. 1999. Antioxidant enzymesand human diseases. Clin Biochem. 32: 595-603.
Maxwell SR. 1993. Can anti-oxidants prevent ischaemic heart disease? J Clin Pharm Ther. 18: 85-95.
McBride PE. 2007. Triglycerides and risk for coronary heart disease. J Am Med Assoc. 298: 336-338.
McCall MR, Frei B. 1999. Can antioxidant vitamins materially reduceoxidative damage in humans? Free Rad Biol Med. 26: 1034-1053.
Mehta JL, Chen J, Hermonat PL, Romeo F, Novelli G. 2006. Lectin-like, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1): a critical player in the development of atherosclerosis and related disorders. Cardiovasc Res. 69: 36-45.
Monforte MT, Trovato A, Kirjavainen S, Forestieri AM, Galati EM, Lo Curto RB. 1995. Biological effects of hesperidin, a Citrus flavonoid. (note II): hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat. Farmaco. 50: 595-599.
Moore K, Roberts LJ 2nd. 1998. Measurement of lipid peroxidation. Free Radical Res. 28: 659-671.
Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee D, Maji AK, Rai S, Heinrich M. 2009. The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) - phytochemical and therapeutic profile. J Pharm Pharmacol. 61: 407-422.
Ono Y, Hattori E, Fukaya Y, Imai S, Ohizumi Y. 2006. Anti-obesity effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract in mice and rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 106: 238-244.
Ou HC, Song TY, Yeh YC, Huang CY, Yang SF, Chiu TH, et al. 2010. EGCG protects against oxidized LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting LOX-1-mediated signaling. J Appl Physiol (1985). 108: 1745-1756.
Oyinloye BE, Nwozo SO, Amah GH, Awoyinka AO, Ojo OA, Ajiboye BO, et al. 2014. Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats. Nutr Res Pract. 8: 54-8.
Park JW, Cundy KC, Ames BN. 1989. Detection of DNA adducts by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Carcinogenesis. 10: 827-832.
Pastore A, Federici G, Bertini E, Piemonte F. 2003. Analysis of glutathione:implication in redox and detoxification. Clin Chim Acta. 333: 19-39.
Patel RP, Moellering D, Murphy-Ullrich J, Jo H, Beckman JS, Darley-Usmar VM. 2000. Cell signaling by reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in atherosclerosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 28: 1780-1794.
Patel RP, Moellering D, Murphy-Ullrich J, Jo H, Beckman JS, Darley-Usmar VM. 2000. Cell signaling by reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in atherosclerosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 28: 1780-1794.
Pennathur S, Heinecke JW. 2007. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in vascular disease. Curr Diab Rep. 7: 257-264.
Pryor WA, Houk KN, Foote CS, Fukuto JM, Ignarro LJ, Squadrito GL, et al. 2006. Free radical biology and medicine: it's a gas, man! Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 291: R491-511.
Racek J, Holecek V, Trefil L. 1999. Indicators of oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases. I. Lipoperoxidation. Vnitr Lek. 45: 367-372.
Rajavashisth TB, Andalibi A, Territo MC, Berliner JA, Navab M, Fogelman AM, et al. 1990. Induction of endothelial cell expression of granulocyte and macrophage colony-stimulating factors by modifiedlow-density lipoproteins. Nature. 344: 254-257.
Richmond W. 1973. Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin Chem. 19: 1350-1356.
Rizos E, Mikhailidis DP. 2001. Are high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels relevant in stroke prevention? Cardiovasc Res. 52: 199-207.
Ross R. 1999. Atherosclerosis-an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 340: 115-126.
Ross R. 1999. Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 340: 115-126.
Sagesaka YM, Uemura T, Suzuki Y, Sugiura T, Yoshida M, Yamaguchi K, et al. 1996. [Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions of tea-leaf saponin]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 116: 238-243.
Schramm DD, German JB. 1998. Potential effects of flavonoids on the etiology of vascular disease. J Nutr Biochem. 9: 560-566.
Selzman CH, Miller SA, Harken AH. 2001. Therapeutic implications of inflammation in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Ann Throac Surg. 71: 2066-2074.
Selzman CH, Miller SA, Harken AH. 2001. Therapeutic implications of inflammation in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Ann Thorac Surg. 71: 2066-2074.
Shaikh M, Martini S, Quiney JR, Baskerville P, La Ville AE, Browse NL, et al. 1988. Modified plasma-derived lipoproteins in human atherosclerosis plaques. Atherosclerosis. 69: 165-172.
Shen CM, Mao SJT, Huang GS, Yang PC, Chu RM. 2001. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation by ox-LDL and acetyl-LDL induced macrophage-derived foam cells. Life Sci. 70: 443-452.
Shen CM, Mao SJ, Huang GS, Yang PC, Chu RM. 2001. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation by ox-LDL- and acetyl LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cells. Life Sci. 70: 443-452.
Son S, Lewis BA. 2002. Free radical scavenging and antioxidative activity of caffeic acid amide and ester analogues: structure-activity relationship. J Agric Food Chem. 50: 468-472.
Steinberg D, Parthasarathy S, Carew TE, Khoo JC, Witztum JL. 1989. Beyond cholesterol: modification of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity. N Engl J Med. 320: 915-924.
Steinberg D. 1997. Low density lipoprotein oxidation and its pathobiological significance. J Biol Chem. 272: 20963-20966.
Sun Y.1990. Free radicals, antioxidant enzymes, and carcinogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med. 8: 583-599.
Thoolen B, Maronpot RR, Harada T, Nyska A, Rousseaux C, Nolte T, et al. 2010. Proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the rat and mouse hepatobiliary system. Toxicol Pathol. 38: 5S-81S.
Trinder P. 1969. Determination of blood glucose using 4-amino phenazone as oxygen acceptor. J Clin Pathol. 22: 246.
Tsai CM, Chen PR, Chien KL, Su TC, Chang CJ, Liu TL, et al. 2005. Dietary sesame reduces serum cholesterol and enhances antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolemia. Nutr Res. 25: 559-567.

Tulenko TN, Sumner AE, Chen M, Huang Y, Laury-Kleintop L, Ferdinand FD. 2001. The smooth muscle cell membrane during atherogenesis: a potential target for amlodipine in atheroprotection. Am Heart J. 141: S1-11.
Ursini F, Maiorino M, Gregolin C. 1985. The selenozyme phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 839: 62-70.
Valko M, Morris H, Cronin MTD. 2005. Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem. 12: 1161-1208.
Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncola J, Izakovic M, Mazura M. 2006. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact. 160: 1-40.
Vincken JP, Heng L, de Groot A, Gruppen H. 2007. Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom. Phytochemistry. 68: 275-297.
Wang CY, Ma FL, Liu JT, Tian JW, Fu FH. 2007. Protective effect of salvianic acid a on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 30: 44-7.
Wang JK, Ye JA, Liu JX. 2012. Effects of tea saponins on rumen microbiota, rumen fermentation, methane production and growth performance--a review. Trop Anim Health Prod. 44: 697-706.
Wang XJ, Wang ZB, Xu JX. 2005. Effect of salvianic acid A on lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability in mitochondria. J Ethnopharmacol. 97: 441-445.
Wei X, Wang L, Zhang Y, Qi X, Wang X, Ding X, et al. 2014. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of sesame (Sesamum indicum) from a genome survey. Molecules. 19: 5150-5162.
Williams CA, Goldstone F, Greenham J. 1996. Flavonoids, cinnamic acids and coumarins from the different tissues and medicinal preparations of Taraxacum officinale. Phytochemistry. 42: 121-127.
Woo MN, Bok SH, Choi MS. 2009. Hypolipidemic and body fat-lowering effects of Fatclean in rats fed a high-fat diet. Food Chem Toxicol. 47: 2076-2082.
Xia XH, Liu M, Zhang ZM, Wu ZJ, Pan SY. 2009. Anti-oxidant activity of hydrophilic components of Danshen root in vitro. Chinese Archive of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 27: 1085-1087.
Xiong JP, Guo HW, Gu XF. 2004. Study on effect of hawthorn fruit extraction on human blood lipids. Chinese Journal of Public Health. 20: 1469-1470.
Yi L, Chen CY, Jin X, Zhang T, Zhou Y, Zhang QY, et al. 2012. Differential suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells by several subclasses of flavonoids. Biochimie. 94: 2035-2044.
Yin J, Zhang H, Ye J. 2008. Traditional chinese medicine in treatment of metabolic syndrome. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 8: 99-111.
Yoshikawa M, Morikawa T, Nakamura S, Li N, Li X, Matsuda H. 2007. Bioactive Saponins and glycosides. XXV. Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the seeds of tea plant (Camellia sinensis). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 55: 57-63.
Yoshikawa M, Morikawa T, Yamamoto K, Kato Y, Nagatomo A, Matsuda H. 2005. Floratheasaponins A-C, acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides with anti-hyperlipidemic activities from flowers of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis). J Nat Prod. 68: 1360-1365.
Yuan XZ, Meng YT, Zeng GM, Fang YY, Shi JG. 2008. Evaluation of tea-derived biosurfactant on removing heavy metal ions from dilute wastewater by ion flotation. Colloids and Surfaces A- Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 317: 256-261.
Zhang J, Kang MJ, Kim MJ, Kim ME, Song JH, Lee YM, et al. 2008. Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of taraxacum officinale in vitro and in vivo. Nutr Res Pract. 2: 200-3.
Zhang Z, Chang Q, Zhu M, Huang Y, Ho WKK, Chen ZY. 2001. Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits. J Nutr Biochem. 12: 144-152.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔