(3.237.97.64) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/03 07:29
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:劉興州
研究生(外文):Liu Shing Chou
論文名稱:金屬加工廠作業環境空氣中總細菌濃度改善研究
論文名稱(外文):Intervention study on airborne bacterial concentration in metalworking environment
指導教授:賈台寶
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:職業安全與防災研究所
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境防災學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:金屬加工廠金屬加工液生物氣膠細菌安德森採樣器
外文關鍵詞:metal processingmetalworking fluidsbioaerosolsbacteriaAnderson sampler
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:180
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:23
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
I
中文摘要 目前機械業已成為比重最高之主領產業,但長期暴露在金屬加工廠經常使用之金屬加工液所產生的生物氣膠,可能會對員工健康構成重大威脅。本研究目的為結合問卷、作業觀察及環境測定了解生物氣膠暴露危害,透過加裝局部排氣及改善操作模式之介入,分析作業環境空氣中細菌濃度及粒徑分布之改善情形。 本研究以某大型精密金屬加工廠為研究對象,以問卷調查了解員工自覺症狀(n=41),採樣區域包括一樓X、Y區及二樓Z區,使用安德森單階式採樣器及六階式採樣器評估金屬加工廠作業環境中之細菌濃度及生物氣膠粒徑分布。介入方式為加裝機台之局部排氣裝置與操作模式改善,以SPSS統計軟體比較分析介入前後之細菌濃度與粒徑分佈改善之情形。 研究結果顯示金屬加工廠加裝局部排氣前大部分細菌濃度小於美國ACGIH建議之室內空氣細菌濃度標準(1,000 CFU/m3),且多為風險等級2以下之細菌。細菌暴露以Z區員工較高。加裝局部排氣裝置前後大部分細菌濃度沒有顯著差異,對降低作業人員細菌暴露量的效果未如預期,不當空氣噴槍使用為高細菌濃度產生之主要原因。於廠內Z區操作模式介入改善成效為其總帄均細菌濃度顯著低於改善前(p<0.01)。粒徑濃度分佈結果,也發現粒徑小於7μm的細菌濃度大幅降低。菌種鑑定結果發現金屬加工液含有葡萄糖非發酵革蘭氏陰性桿菌,可能與操作人員感染呼吸道症狀有關連。
II
除了作業人員於加工過程中,配戴適當之口罩及防護衣物能有效降低暴露金屬加工液危害的風險外,歸納金屬加工廠內細菌濃度影響因素包括機台種類、加工方式、與通風換氣方式等。其中不當操作會使員工短時間暴露於高濃度之細菌,建議金屬加工廠調整加工方式、空氣噴槍使用方式,或安置小型吸氣裝置於噴槍使用處,避免高濃度細菌之產生為要。 關鍵字:金屬加工廠、金屬加工液、生物氣膠、細菌、安德森採樣器
Abstract Currently machinery has become the highest proportion of primary industry in Taiwan. Long-term exposure may put a significant threat to the health of employees exposed to bio-aerosol produced by metalworking fluids during metal processing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioaerosol exposure hazards based on the questionnaire survey, job observation and environmental measurements. Intervention through the installation of local exhaust ventilation and improving operating mode were conducted to analyze their effects on the airborne bacteria concentration and the size distribution of the bioaerosol. 41 workers in a large precision metal processing plant were recruited in this study. Questionnaires were administered to collect personal/occupational information and perceived symptoms. The studied area included X, Y regions in first floor, and Z region in second floor. A single-stage and six-stage Andersen samplers were applied to assess the bacteria concentration and the size distribution of bio-aerosol in the metal working environment. The installation of local exhaust ventilation and improving operating mode were used as intervention methods. SPSS 12.0 statistical analysis software was used to compare the difference of bacteria concentrations and size distribution pre- and post-intervention. The results showed that most bacteria concentrations were less than the recommended bacteria concentration in indoor air standards proposed by the U.S. ACGIH (500CFU/m3) before the installation of local exhaust mechanical processing. Most bacteria were graded less than RG 2. The bacteria concentration was higher in Z region. There was no significant difference in bacteria concentrations before and after the installation of local exhaust, which represented the intervention effect on reducing bacteria exposure was not as expected. Improper use of air guns were the main reason for higher bacteria exposure. The bacteria concentration was significantly lowered in Z region with improved mode of operation (p = 0.028). The analysis of particle size distribution also showed that the particle size of bioaerosol less than 7μm was substantially reduced. Glucose non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli in metalworking fluids was identified, therefore, the workers may be infected with respiratory symptoms related to the presence of this bacilli.
In addition to wearing appropriate masks and personal protective equipments can effectively reduce the risk of exposure to metalworking fluid hazards. The factors which might affect the bacteria concentration during metal processing include the type of machine, processing methods, and the domestic ventilation.
IV
Among these factors, improper operation will make employees exposed to higher concentrations of bacteria within a short time. It is recommended to adjust the metal processing methods and the use of air gun, or installing a small exhaust device in front of the processing area to avoid the exposure of high concentrations of bacteria. Keywords: metal processing, metalworking fluids, bioaerosols, bacteria, Anderson sampler
V
目 錄
中文摘要 ................................................................................................................... I
Abstract ................................................................................................................... III
目 錄 ................................................................................................................. V
圖目錄 .................................................................................................................... IX
表目錄 .................................................................................................................... XI
第一章 前言 ............................................................................................................ 1
1-1 研究背景 ................................................................................................... 1
1-2研究目的 .................................................................................................... 3
第二章 文獻回顧 .................................................................................................... 5
2-1生物氣膠的危害 ........................................................................................ 5
2-1-1生物氣膠引起的症狀 .................................................................... 6
2-1-2職場生物氣膠暴露危害 ................................................................ 8
2-2金屬加工液的危害 .................................................................................. 10
2-2-1金屬加工液的產業應用 .............................................................. 10
2-2-2金屬加工液的種類 ...................................................................... 11
2-2-3金屬加工液霧滴暴露危害 .......................................................... 13
2-2-4金屬加工液生物氣膠暴露危害 .................................................. 16
2-3生物氣膠採樣器之選擇 .......................................................................... 19
2-3-1生物氣膠採樣器簡介 .................................................................. 19
VI
2-3-2採樣時間與流量 .......................................................................... 21
第三章 研究方法 .................................................................................................. 23
3-1研究設計與架構 ...................................................................................... 23
3-2研究對象 .................................................................................................. 26
3-3研究工具 .................................................................................................. 28
3-3-1問卷調查 ...................................................................................... 29
3-3-2安德森單階式採樣器 .................................................................. 30
3-3-3安德森六階式採樣器 .................................................................. 32
3-3-4培養基 .......................................................................................... 34
3-3-5室內外環境因子測定儀 .............................................................. 34
3-4採樣流程 .................................................................................................. 37
3-4-1安德森單(六)階式採樣器採樣流程 ...................................... 37
3-4-2室內外環境因子測定儀採樣流程 .............................................. 40
3-4-3金屬加工液採樣流程 .................................................................. 41
3-5樣本處理與菌種鑑定 .............................................................................. 43
3-5-1樣本處理與保存 .......................................................................... 43
3-5-2菌種鑑定 ...................................................................................... 45
3-6統計分析方法 .......................................................................................... 47
3-7研究限制 .................................................................................................. 48
VII
第四章 結果 .......................................................................................................... 49
4-1操作人員基本資料 .................................................................................. 49
4-1-1工作環境認知調查 ...................................................................... 51
4-1-2作業模式調查 .............................................................................. 53
4-2機械廠生物氣膠採樣結果 ...................................................................... 57
4-2-1環境因子測量 .............................................................................. 57
4-2-2設置局部排氣前後差異 .............................................................. 59
4-2-3金屬加工液的細菌濃度分析 ...................................................... 61
4-2-4操作模式對生物氣膠濃度影響分析 .......................................... 62
4-3機械廠採樣菌種鑑定結果 ...................................................................... 75
第五章 討論 .......................................................................................................... 77
5-1呼吸道症狀之比較分析 .......................................................................... 77
5-1-1員工暴露狀況 .............................................................................. 77
5-1-2自覺症狀 ...................................................................................... 77
5-2作業場所之菌種 ...................................................................................... 79
5-3加裝局部排氣前後比較分析 .................................................................. 81
5-4操作模式改善前後之差異分析 .............................................................. 84
第六章 結論與建議 .............................................................................................. 87
6-1結論 .......................................................................................................... 87
VIII
6-2建議 .......................................................................................................... 89
參考文獻 ................................................................................................................ 91
附錄一 菌種鑑定 .................................................................................................. 99
附錄二 問卷 ........................................................................................................ 101
IX
圖目錄
圖3-1 研究架構圖 ................................................................................................ 25
圖3-2 廠內作業機台帄面配置圖 ........................................................................ 27
圖3-3採樣流程圖 ................................................................................................. 28
圖3-4 安德森單階式採樣器作動示意圖 ............................................................ 30
圖3-5 安德森單階式生物氣膠採樣器 ................................................................ 31
圖3-6 安德森六階式生物氣膠採樣器 ................................................................ 32
圖3-7安德森六階式採樣器作動示意圖 ............................................................. 33
圖3-8各階層採集之生物氣膠進入人體呼吸系統後存在之部位 .................... 33
圖3-9多功能環境監測器(KD Engineering Air Boxx) .................................. 36
圖3-10 TVOC分析儀(Thermo TVA1000B ) .................................................. 36
圖3-11安德森單階採樣器設置 ........................................................................... 38
圖3-12安德森六階採樣器設置 ........................................................................... 38
圖3-13總菌落計算公式 ....................................................................................... 39
圖3-14環境監測儀器設置情形 ........................................................................... 41
圖3-15金屬加工液稀釋步驟 ............................................................................... 44
圖4-1不同採樣區域之細菌濃度 ......................................................................... 58
圖4-2機台加裝局部排氣前後工作場所不同區域空氣中總細菌濃度 ............ 60
圖4-3 J、K、L作業點改善前後之細菌濃度變化圖(上下午)..................... 64
X
圖4-4 J採樣點改善前後不同粒徑細菌濃度分佈圖(上午) .......................... 67
圖4-5 J採樣點改善前後不同粒徑細菌濃度分佈圖(下午) .......................... 67
圖4-6 J採樣點改善前後當日辦公室及戶外細菌濃度 ...................................... 68
圖4-7 K採樣點改善前後不同粒徑細菌濃度分佈圖(上午) ......................... 70
圖4-8 K採樣點改善前後不同粒徑細菌濃度分佈圖(下午) ......................... 70
圖4-9 K採樣點改善前後當日辦公室及戶外細菌濃度 ..................................... 71
圖4-10 L採樣點改善前後不同粒徑細菌濃度分佈圖(上午) ....................... 73
圖4-11 L採樣點改善前後不同粒徑細菌濃度分佈圖(下午) ....................... 73
圖4-12 L採樣點改善前後當日辦公室及戶外細菌濃度 ................................... 74
XI
表目錄
表3-1各量測儀器之量測項目與量測範圍及原理 ............................................. 36
表4-1 機械廠操作人員不同變項人數分佈 ........................................................ 50
表4-2 操作人員對工作環境認知調查 ................................................................ 52
表4-3 操作人員作業模式調查 ............................................................................ 55
表4-4 操作人員自覺症狀調查 ............................................................................ 56
表4-5 環保署室內空氣品質標準規定 ................................................................ 57
表4-6 環境因子測量結果 .................................................................................... 57
表4-7 採樣點之操作機台金屬加工液總菌數 .................................................... 61
表4-8 X、Y、Z三區環境空氣採樣總菌落數 ................................................... 63
表4-9 Z區操作模式改善前後之細菌濃度差異分析 ......................................... 64
表4-10 J、K、L採樣點操作模式改善前後之細菌濃度差異分析................... 65
表4-11 機械廠及室內外採樣的菌種型態 .......................................................... 76
91
參考文獻
Ameille, J., Wild, P., Choudat, D., Ohl, G., Vaucouleur, J. F., Chanut, J. C., Brochard, P., (1995). "Respiratory symptoms, ventilatory impairment, and bronchial reactivity in oil mist-exposed automobile workers." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 27(2): 247-256.
Andersen, A. A., (1958). "New sampler for the collection sizing, and enumeration of viable airborne particles." J. Becteriol (76): 471-484.
Chen, M. R., Tsai, P. J., Chang, C. C., Shih, T. S., Lee, W. J., Liao, P. C., (2007). "Parti cle size distributions of oil mists in workplace atmospheres and their exposure concentrations to workers in a fastener manufacturing industry." Journal of Hazardous Materials 146(1–2): 393-398.
Cullen, M. R., Balmes, J. R., Robins, J. M., Smith, G. J. W., (1981). "Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 2(1): 51-58.
Darus, A., Manab, F. S. A., (2013). "Symptoms of sick building syndrome, occupational impact and quality of indoor air in an office environment in Kuala Lumpur." Journal of the University of Malaya Medical Centre 16(SPECIAL): 33-34.
Dasch, J., Ang, C. C., Mood, M., Knowles, D., (2002). "Variables affecting mist generation from metal removal fluids." Lubrication Engineering 58(3): 10-17. De Boer, E. M., Van Ketel W. G., Bruynzeel, D. P., (1989). "Dermatoses in metal workers. (I). Irritant contact dermatitis." Contact Dermatitis 20(3): 212-218.
Douwes, J., (2003). "Bioaerosol Health Effects and Exposure Assessment: Progress and Prospects." Annals of Occupational Hygiene 47(3): 187-188.
Fisk, W. J., Mirer, A. G., Mendell, M. J., (2009). "Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates." Indoor Air 19(2):
92
159-165.
Fung, F., Hughson, W. G., (2003). "Health effects of indoor fungal bioaerosol exposure." Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 18(7): 535.
Gauthier, S. L. (2003). "Metalworking Fluids: Oil Mist and Beyond." Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 18(11): 818-824.
Gilbert, Y., M. Veillette, M., Meriaux, A., Lavoie, J., Cormier, Y., Duchaine, C., (2010). "Metalworking fluid-related aerosols in machining plants." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 7(5): 280-289.
Godderis, L., Deschuyffeleer, T., Roelandt, H., Veulemans, H., Moens, G., (2008). "Exposure to metalworking fluids and respiratory and dermatological complaints in a secondary aluminium plant." International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 81(7): 845-850.
Gorny, R. L., Szponar, B., Larsson, L., Pehrson, C., Prazmo, Z., Dutkiewicz, J., (2004). "Metalworking fluid bioaerosols at selected workplaces in a steelworks." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 46(4): 400-403.
Greaves, I. A., Eisen, E. A., Smith, T. J., Pothier, L. J., Kriebel, D., Woskie, S. R., Kennedy, S. M., Shalat, S., Monson, R. R. , (1997). "Respiratory health of automobile workers exposed to metal-working fluid aerosols: Respiratory symptoms." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 32(5): 450-459.
Gruvberger, B., Isaksson, M., Frick, M., Pontén, A. N. N., Bruze, M. , (2003). "Occupational dermatoses in a metalworking plant." Contact Dermatitis 48(2): 80-86.
Hagemeyer, O., Bünger, J., Van Kampen, V., Raulf, H. M., Drath, C., Merget, R., Brüning, T., Broding, H. C., (2013). Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: Relevance of molds and actinomycetes. 788: 313-320.
National Institutes of Health (2013). "NIH guidelines for research involving recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules (NIH guidelines)." NIH
93
Guidelines: 1-135.
Hsu, B. M., Chen, C. H., Wan, M. T., Cheng, H. W., (2006). "Legionella prevalence in hot spring recreation areas of Taiwan." Water Research 40(17): 3267-3269.
Ivens, U. I., Breum, N. O., Ebbehøj, N., Nielsen, B. H., Poulsen, Otto M., Würtz, H., (1999). "Exposure-response relationship between gastrointestinal problems among waste collectors and bioaerosol exposure." Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment &; Health 25(3): 238.
Juozaitis, A., Willeke, K., Grinshpun, S. A., Donnelly, J., (1994). "Impaction onto a glass slide or agar versus impingement into a liquid for the collection and recovery of airborne microorganisms." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60(3): 861-870.
Kennedy, S. M., Greaves, I. A., Kriebel, D., Eisen, E. A., Smith, T. J., Woskie, S. R., (1989). "Acute pulmonary responses among automobile workers exposed to aerosols of machining fluids." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 15(6): 627-641.
Lacey, J., Dutkiewicz, J., (1994). "Bioaerosols and occupational lung disease." Journal of Aerosol Science 25(8): 1371-1404.
Li, C. S., Lin, Y. C., (1999). "Sampling performance of impactors for fungal spores and yeast cells." Aerosol Science and Technology 31(2-3): 226-230.
Lillienberg, L., Burdorf, A., Mathiasson, L., Thorneby, L., (2008). "Exposure to metalworking fluid aerosols and determinants of exposure." The Annals of occupational hygiene 52(7): 597-605.
Lindsley, W. G., Blachere, F. M., Thewlis, R. E., Vishnu, A., Davis, K. A., Cao, G., Palmer, J. E., Clark, K. E., Fisher, M. A., Khakoo, R., Beezhold, D. H., (2010). "Measurements of airborne influenza virus in aerosol particles from human coughs." PLoS ONE 5(11).
Liu, H. M., Lin, Y. H., Tsai, M. Y., Lin, W. H., (2010). "Occurrence and
94
characterization of culturable bacteria and fungi in metalworking environments." Aerobiologia 26(4): 339-350.
May, K. R., Harper, G. J., (1957). "The efficiency of various liquid impinger samplers in bacterial aerosols." British Journal of Industrial Medicine 14(4): 287-297.
Meza, F., Chen, L., Hudson, N., (2013). "Investigation of respiratory and dermal symptoms associated with metal working fluids at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 56(12): 1394-1401.
Cedric, M., (2006).譯者:王聖予,李淑英,林智暉., "醫用微生物學 " 微生物學. 藝軒圖書出版社.台北.
Mirer, F. E., (2010). "New evidence on the health hazards and control of metalworking fluids since completion of the osha advisory committee report." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 53(8): 792-801.
Moore, J. S., Christensen, M., Wilson, R. W., Wallace Jr, R. J., Zhang, Y., Nash, D. R., Shelton, B., (2000). "Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids: Involvement of a possible new taxon of rapidly growing mycobacteria." American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 61(2): 205-207.
O'Brien, D. M., (2003). "Aerosol mapping of a facility with multiple cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis: demonstration of mist reduction and a possible dose/response relationship." Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 18(11): 947-952.
Park, D., Choi, B., Kim, S., Kwag, H., Joo, K., Jeong, J., (2005). "Exposure assessment to suggest the cause of sinusitis developed in grinding operations utilizing soluble metalworking fluids." Journal of Occupational Health 47(4): 319-326.
95
Park, D. U., Jin, K. W., Koh, D. H., Kim, B. K., Kim, K. S., Park, D. Y., (2008). "A survey for rhinitis in an automotive ring manufacturing plant." Industrial Health 46(4): 397-403.
Park, H., Lee, I., (2010). "Microbial exposure assessment in sawmill, livestock feed industry, and metal working fluids handling industry." Safety and Health at Work 1(2): 183-184.
Polat, Y., Ergin, C., Kaleli, I., Pinar, A., (2007). "Investigation of Legionella pneumophila seropositivity in the professional long distance drivers as a risky occupation." Riskli bir Meslek Olarak Profesyonel Uzun Yol Sürücülerinde Legionella Pneumophila Seropozitifliǧinin Araştιrιlmasι 41(2): 211-218.
Robertson, A. S., Weir, D. C., Burge, P. S., (1988). "Occupational asthma due to oil mists." Thorax 43(3): 200-205.
siti, h. y., (2008). "Evaluation of Worker Exposures to Noise, Metalworking Fluids, Welding Fumes, and Acids During Metal Conduit Manufacturing." Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA2006-0332-3058 1-39.
Rongo, L. M., Msamanga, G. I., Burstyn, I., Barten, F., Dolmans, W. M., Heederik, D.,(2004). "Exposure to wood dust and endotoxin in small-scale wood industries in Tanzania." Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 14(7): 544.
Rosenman, K. D., Reilly, M. J., Kalinowski, D., (1997). "Work-related asthma and respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to metal-working fluids." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 32(4): 325-331.
Sokolović, D. S., Höflinger, W., Šečerov Sokolović, R. M., Sokolović, S. M., Sakulski, D., (2013). "Experimental study of mist generated from metalworking fluids emulsions." Journal of Aerosol Science 61: 70-80. Sujová, E. (2012). "Contamination of the working air via metalworking fluids aerosols." Engineering Review 32(1): 9-15.
96
Thornburg, J., Leith, David., (2000). "Mist generation during metal machining." Journal of Tribology 122(3): 544-549.
Tisch Environmental, Inc., (2013). "Cascade Impactor Series 10-8XX Viable (Microbial) Particle Sizing Instruments " TE-10-800.
Wang, H., Reponen, T., Lee, S. A.,White, E., Grinshpun, S. A., (2007). "Size distribution of airborne mist and endotoxin-containing particles in metalworking fluid environments." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 4(3): 157-160.
Wargocki, P., Sundell, J., Bischof, W., Brundrett, G., Fanger, P. O., Gyntelberg, F., Hanssen, S. O., Harrison, P., Pickering, A., Seppänen, O., Wouters, P., (2002). "Ventilation and health in non-industrial indoor environments: Report from a European Multidisciplinary Scientific Consensus Meeting (EUROVEN)." Indoor Air 12(2): 113-128.
Zock, J. P., Heederik, D., Doekes, G., (1998). "Evaluation of chronic respiratory effects in the potato processing industry: Indications of a healthy worker effect?" Occupational and Environmental Medicine 55(12): 823. 戴鴻名, 陳繼棠,陳俊賢,陳建文,林宏偉。 (2013)。「精密機械產業量測設備技術」第450期: 20-29。
行政院環保署 (2013)。 「室內空氣品質標準」室內空氣品質管理法 第二條: 1-2。
李芝珊 (1999)「室內環境氣膠評估和室內空氣品質標準研討」。 國科會/ 環保署科技合作研究計劃期末報告 NSC88-EPA-Z-002-009: 6-28。
李發結,朱芳業 (2005)。「臨床上常見具運動性葡萄糖非發酵菌的實驗室傳統鑑定」。醫檢會報:8-15。
97
林雅晴 (1998)。「衝擊器之生物氣膠採樣效率」。國立台灣大學公共衛生學院 環境衛生研究所。
張湘儀 (2013)。 「金屬加工液作業環境中細菌暴露特性研究」。中國醫藥大學碩士論文: 1-3。
許菁珊,盧明俊,凌櫻玫,黃大駿。(2007)。「學生餐廳內生物氣膠污染現況之調查」。嘉南學報 第三十三期:179-186。
勞工衛生組 (1996)。「高濃度生物氣膠採樣技術之評估」。勞工安全衛生研究所 IOSH85-H301:55-57。
黃智清 (2010)。「室內空氣品質 CO、CO2 及 O3 監測儀器及直讀儀器相對準確度測詴查核」。國立台北科技大學境工程與管理研究所碩士學位論文:1-174。
賈台寶,張承明 (2010)。「機械廠化學性作業危害預防措施研究」。勞工安全衛生研究所 99年度研究計畫(IOSH99-S303):1-50。
賈台寶,萬國華,劉興州 (2013)。「某機械加工廠空氣中總細菌濃度分布及其影響因子探」。台中市職場安全衛生實務論文發表 職業安全衛生技術實務類:1-9。
劉思承 (2007)。「金屬切削廠中金屬加工液之生物氣膠特性評估」。中國醫藥大學 碩士論文 編號:DOSH-0202 6-7。
賴全裕,洪粕宸,羅仕麟 (2013)。「木材加工廠中生物氣膠特性研究」。勞工
98
委員會勞工安全衛生研究所計畫 IOSH101-H315:8-136。
環檢所 (2005)。「揮發性有機物洩漏測定方法」。NIEA A706.72C:1-6。
環檢所 (2012)。「室內空氣中總細菌數檢測方法」。NIEA E301.11C: 1-4。
環檢所 (2013)。「水中總菌落數檢測方法-塗抹法」。 NIEA E203.56B:1-8。
簡瑋銘 (2007)。「吸收式除濕系統對室內生物氣膠移除率之評估」。中原大學 化學工程學系 碩士學位論文:12-13。
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔