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研究生:張琬甄
研究生(外文):CHANG,WAN-CHEN
論文名稱:土壤及農作物中砷物種之監測及風險評估
論文名稱(外文):The monitoring and risk assessment of arsenic species in soil and crops
指導教授:黃文鑑黃文鑑引用關係
指導教授(外文):HUANG,WINN-JUNG
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:職業安全與防災研究所
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境防災學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:無機砷有機砷稻米雜糧液相層析儀串聯感應偶合電漿質譜儀風險評估
外文關鍵詞:arsenicinorganic arsenicorganic arsenicricegrainsHPLC-ICP/MSrisk assessment
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稻米為人類的主要糧食之一,尤其亞洲地區之民眾又以稻米為主食,而因為工業化的汙染導致含砷地下水滲入土壤,進而被植物所吸收累積於穀物中,因此必須釐清稻米是否受到砷的汙染,所以本研究針對全台之稻米及雜糧分析其總砷及砷物種(有機砷(一甲基砷酸(MMA)、二甲基砷酸(DMA))、無機砷(As(III)、As(V)))之濃度分佈情形進行調查。
鑒於我國行政院環境保護署環境檢驗所、農委會、衛福部均尚無砷物種處理及檢測之標準方法。本研究將彙整參考國內、外期刊發表之各項前處理與分析方法進行農作物砷物種檢測方法之開發。結果顯示,測試不同萃取溶劑後發現使用蒸餾水能成功將四種砷以液相層析儀串聯感應偶合電漿質譜儀(HPLC-ICP/MS)分離定量之,且回收率皆在80-120%的範圍。本研究分析本省之白米總砷平均濃度為118.1 μg/kg,糙米總砷平均濃度為215.1 μg/kg,由此可看出糙米總砷含量相對比白米還高。其中發現白米在南投縣(250.0 μg/kg)與高雄市(210.0 μg/kg),濃度均有高於聯合國食品法典委員會訂定之白米標準200μg/kg現象;而糙米濃度則以雲林縣(330.0 μg/kg)與嘉義縣(310.0 μg/kg)高於糙米標準300 μg/kg。另外在砷物種分析方面,其結果顯示稻米中砷物種以As(III)含量最高,其次依序為DMA>As(V)>MMA;其中白米無機砷佔總砷比例為82%,糙米無機砷佔總砷比例為89%。
雜糧分析結果顯示,玉米總砷濃度平均為26.5μg/kg;甘藷的總砷平均濃度為64.5μg/kg;落花生總砷濃度平均為132.6μg/kg;紅豆總砷濃度平均為130.0μg/kg。本研究進一步將各縣市之雜糧砷濃度進行比較,可看出落花生平均濃度最高,其次依序為紅豆>甘藷>玉米。另在砷物種分析方面,其結果顯示雜糧中砷物種幾乎以As(III)含量最高,其次依序為As(V)>DMA>MMA,然而卻只有玉米是以DMA含量為最高。玉米中無機砷佔總砷比例為47.2%;甘藷之無機砷佔總砷比例為69.5%;落花生中無機砷佔總砷比例為70.2%;紅豆中無機砷佔總砷比例為91.3%。
另研究農作物各部位與其種植土壤之砷物種分析結果,發現在土壤和農作物根、莖、葉等大多以As(V)佔總砷比例最高。而其數據經不同介質或飲食攝入之砷致癌風險推估結果,顯示總攝取量之健康風險危害指標皆大於1×10-6,民眾在選擇雜糧時建議每次都選購不同品牌或不同產地之產品,以分散食入之風險。
Rice is one of the main foods in the world. Because the groundwater containing arsenic contamination of industrialization led to seep into the soil, and then be absorbed by plants accumulate in cereals. Required to confirm whether the contamination of arsenic in rice. Therefore, in the present study, the concentration distribution of total arsenic and four chemical species of arsenic (As(III), As(V), DMA, and MMA) investigated for Taiwan's rice and grains.
In view non-standard methods of pre-treatment and detection of arsenic species. This study will compile the various pre-processing and analysis methods to develop crops foreign journals arsenic species detection methods. The results showed that after testing different extraction solvents found using distilled water can be successfully four arsenic by high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP/MS) quantification of the separation and recovery are at 80-120% range.This study analyzes the province of the average concentration of total arsenic in rice 118.1 μg/kg, the average concentration of total arsenic brown rice 215.1 μg/kg, which can be seen the total arsenic content in brown rice is relatively higher than white rice. Which found that rice in Nantou County (250.0 μg/kg) and Kaohsiung City (210.0 μg/kg), the concentration is higher than the UN Codex Alimentarius Commission has set the standard white rice 200μg/kg phenomenon; while brown rice in Yunlin County (330.0 μg/kg) and Chiayi County (310.0 μg/kg) is higher than the brown rice standard 300 μg/kg. Also in the analysis of arsenic species, the results show that arsenic in rice species to As(III) the highest, followed by DMA> As(V)> MMA; rice highest percentage is in inorganic As (82%), brown rice highest percentage is in inorganic As (89%).
Grains analysis showed that the average concentration of total arsenic corn 26.5 μg/kg; sweet potato average total arsenic concentration 64.5 μg/kg; groundnut total arsenic concentrations averaged 132.6 μg/kg; red beans total arsenic concentrations averaged 130.0 μg/kg. This study further the arsenic concentration of grains counties were compared, we can see the highest average concentration of groundnut, the second one is red beans> sweet> corn. Also in the analysis of arsenic species, the results show that grains of arsenic species almost to As(III) the highest, followed sequentially to As(V)> DMA> MMA, but it has only the highest content of corn is DMA. Corn lowest percentage is in inorganic As (47.2%); sweet potato highest percentage is in inorganic As (69.5%); groundnut highest percentage is in inorganic As (70.2%); red beans highest percentage is in inorganic As (91.3%).
Another study of various parts of the crop and its planting soil analysis results arsenic species found in the soil and crop roots, stems, leaves mostly in As(V) the highest proportion of total arsenic. Arsenic cancer risk data by the different media or dietary intake of estimated results show the total intake of harmful health risk indicators were greater than 1×10-6, the people in the choice of grains is recommended every time to buy a different brand or a different origin of products, to diversify into the food risks.
摘要 I
Abstract III
目錄 V
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 XI
第一章 研究背景與目的 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1砷的特性 3
2-2砷的來源 8
2-3砷的毒性 13
2-4砷的規範 17
2-5食品砷含量 21
2-6砷與水稻 25
第三章 研究方法 34
3-1實驗設計架構與流程圖 34
3-2採樣策略及規劃 36
3-2-1採樣流程 39
3-2-2農作物根莖葉等組織採樣 39
3-3-3農作物栽種地之土壤採樣 39
3-2-4樣本保存 40
3-3實驗藥品和儀器設備 42
3-3-1實驗藥品 42
3-3-2實驗儀器設備 43
3-4總砷之前處理及分析方法 44
3-4-1總砷前處理方法 44
4-4-2總砷分析方法 45
3-5砷物種之前處理及分析方法 48
3-5-1砷物種前處理方法 48
3-5-2砷物種之分析方法 49
3-5-3品保與品管(QA/QC) 54
3-6多介質模式評估方法 56
3-6-1多介質模式(土壤、葉及動物估算) 57
6-3-2暴露劑量之估計 59
第四章 結果與討論 65
4-1砷物種萃取方法探討 65
4-2稻米總砷分析結果 67
4-3雜糧總砷分析結果 75
4-4稻米砷物種分析結果 84
4-5雜糧之砷物種分析結果 95
4-6農作物及栽種土壤砷物種分布 106
4-7多介質健康風險評估 108
第五章 結論 110
參考文獻 112
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