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研究生:廖燕鈴
研究生(外文):Yen-Ling Liao
論文名稱:含防曬劑微脂粒之製備及其功效
論文名稱(外文):Preparation and Sun Protective Effect of Liposome Encapsulated UV Filters
指導教授:詹錦豐詹錦豐引用關係李珮琪李珮琪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Feng ChanPei-Chi Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:化妝品科技研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:美容學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:化妝品基劑植物萃取物微脂粒防曬劑SPF 值防曬係數辛基甲氧基桂皮酸鹽二苯甲酮
外文關鍵詞:Cosmetics base oilPlant extractLiposomeSunscreenSPF valueUVA/UVB ratioOctyl Methoxy cinnamateBenzophenone-3
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本研究大量篩選化妝品配方中常用20種植物萃取液、油相之19種植物油、8種矽氧化合與16種合成脂等基劑之紫外光吸光性,並探討基劑選擇對乳化配方SPF值的影響。
實驗首先選用20種植物萃取原料進行測定,其中洋甘菊(Chamomile Extract)、鼠尾草(Sage Extract)和常春藤(Ivy Extract)三種原料有較明顯的吸光特性,在340 nm的吸光值介於0.6-0.2,在300 nm的吸光值介於0.8-0.4。篩選19種植物油比較,其中玫瑰籽油(Rose Hips Oil)、芝麻油(Sesame Oil)、小麥胚芽油(Wheat Germ Oil)及蓖麻油(Castor Oil) 4種有較明顯吸收,在300 nm的吸光值介於1.4-0.4,玫瑰籽油與蓖麻油在340 nm的吸光值為0.3,顯現應用潛力。
在矽氧化合物部分選用8種進行比較,發現唯有Dimethicone Copolyol在兩波段具有吸光性,340 nm的吸光值為0.54,300 nm的吸光值為0.59,其它矽氧化合物的吸光值都小於0.1。最後篩選16種合成脂,其中只有三異硬脂酸甘油酯(Glycerin triisostearate)於300 nm吸光值為0.1,其餘皆無明顯吸收。
本研究以吸光特性極佳的油脂與萃取液入O/W乳化配方,並以體外(in vitro)法測定其SPF值,結果顯示OR–lotion具有良好防護能力,為玫瑰籽乳液。而添加洋甘菊、鼠尾草及常春藤為ORE–lotion(SPF值1.45)優於未添加(SPF值1.24)17%,ORE–lotion之UVA/UVB Ratio及Curve Area分別優於未添加18%及81%,因此防曬配方同時添加油脂與萃取液能提升防護之作用。研究顯示,油脂與萃取液具有促進產品防曬功能潛力,提供化妝品研發之重要參考。
本研究將微脂粒(Liposome)載體技術應用於防曬化妝品之製備,首先嘗試比較五種不同來源卵磷脂之原料,研究發現最佳卵磷脂原料為美國Solae公司之Soy Lecithin Fluid ,隨之搭配助溶劑 1,3-丁二醇(1,3-Butylene glycol,簡稱1,3-BG),將微脂粒包覆疏水性防曬劑辛基甲氧基桂皮酸鹽(Octyl methoxycinnamate;OMC)及二苯甲酮(Benzophenone-3),以期提高防曬效能。而本研究利用高壓均質技術製備包覆微脂粒,探討有無添加助溶劑、不同脂質比例及防曬劑量不同,對微脂粒之粒徑大小、防曬效能及安定性之影響。
研究發現,有添加1,3-BG的微脂粒配方之粒徑比無添加1,3-BG減少0.3~97.6%,可推斷1,3-BG助溶劑可使配方中的脂質分散更均勻。進而利用微脂粒包覆OMC與Benzophenone-3(濃度為10%~50%),粒徑範圍約230~300 nm,且將未包覆與包覆防曬劑入O/W、W/O之熱製及冷製乳化配方,並以體外(in vitro)法測定其SPF值,結果O/W之熱製乳化配方L-OMC 50-lotion比未包覆OMC(UOMC –lotion)大5.2倍。另改變脂質濃度(2%~4%),發現對粒徑影響不大,但體外測定SPF值時則是L-OMC 502-lotion表現最為理想。由以上研究得知欲得較佳防曬效能之微脂粒組成,條件為添加1,3-BG助溶劑,脂質濃度2%。藉由UV破壞加速試驗(302 nm,17.5 J∕cm2曝曬二小時),未包覆之OMC防曬劑衰退31%,微脂粒包覆OMC只衰退12%。由此可證本研究所製備之微脂粒載體可增加化學防曬劑之光安定性。
包覆單方防曬結果顯示,UVB及UVA防曬能力,O/W及W/O之冷製分別為L-OMC 50-lotion(SPF值為10.56±0.84、UVA/UVB Ratio 為0.243±0.02)及L-OMC 50-lotion(SPF值為17.27±0.34、UVA/UVB Ratio 為0.231±0.02),而在安定性方面分別哀退8%及4%皆優於未包覆防曬劑。
包覆複方防曬結果顯示,UVB及UVA防曬能力,O/W及W/O之冷製分別為L-OB 50-lotion(SPF值為12.93±0.22、UVA/UVB Ratio 為0.29±0.01)及L-OB 50-lotion(SPF值為32.25±0.64、UVA/UVB Ratio 為0.349±0.01),而在安定性方面分別哀退7%及9%皆優於未包覆防曬劑。證實包覆防曬劑可輔助防曬能力,減少防曬劑用量。
利用微脂粒包覆防曬劑後添加三種萃取液,期望達到防曬產品對紫外線UVA、UVB阻擋的範圍更加完善。添加萃取液之SPF值為36.76±0.28促進率14%,顯示適量防曬成分添加萃取液脂防曬產品可達到高UV防護力。
本研究證實以微脂粒包覆防曬,其物理特性可以達到協同作用,應用於化妝品將可減少防曬成分被光破壞、避免配方成分衝突引起的降解。因此期望透過本次研究開發安定性及高效性的防曬產品,將具有高度市場價值性。

This study aimed to explore the variation of the UV protection abilities of sunscreen products by adjusting the formula with different basic oils, plant extracts, and different combinations of raw materials under equal amount of sunscreen. Twenty kinds of plant extracts, nineteen kinds of plant oils, eight kinds of silicone compounds and sixteen kinds of synthetic esters were investigated in this study. Liposome-encapsulated UV filter were also prepared and investigated in this study, which exhibited high sun protective performance and photostability.
In the results of twenty plant extracts, chamomile, sage and ivy showed more obvious UV absorbance at 340 nm (0.6-0.2) and at 300 nm (0.8-0.4). In the results of plant oils, rose hips oil, sesame oil, wheat germ oil and castor oil showed more obvious UV absorbance at 300 nm (1.4-0.4) and at 340 nm (0.3). Among silicone compounds, only dimethicone copolyol had obvious absorbance which was 0.54 at 340 nm and 0.59 at 300 nm, respectively. The UV absorbances of other oils were less than 0.1. In the results of sixteen synthetic esters only glycerin triisostearate had obvious UV absorbance which was 0.1at 300 nm.
The UV protection parameters of three kinds of plant oils which were used as basic components in the same sunscreen formulation were compared. The results showed rose hips lotion had the best protection ability. Sun protection factor (SPF) value increased by 17% in lotion with chamomile, sage and ivy extract mixture, and the UVA/UVB ratio and curve area also are superior to the lotion without extract mixture by 18% and 81%, respectively. According to our results, both four palnt oils and three extract mixtures showed excellent potential as the basic components of sunscreen products.
Liposome-encapsulated UV filters were successfully prepared by high-pressure homogenization technique in this study. Among the five sources of lecithin ingredients, Solae Soy Lecithin Fluid demonstrated the best UV protection effect. The effets of co-solvent, lipid ratio and dose of UV filter, on liposome particle size, UV-protection efficacy and stability also were evaluated.
The particle size of liposome-encapsulated Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and Benzophenone-3 (one of oxybenzones, OB) was becoming smaller followed by addition of the 1, 3-butylene glycol co-solvent. The particle size of liposome-encapsulated OMC was between 230 nm and 300 nm. The UV protection efficacy of sunscreen formulated with liposome-encapsulated OMC was better than OMC without liposome-encapsulated sunscreen by 5.2 times. Lipid concentration showed little effect on particle size. In this study, the best preparation parameters for UV protection sunscreen were using 1, 3-butylene glycol as a co-solvent with 2% lipid. The SPF value of none liposome-encapsulated OMC sunscreen was declined in accelerated UV exposure tests. On the contrary, liposome-encapsulated OMC was only decline 12%. The reslts suggest that this novel liposome-encapsulated OMC ingredient possess excellent UV protection efficacy and photo-stability.
The UVB and UVA protection of oil in water emulsion (O/W)- and water in oil emulsion (W/O) liposome-encapsulated OMC ( L-OMC 50-lotion) were SPF value: 10.56±0.84, and 17.27±0.34;UVA/UVB Ratio:0.243±0.02, and 0.231±0.02, respectively. Both types of emulsions show very good UV protective ability. In photo-stability tests, UV protection ability of O/W L-OMC 50-lotion only decay 8% which was better than uncapsulated OMC did.
The O/W and W/O emulsion liposome-encapsulated-oxybenzone (L-OB 50-lotion), also showed very good UVB (SPF value: 12.93±0.22 and 32.25±0.64, respectively) UVA (UVA/UVB Ratio: 0.29±0.01 and 0.349±0.01, respectively) protection effect. The results of photo-stability test showed O/W- and W/O L-OMC 50-lotion only decayed 8% and 4%, which was better than uncapsulated UV filters complex did. We also showed that liposome-encapsulated- OMC and Benzophenone-3 were able to improve UV-protection efficiency with lower UV filters.
The SPF of liposome-encapsulated UV filters with extracts of Chamomile, Sage and Ivy were 36.76±0.28 increased by 14% compared to UV filters without plant extracts.The results demonstrated that these three plant extracts may greatly promote UV protective capability of UV filters.
This study showed that the physical property of liposome-encapsulated UV filters have better effecicay on UV protection and on preventing photoinstability and formulation conflict of UV filters. The novel liposome-encapsulated UV filters in this study could offer a potentially high UV protective, stable and safety sunscreen.

致謝 I
中文摘要 II
英文摘要 IV
目錄 VII
圖目錄 X
表目錄 XII
壹、前言 1
一、化妝品市場趨勢 1
二、紫外線 2
三、防曬劑之介紹 4
四、防曬係數 15
五、微脂粒 17
六、植物萃取液 21
七、油脂 23
八、雷射粒徑分析儀 25
九、研究動機 26
貳、材料與方法 27
一、研究流程 27
二、植物萃取液之紫外光吸光特性分析 28
三、基劑原料之紫外光吸光特性分析 30
四、探討防曬功效O/W乳液配方與製備 34
五、防曬劑微脂粒之製備 36
六、粒徑分析 41
七、微脂粒防曬乳製備之熱製法 42
八、微脂粒防曬乳之冷製法 44
九、包覆複方防曬乳添加萃取液 49
十、In vitro防曬係數測定 51
十一、防曬乳之光安定性測定 53
參、結果與討論 54
一、萃取液之紫外光防護能力 54
二、基劑原料之紫外光防護能力 57
三、自製O/W防曬乳液之配方設計 64
四、自製含植物油脂防曬乳液之UV防護促進性評估 65
五、自製添加植物萃取對防曬乳液之影響 66
六、助溶劑對微脂粒製備之影響 68
七、脂質濃度對微脂粒粒徑之影響 70
八、自製防曬乳配方設計之熱製法 71
九、不同脂質濃度防曬乳熱製法之防護能力 72
十、包覆防曬劑之微脂粒製備 74
十一、自製O/W防曬乳配方設計之冷製法 76
十二、自製W/O防曬乳配方設計之冷製法 76
十三、單方防曬乳之防護能力影響 77
十四、複方防曬乳之防護能力影響 88
十五、防曬產品配方探討 95
十六、包覆之複方防曬乳添加萃取液 97
肆、結論 99
伍、參考文獻 102
陸、附錄 110

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