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研究生:楊馥瑜
研究生(外文):Fu-Yu Yang
論文名稱:國際特赦組織在阿根廷與智利之人權推廣作為
論文名稱(外文):Amnesty International and the Promotion of Human Rights in Argentina and Chile
指導教授:姜家雄姜家雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Hsiung Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:外交研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:國際非政府組織人權國際特赦組織阿根廷智利
外文關鍵詞:International Non-governmental OrganizationsHuman RightsAmnesty InternationalArgentinaChile
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資訊科技的革新,使跨國互動頻繁,國際議題趨向多元化,致使國際非政府組織在國際場域中所扮演的角色日益重要。尤其,在人權議題,國際非政府組織多半本著全球良知行事,對於促進人權價值的普世化有諸多貢獻。

為深入研析國際非政府組織與人權推廣之密切連結,本論文以1961年成立的「國際特赦組織」為研究對象,希望藉由檢視該組織在1970年代涉入阿根廷與智利人權侵害問題之作為,歸結國際非政府組織之於全球人權推廣之重要性。
阿根廷與智利同屬南錐國家,兩國在1970年代同為軍政府統治,其執政者為整肅異己與樹立權威,皆執行諸多違反人權的政策,嚴重侵害國民的基本權利。而長期關注世界各國人權發展的國際特赦組織,在該時期致力於改善阿根廷與智利的人權問題,不僅可被視為國際非政府組織推廣人權之顯例,亦凸顯國際特赦組織之獨特性。

The age of globalization has led to an increase in the power of non-state actors in the international arena. In particular, in dealing with the human rights issue, international non-governmental organizations, representing the “conscience of the world,” have a huge contribution in promoting human rights.

To explore the linkage between international non-governmental organizations and its promotion of human rights, the study focuses on the action of “Amnesty International” in Argentina and Chile in the 1970s, while both of its citizens suffered from the oppressive rules of military governments, and were deprived of basic human rights. The purpose of the article is to analyze the role of international non-governmental organizations in the promotion of human rights, the organizational structure and characteristic of Amnesty International, as well as the strategy of Amnesty International in improving human rights conditions in Argentina and Chile in the 1970s.

The study shows that the promotion of human rights of Amnesty International in Argentina and Chile not only can be seen as an example, but also, shows the uniqueness of Amnesty International.

第一章 緒論---------------------------1
第一節 研究背景、動機與目的--------------1
第二節 文獻回顧------------------------6
第三節 研究方法與範圍-------------------14
第四節 章節安排------------------------18

第二章 國際非政府組織與人權推廣-----------20
第一節 人權的理想與實踐------------------20
第二節 國際人權機制中的行為者--------------30
第三節 國際非政府組織的人權推廣策略---------36

第三章 國際特赦組織與人權推廣--------------45
第一節 國際特赦組織的源起與發展-------------45
第二節 國際特赦組織的特色與架構-------------51
第三節 國際特赦組織的人權推廣策略------------56

第四章 國際特赦組織與拉丁美洲人權推廣---------64
第一節 拉丁美洲人權概觀---------------------64
第二節 阿根廷與智利的人權侵害問題-------------69
第三節 國際特赦組織在阿根廷與智利的具體作為-----76

第五章 結論-------------------------------95
第一節 研究結果----------------------------95
第二節 未來研究建議-------------------------98

附件一 中英名詞對照表-----------------------100
附件二 中西名詞對照表-----------------------104
參考文獻-----------------------------------106

一、中文部分

(一)專書
王孔祥。《國際人權法視野下的人權教育》。北京:時事出版社,2008。

王杰、張海濱、張志洲主編。《全球治理中的國際非政府組織》。北京:北京大學出版社,2004。

王振軒。《非政府組織概論》。臺北:鼎茂圖書出版股份有限公司,2003。

王振軒。《非政府組織:議題與發展》。臺北:鼎茂圖書出版股份有限公司,2005。

王振寰。《誰統治台灣?轉型中的國家機器與權力結構》。臺北:巨流圖書出版社,1996。

世林。《西方人權觀與人權外交》。北京:新世界出版社,2003。

白桂梅、龚刃韧、李鳴主編。《國際法上的人權》。北京:北京大學出版社,1996。

左曉圓譯。《阿根廷史》。上海:東方出版社,2010。

江啟臣。《國際組織與全球治理概論》。臺北:五南圖書出版股份有限公司,2009。

朱鋒。《人權與國際關係》。北京:北京大學出版社,2000。


谷盛開。《國際人權法:美洲區域的理論與實踐》。濟南:山東人民出版社,2007。

邱稔壤。《從政治外交層面看南錐禿鷹行動引發之人權爭議》。臺北:印刻出版有限公司,2002。

高德源譯,David Forsythe著。《人權與國際關係》(Human Rights in International Relations)。臺北:弘智文化事業有限公司,2002。

吳家恆、方祖芳譯,Joseph Nye著。《柔性權力》(Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics)。臺北:遠流出版事業股份有限公司,2006。

徐瑩。《當代國際政治中的非政府組織》。北京:當代世界出版社,2006。

張子揚。《非政府組織與人權》。臺中:必中出版社,2006。

張亞中主編。《國際關係總論》。臺北:揚智文化,2007。

常健。《人權的理想、爭論與現實》。臺北:洛克出版社,1997。

盛紅生、賀兵主編。《當代國際關係中的“第三者”》。北京:時事出版社,2003。

湯世鑄。《拉丁美洲軍人政權研究》。臺北:知書房出版社,1996年。

湯德宗、廖福特主編。《憲法解釋之理論與實務》。臺北:中央研究院法律學研究所籌備處,2007。

楊洁勉主編。《國際體系轉型和多邊組織發展:中國的應對和抉擇》。北京:時事出版社,2007。

楊雅婷、陳文暉譯,Thomas Buergenthal, Dinah Shelton and David P. Stewart著。《國際人權概觀》(International Human Rights in a Nutshell)。臺北:國立編譯館與韋伯文化國際出版有限公司,2007。

劉貞曄。《國際政治領域中的非政府組織:一種互動關係的分析》。天津:天津人民出版社,2005。

(二)期刊論文
王興中。「書寫台灣人權運動史:普世人權的本土歷程」。《台灣人權學刊》,第1卷第3期 (2012年12月),頁207-217。

向駿。「當前拉丁美洲發展的危機與轉機」。《全球政治評論》,第九期(2005年1月),頁123-142。

李云龍。「簡論人權與主權之間的關係」。《理論視野》,第2期 (2011年),頁57-59。

邱稔壤。「皮諾契時代智利之人權爭議及其發展」。《問題與研究》,第38卷第4期 (民國88年4月),頁31-53。

周志杰。「從國際人權發展檢視台灣之人權實踐:結構性的探析」。《新世紀智庫論壇》,第45期 (2009年3月),頁23-29。

林德昌、王重陽。「非政府組織和公民社會的建構與發展:國際與國家層面的解析」。《非政府組織學刊》,第2期 (2007年3月),頁1-24。

姜家雄、蔡育岱。「國際關係與非政府組織研究」。《國際關係學報》,第24期 (2007年7月),頁115-143。

陳顯武、連雋偉。「從『歐盟憲法』至『里斯本條約』的歐盟人權保障初探-以『歐盟基本權利憲章』為重點」。《台灣國際研究季刊》,第4卷第1期 (2008年春季號),頁25-45。

蔡志偉。「原住民財產權之發展-以美洲人權法院Awas Tingni案為初始的思考」。《台灣民主季刊》第8卷第4期 (2011年12月),頁45-58。

蔡東杰。「民主化理論的釐清與重構:以拉丁美洲為例」。《問題與研究》,第36卷第8期 (民國86年8月),頁67-80。

譚偉恩。「國際政治的變遷與國際法律規範的未來」。《國際關係學報》,第26期 (2008年7月),頁49-98。

(三)網路官方資料
「國際特赦組織台灣分會」,<http://www.amnesty.tw/>.

「聯合國《人權國際文獻彙編》」, <http://www.un.org/chinese/hr/issue/convention.htm>.

「聯合國憲章」,<http://www.un.org/zh/documents/charter/preamble.shtml>.

「聯合國人權事務高級專員辦事處」, <http://www.ohchr.org/ch/Issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.aspx>.

「聯合國人權事務」,<http://www.un.org/chinese/hr/issue/un.htm>.

「第21屆東協高峰會於11月18日登場」,財團法人中華經濟研究院,台灣東南亞國家協會研究中心,<http://www.aseancenter.org.tw/ASEANnewsDetail.aspx?id_news=105>.

「人權團結聯盟」<http://www.humanrights.com/zh/voices-for-human-rights/human-rights-organizations/non-governmental.html>.

二、英文部分
(一)專書
Aldama, Arturo J. ed., Violence and the Body: Race, Gender, and the State. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.

Andreopoulos, George, Zehra F. Kabasakal Arat and Peter Juviler. eds, Non-State Actors in the Human Rights Universe. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press, 2006.

Barria, Lilian A., and Steven D. Roper, eds. The Development of Institutions of Human Rights. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Bell, Daniel A., and Jean-Marc Coicaud, eds. Ethics in Action: The Ethical Challenges of International Human Rights Nongovernmental Organizations. New York: Cambrige Unversity Press, 2007.

Bennett, Jon. Meeting Needs, NGO Coordination in Practice. London: Earthscan Publications, 1995.

Bickerton, Christopher J., and Philip Cunliffe and Alexander Gourevitch, eds. Politics without Sovereignty: A Critique of Contemporary International Relations. New York: UCL Press, 2007.

Bonner, Michelle D. Sustaining Human Rights: Women and Argentine Human Rights Organizations. University Park, Pennsylvania: Penn State Press, 2007.

Brysk, Alison. The Politics of Human Rights in Argentina: Protest, Change, and Democratization. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1994.

Cardenas, Sonia. Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror ad Hope. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

Carsnaes, Walter, Thomas Risse and Beth A. Simmons. eds, Handbook of International Relations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. 2002.

Donnelly, Jack. International Human Rights. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998.

Donnelly, Jack. Universal Human Rights: Theory and Practice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003.

Finer, S. E. ed., The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1976.

Fisher, Julie. NGOs and the Political Development of the Third World. Boulder: Kumarian Press, 1998.

Foot, Rosemary. Rights Beyond Borders: The global Community and the Struggle over Human Rights in China. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Forsythe, David P. Human Rights in International Relations. New York: Cambrige Unversity Press, 2000.

Fuentes, Caludio A. Contesting the Iron Fist. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Gómez, Mayra. Human Right in Cuba, El Salvador and Nicaragua : A Sociological Perspective on Human Rights Abuse. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Guest, Iain. Behind the Disappearances. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

Heins, Volker. Nongovernmental Organization in International Society: Struggle over Recognition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Hoehn, Sabine. Human Rights Campaigning in Context, A Case Study of Two Human Rights Campaigns of Amnesty International. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktiengesellschaft &; CO.

Huntington, Samuel P., The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman and London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Hurwitz, Deena R., Margaret L. Satterthwaite and Doug Ford, eds. Human Rights Advocacy Stories. New York: Foundation Press, 2009.

Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. Activist Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Korey,William. NGOs and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Curious Grapevine. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

Lessa, Francesca and Vinncent Druliolle eds., The Memory of State Terrorism in the Southern Cone: Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Lewis, Paul H. Guerrillas and Generals: The “Dirty War” in Argentina. Westport: Praeger, 2002.

Morsink, Johannes. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting and Intent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

O’Flaherty, Michael, Zdzisław Kędzia, Amrei Müller and George Ulrich. eds, Human Rights Diplomacy: Contemporary Perspectives. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2011.

Orend, Brain. Human Rights, Concept and Context. Ontario: Broadview Press, 2002.

Power, Jonathan. Amnesty International: The Human Rights Story. St. Louis: Mc-Graw Hill, 1981.

Power, Jonathan. Like Water on Stone: The Story of Amnesty International. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2001.

Rabben, Linda. Fierce Legion of Friends: A History of Human Rights Campaigns and Campaigners. Hyattsville: Quixote Center, 2002.

Reichert, Elisabeth. Understanding Human Rights, An Exercise Book. London: Sage Publications, 2006.

Risse, Thomas, Stephen C. Ropp and Kathryn Sikkink. The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Rock, David. Authoritarian Argentina. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Sluka, Jeffrey A. ed., Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Stephen, Alfred. Rethinking Military Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Willetts Peter. eds, The Conscience of the World: The Influence of Non-governmental Organizations in the U.N. System. London: C. Hurst, 1996.

(二)期刊論文
Baxter, Victoria. “Civil Society Promotion of Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation in Chile: Villa Grimaldi.” Peace
&; Change 30 (January 2005): 120-136.

Bickford, Louis. “Human Rights Archives and Research on Historical Memory: Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay.” Latin American Research Review 35 (2000): 160-182.

Bonner, Michelle D. “Defining Rights in Democratization: The Argentine Government and Human Rights Organizations, 1983-2003.” Latin American Politics &; Society 47 (December 2005): 55-76.

Brysk, Alison. “From Above and Below: Social Movements, the International System, and Human Rights in Argentina.” Comparative Political Studies 26, No. 3 (October 1993): 259-285.

Brysk, Alison. “The Politics of Measurement: The Contested Count of the Disappeared in Argentina.” Human Rights Quarterly 16 (November 1994): 676-692.

Buchanan, Tom. “The Truth Will Set You Free: The Making of Amnesty International.” Journal of Contemporary History 37 (October 2002): 575-597.

Cavallaro, James L. and Steohanie Erin Brewer. “Never Again? The Legacy of the Argentine and Chilean Dictatorships for the Global Human Rights Regime.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 39 (Autumn 2008): 233–244.

Donnelly, Jack. “International Human Rights: A Regime Analysis.” International Organization 40 (Summer 1986): 599-642.

Donnelly, Jack. “Human Rights: A New Standard of Civilization?” International Affairs 74 (January 1998): 1-23.

Franklin, James C. “Shame on You: The Impact of Human Rights Criticism on Political Repression in Latin America.” International Studies Quartely 52 (2008): 187-211.

Fruhling, Hugo. “Stages of Repression and Legal Strategy for the Defense of Human Rights in Chile: 1973-1980.” Human Rights Quarterly 5 (November 1983): 510-533.

Fuentes, Claudio. “Do Transnational Advocacy Networks Matter? Protecting Citizens’ Rights in Democratic Argentina and Chile.” Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association (August 29-September 1, 2002): 1-38.

Jordan, Lisa and Peter van Tuijl. “Political Responsibility in Transnational NGO Advocacy.” World Development 28 (December 2000): 2051-2065.

Lutz, Ellen L. and Kathryn Sikkink. “International Human Rights Law and Practice in Latin America.” International Organization 54 (Summer 2000): 633-659.

Mathews, Jessica T. “Power Shift.” Foreign Affairs 76 (January/February 1997): 50-66.

Morgan, Matthew J. “The Devolution of Political Being: From State Sovereignty to Individual Rights.” The Review of International Affairs 3 (Autumn 2003): 29–40.

Rein, Raanan and Efraim Davidi, “Exile of the World: Israeli Perceptions of Jacobo Timerman.” Jewish Social Studies 16 (Spring/Summer 2010): 1-31.

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi. “Institutions of International Justice.” Journal of International Affairs 52 (Spring 1999): 473-491.

Ron, James, Howard Ramos and Kathleen Rodgers. “Transnational Information Politics: NGO Human Rights Reporting, 1986-2000.” International Studies Quarterly 49 (September 2005): 557-587.

Salamon, Lester M. “The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector.” Foreign Affairs 79 (July/August 1994): 109-122.

Schmidli, William Michael. “Institutionalizing Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Policy: U.S.-Argentine Relations, 1976-1980.” Diplomatic History 35 (April 2000): 351-377.

Sikkink, Kathryn. “From Pariah State to Global Protagonist: Argentina and the Struggle for International Human Rights.” Latin American Politics and Society 50 (Spring 2008): 1-29.

Simmons, P. J. “Learning to Live with NGOs.” Foreign Policy (Autumn 1998): 82-96.

Smith, Jackie, Ron Pagnucco and George A. Lopez. “Globalizing Human Rights: The Work of Transnational Human Rights NGOs in the 1990s.” Human Rights Quarterly 20, No. 2 (May 1998): 379-412.

Thakur, Ramesh. “Human Rights: Amnesty International and the United Nations.” Journal of Peace Research 31 (May 1994): 143-160.

Webber, Frances. “The Pinochet Case: The Struggle for the Realization of Human Rights.” Journal of Law and Society 26 (December 1999): 523-537.

(三)官方出版品
Vasak, Karel. “Human rights: A thirty year struggle: The sustained efforts to give force of law to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” The UNESCO Courier 30 (1977).

Amnesty International 2013 Report to the INGO Accountability. London: Amnesty International Publications, 2013.

Amnesty International Annual Report 1974-1975. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1975.

Amnesty International Annual Report 1977. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1977.

Amnesty International Annual Report 1978. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1978.

Amnesty International Annual Report 1979. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1979.

Amnesty International Annual Report 1980. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1980.

Amnesty International Annual Report 1981. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1981.

Amnesty International Annual Report 1982. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1982.

Amnesty International Annual Report 1983. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1983.

Amnesty International Annual Report 1997. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1997.


Chile: An Amnesty International Report. London: Amnesty International Publications, 1974.

Disappeared Prisoners in Chile. London: Amnesty International Publications,1977

Report of an Amnesty International Mission to Argentina. London: Amnesty International Publications,1977

Union of International Associations: Yearbook of International Organizations 2000-2001. München: K.G. Saur., 2000.

(四)官方網路
“Amnesty International,” < http://www.amnesty.org/>.

“Human Rights Watch,” < http://www.hrw.org/ >.

“International Committee of the Red Cross,” <http://www.icrc.org/eng/>.

“OAS Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man,” <http://www.hrcr.org/docs/OAS_Declaration/oasrights2.html>.

“Oxfam International,” <http://www.oxfam.org/>.

“United Nations,” < http://www.un.org/en/>.

(五)新聞
The Economist, November 28, 1998.

(六)網路資料
“BBC News -Testimony: Detainee remembers Chile 1973,” <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/the_pinochet_file/198743.stm>.

“Goethe Institut,”
< http://www.goethe.de/ins/cn/tai/ges/pok/cn7554668.htm>

三、西班牙文部分
(一)專書
Reato, Ceferino. Disposición final: La confesión de Videla sobre los desaparecidos. Buenos Aires: SUDAMERICANA, 2012.

(二)期刊論文
Garrido, Pilar Calveiro. “Argentina: de la desaparición al vaciamiento.” Metapolítica, Núm. 28 (Marzo-Abril, 2003): 87-101.

(三)官方報告與出版品
Amnesty International: Cifras y Datos (AI Índice: AMR 22/009/2013), publicado en septiembre 2013.

Argentina: Memorial en Derecho – Leyes de Punto Final y Obediencia Debida, presentado por Amnistía Internacional y la Comisión Internacional de Juristas (AI Índice: AMR 13/18/2003), publicado en diciembre 2003.

Argentina:Posible Sobreseimiento en Alemania de Causas Relativas a Casos de "Desaparición" (AI Índice: AMR 13/03/00/s), publicado en abril 2000.

Chile: Torturas desde maszo de 1990 (AI Índice: AMR 22/03/91/s), publicado en septiembre 1991.

Los Tribunales Militares Archivan: Mas de 100 Casos de “Desapariciones” (AI Índice: AMR 22/03/90/s), publicado en enero 1990.

Nunca más, Buenos Aires: Eudeba, 1991.


(四)網路資源
“Amnistía Internacional, Sección Argentina,” <http://www.amnistia.org.ar/>.

“Amnistía Internacional, Sección Chile,” <http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/chile>.

“Víctimas: Desarrollo Cronológico,” <http://www.derechoschile.com/espanol/victima2.htm>.

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