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研究生:湯思斯
研究生(外文):Tang, Si Si
論文名稱:霾害之後 ——以北京PM2.5監測資料公開探討政策轉向之過程
論文名稱(外文):After Haze: the Policy Change Process of PM2.5 Information Disclosure
指導教授:李河清李河清引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee, Ho Ching
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:外交研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:焦點事件政策變化環境資訊公開
外文關鍵詞:Focusing EventPolicy ChangeEnvironmental Information Disclosure
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2011年末,一場持續數天的霧霾天氣席捲北京,環保部門卻並未提供相關污染物PM2.5的監測數據。相關法律法規的落後,以及環保部門的不作為,激起民眾的不滿。隨著美國駐華大使館、環保NGO、微博名人和廣大民眾的持續參與與推動,政府相關資訊政策也逐漸變化,最終將PM2.5納入空氣質量標準并公佈監測數據。本文以此次霧霾污染事件作為「焦點事件」切入點,首先藉由事件回顧討論“誰來監測”的問題,探討了環境信息公開的理論與實踐;然後分析政策變化的過程,歸納「政策變化模型」,討論政策變化形成的原因,分析各行為者在政策變化中的角色和作用;最後,由此事件得出這一政策轉變的影響以及啟示,歸納目前環境資訊公開領域制度層面所存在的缺失,并就此事件的經驗對於政府和環境NGO給出建議。
In the end of 2011, the city of Beijing was hit by a long-lasting haze. However, the city’s Environmental Protection Bureau was unable to provide the public with the data of a critical pollutant – PM2.5. The political inaction of the government has caused great discontent among the public. With the continuous efforts from the US Embassy in China, environmental NGOs, Sina Weibo celebrity users and the public, the official information disclosure policy has seen a big change – the government has adopted a higher standard and taken steps to publish the data of PM2.5. This article takes the haze incident as a “focusing event”. It firstly reviews the case and discusses the theories and practices of the environmental information disclosure. It then analyzes the process of this policy change and forms a policy change model to determine the contributing factors and the roles of different actors. The concluding part summarizes the omission of the current information disclosure system, and makes recommendations to the government and the NGOs.
摘要 3
第一章 緒論 5
第一節:研究背景與研究動機 5
1. 研究背景 5
2. 研究動機 6
第二節:研究問題、研究目的和方法 9
1. 研究問題 9
2. 研究目的 9
3. 研究方法 10
第三節:文獻回顧 12
1. PM2.5相關研究 12
2. 政策變化過程 15
3. 環境信息公開的理論基礎 16
第四節:文章架構 21
第二章 事件回顧——誰來監測 23
第一節:美國大使館公佈數據 23
第二節:民間參與 28
第三節:環保部門回應 31
第四節:政策公佈 35
第三章 政策轉向過程及原因分析 36
第一節: 各方角色活動過程分析 36
1. NGO:民間團體多角度分工合作 36
2. 民眾:指尖參與與實際行動 39
3. 專家:專業化的利與弊 40
4. 美國大使館:公眾外交的實踐 42
5. 政府部門:法規與實踐的矛盾 43
第二節:政策轉向過程 45
1. 焦點事件(Focusing event) 45
2. 議程設定(Agenda setting) 46
3. 微博的平臺效應 50
第四章 監測以後的治理政策 54
第一節:追根溯源 54
第二節:因應政策 57
第三節:治理難點 58
1. 政府執行動力不足 59
2. 民眾支持不足 59
3. 區域聯防聯控缺乏協調機制 61
第五章 結論 63
第一節:政策變化模型 63
第二節:制度層面顯現缺失 66
1. 現有法律制度缺陷 66
2. 政府公開動力不足原因 68
第三節:事件對於政府部門的啟示 71
1. 重視并利用與媒體關係 71
2. 重視和利用環保NGO作用 73
第四節:事件對於環保NGO的啟示 75
第五節:未來研究方向 78
參考文獻 80
附錄一 訪談者名錄 89
附錄二 訪談提綱 90

一、 中文部份
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(三) 博士畢業論文
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(四) 官方文件
《環境空氣品質標準》編制組,《<環境空氣品質標準>徵求意見稿編制說明》,北京:中華人民共和國環境保護部,2010年。
《環境空氣品質標準》編制組,《<環境空氣品質標準>(二次徵求意見稿)徵求意見稿編制說明》,北京:中華人民共和國環境保護部,2011年。
中國環境保護部,《京津冀及周邊地區落實大氣污染防治行動計畫實施細則》,北京:中華人民共和國環境保護部,2013年。

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