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研究生:鍾安
研究生(外文):Chung, An
論文名稱:論網路匿名言論之保障-以身分揭露程序為中心
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Protection of Anonymous Online Speech: Focusing on the Procedure for Disclosing the Identity of Anonymous Speakers
指導教授:劉定基劉定基引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu, Ting Chi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:204
中文關鍵詞:匿名言論資訊隱私匿名性網路匿名言論網路鬆綁效應責任網路實名制策略性訴訟網路服務提供者網路內容提供者個人資料保護法
外文關鍵詞:Anonymous SpeechInformation PrivacyAnonymityOnline Anonymous SpeechOnline Disinhibition EffectLiabilityReal-Name Verification SystemStrategic LawsuitInternet Service ProviderInternet Content ProviderPersonal Data Protection Act
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  在網路世界中,人們以匿名表達意見遠比現實生活中更為容易,這件事已劇烈地改變了匿名言論的量與質。從好的面向看,匿名帶來自主,讓異議者可以透過網路匿名,表達可能永遠都不敢在眾人面前說出來的真正想法,讓觀念市場變得多元豐富;另一方面,匿名提高了追究責任的困難。相較於現實世界的言論,損害他人或構成犯罪的惡質網路匿名言論,將造成影響更深遠且永久的傷害。
  目前,關於網路匿名言論的管制方式,世界各國政府都是仰賴「事後追懲模式」和「實名認證模式」的其中一種。前者是網路使用者原則上可以匿名地發表言論,但如果發表不當言論並造成傷害,受害者或國家可以揭露其身份以對其展開司法追訴;後者是網路使用者在張貼言論前,必須先向國家機關指定的網路業者交出個人真實身份資料以進行驗證後,才能匿名發言,或甚至完全禁止以匿名方式發言,讓網路使用者感受到被眾人監督的壓力,不敢發表不當內容。
  本文主張,網路匿名言論是受到憲法所保障的權利,而「事後追懲模式」相較於「實名認證模式」,較能調和不同權利間的衝突。不過,儘管我國政府採取此模式,卻在設計民刑事訴訟制度時,漏未導入匿名言論權利的思考,導致網路匿名表意者一經策略性訴訟攻擊,真實身份就會立即暴露,使得匿名表意自由不過徒有虛幻表象。因此,本文建議,為落實對匿名言論自由的保護,立法者宜參考美國法,修改部分訴訟法來處理此問題。
  On the internet, people can express themselves anonymously far easier than in the physical world. This fact has dramatically changed both the quantities and qualities of anonymous speech. On the bright side, anonymity brings more autonomy. Dissenters can express their real opinions, which they might never have the courage to speak out in public. It, in turn will promote the diversity and integrity of the marketplace of ideas. Yet, anonymity also makes it more difficult to hold the speakers accountable. In addition, compared to speech in the real physical world, malicious online anonymous speech will cause more serious permanent harms.
  Today, governments around the world are either relying on the “Ex Post Compensation and Punishment” approach or the “Real-Name Verification System” to regulate online anonymous speech. Under the former approach, internet users can express their opinions anonymously, but if the content of their speech is malicious and causes damages to other people, the victim can seek disclosure of the speaker’s identity in order to take legal actions against the speaker. In contrast, under the latter system, internet users have to provide their personal information (real identities) to the ISPs or ICPs appointed by governments and complete the verification process before they can post their words. Some real name systems go even further by banning anonymous speech completely. By making users feel like they are being supervised by the public, the real name system wishes to deter indecent contents
  This thesis argues that online anonymous speech is protected by the Constitution, and the ‘Ex Post Compensation and Punishment’ is a preferred approach because it can better balance the conflicting rights. In Taiwan, although the government has chosen the ‘Ex Post Compensation and Punishment’ approach, current civil/criminal procedural laws and practices afford little protection to online anonymous speakers. The plaintiff, who is allegedly harmed by the anonymous speech, can easily bring a “Strategic Lawsuit,” with the sole purpose of obtaining the identity of the online anonymous speaker. Consequently, this thesis suggests that, in order to better protect the freedom of anonymous speech, the legislators of Taiwan should refer to U.S. laws and practices and revise several provisions of Taiwan’s Code of Civil Procedure and Code of Criminal Procedure.
1 緒論 1
1.1 問題提出 1
1.1.1 楔子:網路「刺馬」事件 1
1.1.2 問題:匿名言論是否受憲法保護?如何保護匿名言論? 2
1.2 名詞定義 4
1.3 研究方法與範圍 7
1.4 本文架構 8

2 匿名言論的價值、憲法基礎與界限 11
2.1 匿名言論的價值 11
2.1.1 肯定論 11
2.1.2 小結 20
2.2 匿名言論自由的憲法基礎與界限 22
2.2.1 美國重要案例介紹 22
2.2.2 案例分析 34
2.2.3 匿名言論自由的憲法基礎 39
2.2.4 匿名言論的界限 45

3 網路匿名言論 47
3.1總論:網路匿名言論的原理、特性與衝擊 47
3.1.1 JuicyCampus.com的升起與殞落 47
3.1.2 網路匿名的原理與型態 49
3.1.3 網路匿名相較傳統匿名的優勢與脆弱 52
3.1.4 網路匿名的特性與問題 54
3.2 國家對網路匿名言論的管制模式 60
3.2.1 概說 61
3.2.2 模式一:事後揭露身分制度 63
3.2.3 模式二:網路實名制度 65
3.2.4 比較與小結 72
3.3 網路匿名言論自由是否受憲法保障? 73
3.3.1 概說 73
3.3.2 重要案例介紹 74
3.3.3 分析與小結 92

4 美國法對網路匿名言論的保護 99
4.1聯邦法中取得用戶資訊的程序規範 99
4.1.1 有線電視隱私法 99
4.1.2 電子通訊隱私法 101
4.1.3 愛國者法 105
4.2 揭露命令與法院審查判準 108
4.2.1 權衡判準 110
4.2.2 其他可能因素與問題 125
4.2.3 小結 127
4.3 其他相關法律 128
4.3.1 盾牌法(記者特權) 129
4.3.2 反妨礙公眾參與策略性訴訟法(加州) 132
4.4 檢討與總結 137
4.4.1 關於取得用戶資訊應遵守程序的立法 137
4.4.2 關於法院核發揭露命令 140
4.4.3 關於其他相關法律 142

5 我國「訴訟制度」對網路匿名表意保護現況與建議 145
5.1 我國法律規定與實務現況 145
5.1.1 刑事訴訟事件 145
5.1.2 民事訴訟事件 157
5.1.3 對目前實務作法的檢討 159
5.1.4 附論:個人資料保護法可否用於保障網路匿名表意? 166
5.2 操作與修法建議(結論) 174
5.2.1 刑事訴訟事件 175
5.2.2 民事訴訟事件 182
5.3 結語 188
參考文獻 191
重要判決索引 203


一、中文部分:
(一)專書
1. 池泰毅(編),個資法百問,2013年1月。
2. 吳庚、陳淳文,憲法理論與政府體制,2013年9月。
3. 李惠宗,憲法要義,六版,2012年9月。
4. 林子儀,言論自由之理論基礎,初版二刷,2002年11月。
5. 林山田,刑法各罪論(上),五版,2006年11月。
6. 林俊益,刑事訴訟法概論(上),十三版,2012年9月。
7. 林俊益,刑事訴訟法概論(下),十版,2011年2月。
8. 林祝興、張明信,資訊安全導論,2009年4月。
9. 林鈺雄,刑事訴訟法(上),七版,2013年9月。
10. 林鈺雄,刑事訴訟法(下),七版,2013年9月。
11. 法治斌、董保城,憲法新論,五版,2012年9月。
12. 姜世民,民事訴訟法(下),2013年5月。
13. 陳新民,憲法學釋論,修正七版,2011年9月。
14. 陳樸生,刑事訴訟法實務,十二版,1997年。
15. 黃東熊,刑事訴訟法論,四版,1989年。
16. 劉佐國、李世德,個人資料保護法釋義與實務:如何面臨個資保護的新時代,2012年12月。
17. 蔡震榮,警察職權行使法概論,修訂二版,2011年11月。
18. 蕭家捷、賴文智,個人資料保護法Q&A,2013年1月。
19. 謝銘洋,智慧財產權法,四版,2013年9月。

(二)期刊、專書論文
1. 王正嘉,網際網路上之刑法妨害名譽罪適用與界限—以實體與虛擬的二分社會論之,政大法學評論,第128期,頁143-202,2012年8月。
2. 王兆鵬,告訴乃論案件與強制處分─以經濟分析論,載:當事人進行主義之刑事訴訟,頁31-56,2004年5月。
3. 王兆鵬,重新定義高科技時代下的搜索,載:新刑訴‧新思維,頁57-92,2004年10月。
4. 王兆鵬,檢察官之偵察門檻與人權保障-偵查權之發動與限制,檢察新論,第7期,頁90-131,2010年1月。
5. 王明禮,網路空間匿名言論之管制,資訊法務透析,第8期第3卷,頁31-36,1996年3月。
6. 李惠宗,裁判書上網公開與個人資訊自決權的衝突,月旦法學雜誌,第154期,2008年3月,頁21-34。
7. 李榮耕,論偵察機關對通信記錄的調取,政大法學評論第115期,頁115-147,2010年6月。
8. 李榮耕,電磁記錄的搜索及扣押,臺大法學論叢,41卷3期,頁1055-1116,2012年9月。
9. 林珊如,網路敵意及網路沉迷--兩種去社會抑制行為之相關研究,教育與心理研究,27期2卷,頁325-352,2004年6月。
10. 胡凌,中國網路實名制管理:由來、實踐與反思,中國網路傳播研究,2010年1月。
11. 張乃文,Web2.0網站平台管理之法制議題研析─以網路實名制與揭露使用者身分資料為中心,科技法律透析,頁42-60,2009年6月。
12. 許家馨,民刑誹謗二元體系的形成與分析,載:第二屆司法制度實證研究國際研討會,2011年6月。
13. 郭戎晉,初探「網路罷凌」(Cyber Bullying)衍生之法律議題,科技法律透析,第21卷4期,頁15-20,2009年4月。
14. 廖元豪,邊緣異議者的武器—匿名發表論之言論自由,載:司法院大法官99年度學術研討會—解釋憲法與言論自由之保障(上冊),2010年12月18日。
15. 廖元豪,我按讚,但你不知道我是誰─匿名的表現自由,月旦法學教室,第129期,頁9-11,2013年7月。
16. 劉定基,從查證義務論「實際惡意」原則在臺灣民事判決的適用,載:新世紀宏觀法學的研究與展望—劉鐵錚教授七秩華誕祝壽論文集(一),頁331-360,2008年10月。
17. 劉定基,「個人資料保護法」初論,臺灣法學雜誌,第159期,頁1-8,2010年9月。
18. 劉定基,析論個人資料保護法上「當事人同意」的概念,月旦法學雜誌,第218期,頁146-167,2013年7月。
19. 劉定基,個人資料的定義、保護原則與個人資料保護法適用的例外(上),月旦法學教室,第115期,頁42-54,2012年5月。
20. 劉靜怡,電腦網路世界之新興言論自由議題,月旦法學雜誌,第25期,頁141-148,1997年6月。
21. 劉靜怡,從美國聯邦最高法院Reno v. ACLU案判決談網路內容規範的過去、現在與未來,月旦法學雜誌第32期,頁99-114,1997年12月。
22. 劉靜怡,資訊社會的規範困境:臺灣網際網路法律發展的歷史考察,載:第四屆資訊科技與社會轉型研討會,2001年12月。
23. 劉靜怡,數位時代的「記者特權」:以美國法制之發展為論述中心,新聞學研究,第98期,頁139-192,2009年1月。
24. 劉靜怡,不算進步的立法:「個人資料保護法初步評析」,月旦法學雜誌,第183期,頁147-164,2010年8月。

(三)學位論文、學生論文
1. 張建博,推行網路實名制相關法律問題研究,東吳大學法律學系碩士論文,2012年6月。
2. 曾馨瑩、林純如,以社交焦慮傾向和感知匿名性探討社群媒體中的自我揭露行為,2012年中華傳播學會年會(學生組)論文,2012年7月。
3. 韓寧,微博實名制之合法性探究—以言論自由為視角,《法学》,2012年第4期,2012年5月。

(四)翻譯著作
1. KUROSE, JAMES F., & ROSS, KEITH W., 電腦網際網路(COMPUTER NETWORKING: A TOP-DOWN APPROACH FEATURING THE INTERNET),吳佳榮、黃彩嵐譯,2006年。

二、英文部分:
(一)書籍
1. ARENDT, HANNAH, THE HUMAN CONDITION (1998).
2. BAILEY, DENNIS, THE OPEN SOCIETY PARADOX (2004).
3. BARRY, BRUCE, SPEECHLESS: THE EROSION OF FREE EXPRESSION IN THE AMERICAN WORKPLACE (2007).
4. DELFINO, MICHEL A., & DAY, MARY E., BE CAREFUL WHO YOU SLAPP (2002).
5. GOLDSMITH, JACK, & WU, TIM, WHO CONTROLS THE INTERNET (2006).
6. KUHN, MARTIN, FEDERAL DATAVEILLANCE: IMPLICATION FOR CONSTITUTIONAL PRIVACY PROTECTIONS (2007).
7. LESSIG, LAWRENCE, CODE 2.0 (2006).
8. LINSKY, MARTIN, IMPACT: HOW THE PRESS AFFECTS FEDERAL POLICYMAKING (1986).
9. PRING, GEORGE W., & CANAN, PENELOPE, SLAPPS: GETTING SUED FOR SPEAKING OUT (1996).
10. PUTNAM, ROBERT D., BOWLING ALONE: THE COLLAPSE AND REVIVAL OF AMERICAN COMMUNITY (2000).
11. SKUPIN, MICHAEL, ANONYMITY IN WESTERN LITERATURE (2009).
12. SOLOVE, DANIEL, THE FUTURE OF REPUTATION: GOSSIP, RUMOR, AND PRIVACY ON THE INTERNET (2007).
13. SOLOVE, DANIEL, & SWARTZ, PAUL, INFORMATION PRIVACY LAW (4th Edition, 2011).
14. STRYKER, COLE, HACKING THE FUTURE: PRIVACY, IDENTITY, AND ANONYMITY ON THE WEB (2012).
15. SUNSTEIN, CASS R., ON RUMORS (2009).

(二)專書論文
1. Barendt, Eric, Privacy and Freedom of Speech, in NEW DIMENSIONS IN PRIVACY LAW: INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES 11 (Andrew T. Kenyon & Megan Richardson eds., 2006).
2. Blau, I. & Caspi, A., Studying Invisibly: Media naturalness and Learning, in EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH: A NEW APPROACH TO STUDYING THE EFFECTS OF MODERN TECHNOLOGIES ON HUMAN BEHAVIOR, 193 (Ned Kock ed., 2010).
3. Cho, Daegon, Real Name Verification Law on the Internet: A poison or Cure for Privacy?, in ECONOMICS OF INFORMATION SECURITY AND PRIVACY III 239 (B. Schneier ed., 2012).
4. Davenport, David, Anonymity on the Internet: Why the price May Be Too High, in COMPUTERS IN SOCIETY : PRIVACY, ETHICS, AND THE INTERNET 447 (Joey F. George eds., 2004).
5. Forster, Edward, Anonymity: An Enquiry, in TWO CHEERS FOR DEMOCRACY 93 (1972).
6. Froomkin, A. Michael, The Internet as a Source of Regulatory Arbitrage, in BORDERS IN CYBERSPACE: INFORMATION POLICY AND THE GLOBAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE. 129 (Brain Kahn & Charles Nesson eds., 1997).
7. Froomkim, A. Michael, Anonymity and the Law in the United States, in LESSONS FROM IDENTITY TRAIL 441 (Ian Kerr et al., eds., 2009).
8. Leitner, John M., Korean Netizen Equality in the Shadow of Real Name Verification, in THE LAW IN THE INFORMATION AND RISK SOCIETY 105 (Gunnar Duttge & Sang Won Lee eds., 2011).
9. Levmore, Saul, The Internet’s Anonymity Problem, in THE OFFENSIVE INTERNET 51 (Saul Levmore & Martha C. Nassbaum eds., 2010).
10. Mill, John Stuart, Considerations on Representative Government, in ON LIBERTY AND OTHER ESSAYS 205 (John Gray ed., 1991).
11. Pfitzmann, Andreas, & Köhntopp, Marit, Anonymity, Unobservability, and Pseudonymity - A Proposal for Terminology, in DESIGNING PRIVACY ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES 3 (Hannes Federrath ed., 2001).
12. Posner, Richard A., The Speech Market and the Legacy of Schenck, in ETERNALLY VIGILANT: FREE SPEECH IN THE MODERN ERA 120 (Lee C. Bolliger and Geoffrey R. Stone eds., 2002).
13. Redish, Martin H., Freedom of Expression, Political Fraud, and the Dilemma of Anonymity, in THE ADVERSARY FIRST AMENDMENT 151 (2013).
14. Schopenhauer, Arthur, The art of literature, in THE ESSAYS OF ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER 347 (translated by T. Bailey Saunders, 1902).

(三)期刊論文
1. Balla, Donald P., John Doe Is Alive and Well: Designing Pseudonym Use in American Courts, 63 Ark. L. Rev. 691 (2010).
2. Boudin, Chesa, Note: Publius and the Petition: Doe v. Reed and the History of Anonymous Speech, 120 YALE L.J. 2140 (2011).
3. Branscomb, Anne, Anonymity, Autonomy and Accountability: Challenges to the First Amendment in Cyberspaces, 104 YALE L.J. 1639 (1995).
4. Carr, George H., Note, Application of U.S. Supreme Court Doctrine to Anonymity in the Networld, 44 CLEV. ST. L. REV. 521 (1996).
5. Chilson, Jessica L., Unmasking John Doe: Setting a Standard for Discovery in Anonymous Internet Defamation Cases, 95 VA. L. REV. 389 (2009).
6. Cho, D., Kim, S., & Acquisti, A., Empirical Analysis of Online Anonymity and User Behaviors: The Impact of Real Name Policy, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 3041 (2012).
7. Ciolli, Anthony, Liability Of Web 2.0 Intermediaries Under State Consumer Fraud Statutes: A Case Study, 79 MISS. L.J. 831 (2010).
8. Citron, Danielle Keats, Cyber Civil Rights, 89 B.U. L. REV. 61 (2009).
9. Crump, Catherine, Data Retention: Privacy, Anonymity, and Accountability Online, 56 STAN. L. REV. 191 (2003).
10. Davis, Brian, Rying Eyes: How Government Access To Third-Party Tracking Data May Be Impacted By United States v. Jones, 46 NEW ENG. L. REV. 843 (2012).
11. Denison, Michael C., SLAPP HAPPY: Courts Continued to Refine the Reach of the Anti-SLAPP Law in Numerous Decisions in 2010, 34-JUN L.A. LAW. 21 (2011).
12. Ferry, Anne, Anonymity: The Literary History of a Word, 33 NEW LITERARY HIST. 193 (2002).
13. Fisher, Linda E., Guilt by Expressive Association: Political Profiling, Surveillance, and the Privacy of Groups, 46 ARIZ. L. REV. 621 (2004).
14. Fraser, Barry, Regulating the Net: Case Studies in California and Georgia Show How Not To Do It, 9 LOY. CONSUMER L. REP. 230 (1997).
15. Froomkin, A. Michael, Flood Control on the Internet Ocean: Living with Anonymity, Digital Cash, and Distributed Datebases, 15 J.L. & COM. 395 (1996).
16. Furman, Joshua R., Cybersmear Or Cyber-Slapp: Analyzing Defamation Suits Against Online John Does As Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation, 25 SEATTLE U. L. REV. 213 (2001).
17. Gardner, James, Anonymity and Democratic Citizenship, 19 WM. & MARY BILL RTS. J. 927 (2011).
18. Garlinger, Patrick P., Privacy, Free Speech, And The Patriot Act: First And Fourth Amendment Limits On National Security Letters, 84 N.Y.U. L. REV. 1105 (2009)
19. Garry, Patrick M., Anonymous Sources, Libel Law, and the First Amendment, 78 TEMP. L. REV. 579 (2005).
20. Gleicher, Nathaniel, Note, John Doe Subpoenas: Toward a Consistent Legal Standard, 118 YALE L.J. 320 (2008).
21. Hanamirian, Jocelyn V., The Right to Remain Anonymous: Anonymous Speakers, Confidential Sources and the Public Good, 35 COLUM. J.L. & ARTS 119 (2011).
22. Hardy, Trotter, The Proper Legal Regime for “Cyberspace,” 55 U. PITT. L. REV. 993, 1051 (1994).
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(四)網路資源
1. O'Reilly, Tim, What Is Web 2.0, Web2.0 (2005), available at http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html.
2. Portal, Broadband, OECD Broadband Statistics (Dec., 2011), available at http://www.oecd.org/sti/broadband/broadbandportal-pressrelease-dec2011.htm
3. The Article 29 Working Party’s Opinion 4/2007 On the Concept of Personal Data (June, 2007), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/policies/privacy/docs/wpdocs/2007/wp136_en.pdf.
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