# 臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

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 臺灣地狹人稠，往山坡地開發來增加土地使用強度，成為新的土地開發趨勢，在考量經濟與安全兩種因素之下，兩階式擋土牆之設計便是因應邊坡擋土牆穩定的常見措施，兩階式擋土牆之相關力學行為探討，似乎較為缺乏，因此有深入研究之必要。本文針對不同尺度兩階式擋土牆，以兩個研究範例，利用工程計算方法與PLAXIS電腦程式，探討擋土牆之穩定性與相關力學行為，工程計算方法結果顯示 : (1) 兩階式擋土牆，於常時狀態下，第一階(下層)與第二階(上層)擋土牆水平距離較遠者，其抗傾覆與抗滑動之安全係數約可提高20%。(2) 兩階式擋土牆主動土壓力之合力，較單階式擋土牆為低，約可減少30%。PLAXIS程式程式分析結果顯示 : (1)擋土牆第一階(下層)牆背之回填土有較大變形，牆身在下半部有較大水平應力發生。(2) 兩階式擋土牆當第一階與第二階水平距離越遠者，第一階(下層)擋土牆之合力相對較小，而於第一階(下層)擋土牆踵部則有較大之土壓力值。
 More populations in Taiwan live in the limited land. It becomes the new land developing trend to exploit the slope area in order to increase the land intensity. Under the consideration of economy and safety,two-stepped retaining walls are commonly used to maintain the stability of slope. However, study about the relevant mechanical behavior abouttwo-stepped retaining walls seems to be scarce. It is worthwhile to make a study in this topic.This thesis aims at different two-stepped retaining walls with two examples through the engineering computation and Plaxis computer program to study the stability and the relevant mechanical behavior of retaining walls. From the analyzed results of engineering computation, it indicates that (1). Under normal condition, the safety factor to resist overturning and sliding can increase up to about 20% if the distance between the first step (lower part) and the second (upper part) becomes larger. (2). The resultant horizontal force of two-stepped retaining walls can be reduced up to 30% compared with that of one-stepped retaining walls. From the analyzed results using Plaxis computer program, it indicates that (1). The large displacement is found in the back soil of the first step of two-stepped retaining walls and a great horizontal forceoccurs in the lower part of the first step wall. (2). The resultant force acting on the first step wall is relatively smaller when the distance between the first step (lower part) and the second (upper part) is increased, while a great vertical soil pressure is found in the heel of the first step wall.
 致謝..............................................................................................................i中文摘要.................................................................................................... iiABSTRACT ............................................................................................. iii目錄............................................................................................................iv圖目錄...................................................................................................... vii表目錄.........................................................................................................x符號表........................................................................................................xi第一章 緒論 ..............................................................................................11.1 前言......................................................................................................11.2 研究動機與目的 .................................................................................21.3 研究方法 .............................................................................................31.4 研究內容 .............................................................................................4第二章 文獻回顧 ......................................................................................52.1 擋土牆的型式 ......................................................................................52.2 極限狀態理論 ......................................................................................92.3 土壓力理論 ..........................................................................................92.4 莫耳-庫倫破壞準則 ...........................................................................232.5 擋土牆牆體穩定性 ............................................................................242.6 擋土牆的設計步驟 ...........................................................................312.7 其他相關研究 ...................................................................................33第三章 分析研究方法 ............................................................................363.1 前言.....................................................................................................363.2 分析方法 ...........................................................................................363.3 PLAXIS 2D 數值分析程式 ...............................................................37第四章 研究範例工程設計分析 ............................................................424.1 研究範例一 .......................................................................................424.2 研究範例二 .......................................................................................594.3 研究範例之綜合比較分析 ...............................................................71第五章 研究範例數值分析 ....................................................................775.1 研究範例 ...........................................................................................775.2 研究範例分析結果與討論 ...............................................................80第六章 結論與建議 ..............................................................................1026.1 結論...................................................................................................1026.2 建議...................................................................................................103參考文獻.................................................................................................104
 1. 內政部建築研究所（2001） “建築物基礎構造設計規範”。，2. 林佳蓁(2007)，“兩階式擋土牆力學行為之研究”，國立中興大學土木工程學系碩士論文。3. 林志陽（2008） “現有公路擋土牆力學行為之研究”，國立中興大，學土木工程學系碩士論文。4. 施國欽（2010） “大地工程學(二)基礎工程篇”，台北：文笙書局。，5. 游少槐（2013） “扶壁式擋土牆力學行為之探討”，國立中興大學，土木工程學系碩士論文。6. 葉慶隆(2014)，垂直地震效應對擋土牆穩定行為之探討，國立中興大學土木工程學系碩士論文。7. 賴政揚(2009)，“牆上牆之擋土牆力學行為研究”，立中興大學土木工程學系碩士論文。8. Brooker, E. W. and Ireland, H. O. (1965), “Earth Pressure at Rest Related to Stress History, ” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 1-15.9. Coulomb, C. A. (1776), Essai sur une Application des Regles des Maximis Minimum a quelques Problemes de Statique Relatifs a l’Architecture, Mem. Acad. Roy. des Sciences, Paris, Vol. 3, pp. 38.10. Das, B. M. (2011), Principal of Foundation Engineering, 7th edition,CENGAGE Learning.11. Jaky, J. (1944). “The Coefficient of Earth Pressure at Rest,” Journal for the Society of Hungarian Architects and Engineers, October, pp.355-358.12. Mononobe, N.(1929), “Earthquake-Proof Construction of Masonry Dams, ” Proceedings, World Engineering Conference 9, pp. 274-280.13. Okabe, S. (1926), “General Theory of Earth Pressure,” Journal of the Japanese Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 12, No 1 .14. PLAXIS bv (2010), PLAXIS 2D Reference Manual, P. O. Box 572,2600 An Delft, Netherlands.
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