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研究生:翁明己
研究生(外文):Ming-Ji Weng
論文名稱:台中和屏東地區大氣 PM2.5 組成特性及其污染源解析
論文名稱(外文):Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of Ambient Fine Particulates in Taichung and Pingtung Area
指導教授:鄭曼婷鄭曼婷引用關係
口試委員:邱嘉斌望熙榮
口試日期:2014-07-04
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:PM2.5CMB 受體模式台中屏東
外文關鍵詞:PM2.5CMB receptor modelTaichungPingtung
相關次數:
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本研究彙整 2010 年 1 月至 12 月於台中中興大學測站及 2013 年 3 月至 4月於屏東地區 8 處測站的大氣細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)組成數據,分析此兩地區PM2.5 的特性,並以化學質量平衡(CMB)受體模式解析其污染源貢獻量。
研究結果顯示,台中地區 PM2.5 質量濃度平均為 31.6 ± 16.0 μg/m3,其水溶性陰陽離子佔 41.9 %,碳成分佔 26.3 %,金屬元素則佔 5.1 %,而屏東地區 PM2.5 質量濃度平均為 49.6 ± 15.0 μg/m3,其組成含 49.1 %水溶性陰陽離子,33.3 %碳成分及 4.6 %金屬元素。比較兩地區 PM2.5 濃度及組成,屏東地區 PM2.5 質量濃度、水溶性陰陽離子含量及碳含量均較台中地區高,兩地區離子成分均以 SO42-、NO3-及 NH4+為主。
為了利用 CMB 受體模式分析兩地區 PM2.5 的污染源貢獻量,本研究彙
整 54 筆國內外污染源排放組成資料 分析不同類別污染源排放的 PM2.5 特性,,並測試交通源 PM2.5 指紋數據的適用性,根據 CMB 解析結果顯示,台中地區 PM2.5 污染源貢獻量,交通排放約佔 41 %,二次氣膠佔 36 %,另有地殼物質佔 5.4 %、電力業 4.1 %、工業排放 1.3 %及海鹽飛沫佔 1.5 %之貢獻;屏東地區 PM2.5 污染源貢獻量,交通排放平均佔 45 %,二次氣膠貢獻量佔42 %,其他污染源有地殼物質 5.7 %、海鹽飛沫 1.1 %、電力業 2.3 %、工業排放 4.8 %。兩地區 PM2.5 的主要污染來源皆為交通排放和二次氣膠,由此分析結果和文獻資料顯示交通污染和二次氣膠的前驅物管制為 PM2.5 減量的
主要措施。
In this study, the characteristics of PM2.5 and their source apportionments in Taichung and Pingtung areas were evaluated by using a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. The data of the chemical compositions of PM2.5 were obtained from the measurements conducted at Taichung during January to December in 2010 and at eight sites in Pingtung area during March to April in 2013. The object of this study was to investigate the characteristics of PM2.5 and to understand the contribution of pollution sources to PM2.5.

Comparing the characteristics of PM2.5 in these two areas, the average mass concentration of PM2.5 in Taichung area was 31.6 ± 16.0 μg/m3. The percentage of water-soluble ions, total carbon and metals in PM2.5 were 41.9%, 26.3% and 5.1%,respectively. However, the average mass concentration of PM2.5 in Pingtung area was 49.6 ± 15.0 μg/m3. The abundance of water-soluble ions, total carbon and metals in PM2.5 were 49.1%, 33.3% and 4.6%. These results showed that the mass concentration,the contents of water-soluble ions and total carbon of PM2.5 in Pingtung were higher than those in Taichung. The major ionic species of PM2.5 in both areas were SO42-, NO3- and NH4+.

In order to use CMB receptor model to evaluate the source apportionment of PM2.5 in these two areas, this study collected and summarized 54 fingerprints from various pollution sources reported in the literature.
Particularly the suitability of source profile from the vehicular emission was tested. Results of CMB modeling showed that the contributions to PM2.5 in Taichung were about 41% from traffic emissions, 36% from secondary aerosols, 5.4% from crustal materials, 4.1% from power plant, 1.3% from industry and 1.5% from marine spray. In Pingtung area, the contributions to PM2.5 were about 45% traffic emissions, 42% secondary aerosols, 5.7% crustal materials, 1.1% marine spray, 2.3% power plant and 4.8% from industry. Based on this study and the results obtained in the literature, the major sources of PM2.5 were traffic emissions and secondary aerosols. Therefore the control of the traffic emissions and the reduction of precursors of the secondary aerosols should be the major strategies for improving the PM2.5 quality in these two areas.
摘要 ................... i
Abstract .............. ii
目錄 .................. iii
圖目錄 ................. vi
表目錄 ................. vii
第一章 前言 .............. 1
1.1 研究緣起 ............. 1
1.2 研究目的 .............. 2
1.3 研究架構 .............. 2
第二章 文獻回顧 ............. 4
2.1 大氣懸浮微粒污染來源及組成特性 ........................... 4
2.1.1 大氣懸浮微粒之來源 .... 4
2.1.2 大氣懸浮微粒之組成特性 ..5
2.2 大氣懸浮微粒之影響 ....... 6
2.3 污染源組成資料建立方法 ... 7
2.3.1 固定污染源排放煙道粒狀物檢測方法 ............................. 7
2.3.2 逸散污染源指紋資料建立方法 ............................ 11
2.3.3 移動污染源指紋資料建立方法 ............................ 11
2.4 應用 CMB 受體模式解析大氣懸浮微粒污染來源相關研究 ............................ 13
2.4.1 國外 CMB 受體模式研究與應用 ............................. 13
2.4.2 國內 CMB 受體模式研究與應用 .............................. 13
第三章 研究方法 ................ 16
3.1 大氣懸浮微粒採樣 ........... 16
3.1.1 採樣地點 ................ 16
3.1.2 採樣時間 ................ 18
3.2 採樣儀器與設備 .............. 20
3.2.1 採樣儀器 ................. 20
3.2.2 採樣濾紙處理程序 ............ 21
3.3 大氣懸浮微粒樣本之分析 .......... 22
3.3.1 水溶性陰陽離子分析 ......... 22
3.3.2 含碳量分析 ................ 23
3.3.3 金屬成分分析 ............. 26
3.4 CMB 受體模式 ............... 27
3.4.1 CMB 受體模式解析 .......... 27
第四章 結果與討論 ........... 30
4.1 PM2.5 質量濃度變化 ............. 30
4.1.1 台中地區 PM2.5 與大里測站 PM2.5 之比較 .............................. 30
4.1.2 台中地區 PM2.5 質量濃度分析 ................................... 31
4.1.3 屏東地區 PM2.5 與鄰近環保署測站 PM2.5 之比較 .................. 34
4.1.4 屏東地區 PM2.5 質量濃度分析 ................................ 34
4.2 大氣 PM2.5 化學組成探討 ................................. 37
4.2.1 台中地區 PM2.5 化學組成特性 ................................ 37
4.2.2 屏東地區 PM2.5 化學組成特性 ................................. 42
4.2.3 台中及屏東地區 PM2.5 化學組成探討 ................................ 50
4.3 CMB 受體模式 ................ 53
4.3.1 污染源組成資料摘要說明 ...... 53
4.3.2 交通污染源排放組成資料特性 ............................... 60
4.3.3 交通污染源排放組成資料測試 ................................ 64
4.4 台中及屏東地區 PM2.5 污染源解析 ................................. 70
4.4.1 台中地區 PM2.5 污染源貢獻量 ................................ 70
4.4.2 屏東地區 PM2.5 污染源貢獻量 .............................. 73
第五章 結論與建議 ............... 75
5.1 結論 ..................... 75
5.2 建議 ..................... 78
參考文獻 ....................... 79
附錄 A ........................ 85
附錄 B ....................... 93
附錄 C ....................... 103
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