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研究生:張光耀
研究生(外文):Kuang-YaoChang
論文名稱:卡車用風力發電機之計算模擬
論文名稱(外文):The Simulation of Wind Turbine for Truck Application
指導教授:陳世雄陳世雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Hsiung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:航空太空工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:計算流體力學風力發電卡車節能
外文關鍵詞:CFDWind TurbineHeavy-Duty TruckEnergy Saving
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目前卡車所使用的空調系統為非獨立式空調,需要由卡車引擎來帶動
因此而增加引擎額外的功率輸出、增加油耗。本研究目的在於將非獨立式空調改為獨立式空調後,藉由卡車行駛的相對風來帶動裝設在卡車車頂導風罩內的風機,利用風能供給獨立式空調使用,並期望可節省因非獨立式空調造成的額外油耗。本研究以計算流體力學軟體ANSYS CFX,求解三維Navier-Stokes方程式並搭配SST紊流模型來模擬卡車以100 km/hr速度行駛時不同情況的流場,先探討卡車加導風罩前後、導風罩內部設置風機之A外型以及移除A外型風機出口上方平板之B外型的車體流場和車體阻力,接著比較A、B兩種導風罩外型的風機葉片功率差異,最後以將原本卡車使用的非獨立式空調改用獨立式空調的基礎下,探討裝設風機的經濟效益。結果顯示本研究的導風罩外型可減少6.1%的風阻係數,A、B外型的葉片額定功率均達到2000W以上,而A、B外型的風阻係數與卡車加導風罩時相比分別增加了5.05%及9%,但與獨立式空調所省下的引擎功率比較後,A外型可省下4.07%的引擎輸出功率,而B外型可省下2.54%的引擎輸出功率。
SUMMARY
Conventional air-conditioning system of the heavy-duty truck is driven by belt or gear, thus increasing the extra engine power output and fuel consumption. In this study, the wind turbine installed in the air deflector, use the wind energy of traveling truck to supply air-conditioning system, no longer be driven by a belt, and expects it can save additional fuel consumption caused by a belt driven. This study using CFD with SST turbulence model to simulate different situations when heavy-duty truck traveling at 100 km/h speed, which the flow field and drag of heavy-duty truck with and without air deflector, wind turbine installed in the air deflector with 45 degree (Case A), and remove the plate at case A wind turbine outlet top (Case B), then compare the wind turbine power of case A and B, finally we discuss the economic benefits of installed wind turbine. The results show that air deflector can reduce the drag coefficient of 6.1%, and the maximum power of both case A and B are more than 2000W. Although compared to the truck with air deflector, the drag coefficient of case A and B were increased by 5.05% and 9%, but compared with savings of engine power, case A and B can save 4.07% and 2.54% of the total engine output power respectively.

Key words: CFD, Wind Turbine, Heavy-Duty Truck, Energy Saving

INTRODUCTION
The driver will be turned on the air conditioning for comfortable environment during driving, but the air conditioning compressor was driven by belt, it will add additional load to the engine then increase fuel consumption. In U.S.A., the fuel consumption of vehicle air conditioning is 26.4 billion liters for a year, equivalent to 5.5% of the total national fuel use, for the global environment and energy cause considerable harm. When heavy-duty trucks under the 65 mile/h (104.6 km/h) traveling speed, the air conditioning accounted for 4.5% of total engine output power, about 7.5kW. Air conditioning only allows the driver to drive the vehicle in a comfortable environment, but it consumes so much energy, if we can replace the current belt-driven system then will save a lot of energy.

When heavy-duty truck traveling at high speed, the relative wind implied energy is considerably more, if able to use this energy to provide to air conditioning system then we can replace the current belt-driven system and save considerable energy. But how to choose wind turbine, how much electricity, whether to increase the drag and thus increase fuel consumption, engine power or the size of the savings are worth and so will be the focus of this study.


MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study using CFD methods to simulate the flow field of truck and wind turbine, and assuming the flow field is steady three-dimensional incompressible viscous flow, using finite volume method to solve three dimensional Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations, and with the finite element method to calculate the flow field variables. Turbulence model used by Shear Stress Transport (SST), the model combines the advantage of both model and model and have high accuracy in predicting the flow separation. Wall function using Automatic Near-wall Treatment, this model is based on the boundary layer mesh when in viscous sub-layer using low Reynolds number formulation, in log-low region using wall function.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In case of truck without air deflector, the airflow impacts the cabin ahead and the front of container, a high pressure zone generated here, and the container rear and the gap between cabin and container are behind bluff body so here generated low pressure zone, the pressure difference between high pressure and low pressure zone becomes aerodynamic drag. When the truck with air deflector, airflow moving along the air deflector, no longer impact to the front of container thus the high pressure zone at front of container is disappeared, reduce pressure difference between truck ahead and rear, also reduce the aerodynamic drag, about 6.1%.

Compared to truck with air deflector, the container ahead high pressure zone appears again in case A, it caused by the wind turbine exit airflow impact the container. Because there are a plate at wind turbine outlet top, it will hinder the exit airflow moving along installation degree, making most of exit airflow impact container. Compare to the truck with air deflector, case A increase the drag coefficient about 5.05%. In the case B, the high pressure zone at container ahead also exist but smaller than case A, because after remove the plate at wind turbine outlet top, the exit airflow moving along wind turbine installation degree is more than case A so that the high pressure zone reduced. In addition, remove the plate will increase the pressure difference between air deflector ahead and rear, because the plate can obstruct the low pressure zone diffuse to air deflector rear, which caused by air deflector shape accelerated airflow. Compare to the truck with air deflector, case B increase the drag coefficient about 9%.

The wind turbine maximum power of case B is more than case A about 17.9%, it caused by removing the plate. Although both case A and B increase the drag coefficient, but when we considering the power saving with replacing belt-driven system, the case A can reduce total engine output power about 4.07% and case B can reduce total engine output power about 2.54%.

CONCLUSION
This study using CFD method to simulate the heavy-duty truck with and without air deflector, and installed wind turbine in air deflector, when traveling at 100 km/h speed, and discuss the economic benefits of installed wind turbine. The results show that the air deflector have significant drag reduction effect, although the wind turbine will increase drag, when considering the power saving with replacing the current belt-driven system, can save considerable energy, the economic benefits are here.

摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 xi
符號說明 xii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 文獻回顧 5
1-3 內容簡介 13
第二章 數值方法 14
2-1 統御方程式 14
2-2 紊流模型 16
2-3 壁面函數 17
2-4 有限體積法 19
2-5 數值通量計算 24
2-5-1 壓力項 24
2-5-2 擴散項 24
2-5-3 對流項 25
2-6 非交錯網格 25
2-7 矩陣解法 26
第三章 物理模型與計算環境 28
3-1 物理模型及參數 28
3-2 計算環境設定 32
3-3 計算區域設定 33
3-4 網格建立 34
3-5 邊界條件設定 37
3-6 無因次參數 38
3-7 數值模擬驗證 39
3-8 網格獨立驗證 40
第四章 結果與討論 42
4-1 車體流場分析 43
4-2 車體阻力分析 70
4-3 裝設風機的經濟效益 73
第五章 結論 76
參考文獻 79

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