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研究生:劉力嘉
研究生(外文):Li-chia Liu
論文名稱:北台灣腐生絲孢菌綱之採集與描述
論文名稱(外文):Characterization of selected saprobic hyphomycetes from Northern Taiwan
指導教授:羅南德羅南德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Roland Kirschner
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:生命科學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:絲孢菌形態學
外文關鍵詞:HyphomycetesMophology
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絲孢菌綱 (Hyphomycetes) 菌類隸屬於半知菌亞門 (Deuteromycotina), 是一群不具有有性世代或者有性世代尚未被發現的類群。在台灣,尚有許多真菌未被發現、進行鑑定和描述繪圖。這項研究的重點是針對腐生絲孢菌綱的鑑定和描述繪圖。自 2012 至 2014 年從北台灣共 10 處不同自然生態環境且海拔由 0 至 1800 公尺之區域中採集各類枯枝腐葉共 10 種宿主植物超過 16 個樣品。 Clonostachys epichloë, Cl. rogersoniana, Cylindrocladium floridanum, Selenodriella fertilis, Tubercularia longispora 和 Verticillium insectorum 等六種台灣新紀錄。此外尚發現 Myrothecium sp. 1, Myrothecium sp. 2, 及 Venustosynnema sp. 等三種世界新種。其中Venustosynnema sp. 同時擁有周邊剛毛及中央剛毛, Myrothecium sp. 1 其 synnemata 周邊包覆豐富的勾狀邊緣菌絲, Myrothecium sp. 2 有少量的鉤狀邊緣菌絲和大量剛毛圍繞在 sporodochia 周邊。研究中菌類的型態特徵描寫以生長在玉米粉瓊脂與天然基質培養的形貌進行比較,並描述和說明, Cl. rogersoniana 和 T. longispora 則是第一次在天然基質中被描述。在對比培養形態學中, Cl. rogersoniana 在自然基質上很少形成 Verticillium-like 的分生包子梗。研究中使用核內 rDNA 的 ITS 區域 DNA 序列數據進一步證實形態學物種概念。
Hyphomycetes belonging to Fungi Imperfecti subphylum (Deuteromycotina) is a group of fungi that do not have sexual generation or sexual generation yet to be discovered. In Taiwan, many fungi have not yet been found, identified and characterized. This study is focused on the identification and characterization of saprobic hyphomycetes. More than 16 samples on 10 host plants were collected in this study in Northern Taiwan. Clonostachys epichloë, Cl. rogersoniana, Cylindrocladium floridanum, Selenodriella fertilis, Tubercularia longispora, and Verticillium insectorum are new records to Taiwan. In addition, Venustosynnema sp. nov., Myrothecium sp. 1, Myrothecium sp. 2 are new species of the world. Venustosynnema sp. has central setae and peripheral setae, Myrothecium sp. 1 has abundant hook-like marginal hairs surrounding entire synnemata, and Myrothecium sp. 2 has a small amount of hook-like marginal hairs and numerous setae surrounding sporodochia. The morphology of specimens derived from cultures grown on CMA and from natural substrata was compared and described and illustrated. Cl. rogersoniana and T. longispora are described from natural substrata for the first time. In contrast to culture morphology, Cl. rogersoniana on the natural substrate rarely forms Verticillium-like conidiophores. DNA sequence data of ITS regions within nuclear rDNA confirmed the morphological species concept.
目錄       

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
Abbreviation Index ix
1 Introduction 1
2 Materials and methods 7
2.1 Specimen preservation 7
2.2 Light-microscopes 7
2.3 Isolation of fungi 8
2.4 Media 8
2.5 CMA ager with Banana Leaf 9
2.6 DNA isolation 9
2.7 PCR 11
2.8 Protocol for PCR 12
2.9 Agarose gel electrophoresis 14
2.10 Purification of PCR products 14
2.11 DNA sequencing 16
2.12 Morphological and molecular identification 16
3 Results 17
3-1 Result analysis 17
3-2 Description of species 18
3.2.1 Clonostachys epichloë 18
3.2.2 Clonostachys rogersoniana 21
3.2.3 Cylindrocladium floridanum 24
3.2.4 Cylindrocladium cf. ilicicola 27
3.2.5 Monocillium sp. 29
3.2.6 Myrothecium sp. 1 31
3.2.7 Myrothecium sp. 2 34
3.2.8 Selenodriella fertilis 38
3.2.9 Tubercularia longispora 40
3.2.10 Venustosynnema sp. nov. 43
3.2.11 Verticillium insectorum 46
4 Discussion 48
5 References 52
6 Appendixes 100

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